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Housing problem

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Housing problem

  1. 1. HOUSING PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI… -Submitted by Aziz khan. Tanvi gujarathi. Swapnil kanse. Akshata hase. Nikhil mehta.
  2. 2. MAIN REASONS FOR HOUSING PROBLEMS  INCREASING POPULLATION  INCREASING POLLUTION  HIGH DEMAND OF HOUSES  INCREASING LAND COST  PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUES  SANITATION PROBLEMS  UNPLANNED HOUSIN  SLUMS ETC…
  3. 3. WHAT ARE SLUMS?? Slums in Mumbai have always existed. Even back in the time when the fort was developed, the native villages have always been close to slums. They never underwent any planning, infrastructure construction or implementation of facilities such as water, sewage and drainage. This has led to many problems with Mumbai's poor population.
  4. 4. WHY SLUMS ARE INCREASING? Slums have risen dramatically since 1950. Most of this is due to the fact that Mumbai's tripled since India's independence in 1947. The island of Bombay is only 12 miles long, and Greater Mumbai, including Salsette Island, occupies an area of 240 square miles and it has a density of 16500 people per square mile, extremely dense. Housing in Mumbai is scarce and expensive. In 1976, the Government passed the Urban Land Act which was supposed to enlarge the area on which middle and lower class housing was to be built, however the act has been used, once again in the elitist fashion, to build more upper class housing and to keep hold of wealthy neighborhoods which has only worsened the slum problem.
  5. 5. Slums are the products of failed policies, bad governance, corruption, inappropriate regulations, dysfunctional land markets, unresponsive financial systems and a fundamental lack of political will. Each of these failures adds to the toll of people already deeply burdened with poverty. This frustrates the enormous potential for human development that opportunities in urban life offer. Urbanisation has created a number of problems like shortage of dwelling units, mushrooming growth of jhuggis, encroachment of public land and expansion of unauthorized residential colonies. The rapid growth of urbanization is creating a number of problems. Whenever a big project is commenced, a lot of workers migrate to towns in quest of employment. With no proper place to live, they usually encroach public land and the sites earmarked for various developmental projects. This causes expansion of jhuggis and unauthorized colonies.Thus building enormous pressure on civic services and creating major bottlenecks in the proper development of cities.
  6. 6. Where are the slums in mumbai? In the 19th century slums grew around the mills and other places of employment. Now they grow in any empty space. Although older slums in Byculla, Dharavi,sakinaka,mahim and Khar were initially separate villages, with their own traditional industries, most people who live in slums work outside them.
  7. 7. PROBLEMS DUE TO BAD HOUSING: LACK OF SANITORYCONDITIONS:` Poor sanitary conditions and poor quality of water lead to illnesses like diarrhoea and other water borne diseases, affecting the life expectancy of slum dwellers. According to a recent case study, water and sanitation diseases are responsible for 60 per cent of environmental health. Among water borne diseases, diarrhoea disproportionately affects children under the age of five. Poor health among children adversely affects the attendance rate at schools. In dense, overcrowded urban conditions it is often difficult for people to find space to build latrines. Many have to defecate in the open or share whatever limited facilities are available which tend to offer no privacy, safety or hygiene. Because of human waste and refuse collecting in stagnant pools spread disease and contaminate water sources. The problem is made worse during the rainy season when rubbish and excrement are washed into cramped living areas.
  8. 8. Social problems: The slum environment is the perfect breeding ground for a wide range of social problems. High unemployment often causes men to stay around the home growing increasingly frustrated with their pathetic situation and the worsening poverty. Cramped conditions mean that there is nowhere to go when tensions rise, a factor that regularly leads to domestic violence. Sometimes the situation goes to the other extreme, where people abandon their homes, lured by the prospect of oblivion through alcohol or drug abuse. Once people develop such problems the prospects of finding work diminish. They fall deeper into poverty and the cycle continues.
  9. 9. Child labour: Many children in the slums start work at a very early age with no prospect of getting any education. They make money by rag picking (trawling through rubbish dumps to retrieve anything that can be sold), selling newspapers in traffic jams, peddling drugs or begging. They are at risk of exploitation as well as all the health problems that accompany their lifestyles. Incest and abuse can occur and child marriages are still encouraged in some areas.
  10. 10. Solutions Problems of the slum can be dealt by little initiative taken by the government, NGOs and employers. Some of the possible solutions can be… Countries need to recognize that the urban poor are active agents and can contribute to national growth. Local authorities and national governments should collaborate with the organizations of the urban poor in upgrading slums and providing alternatives to slum formation. Whenever a worker migrates to a city for work his employer must ensure that he is provided with appropriate accommodation. This should be the responsibility of all big and small employers. Managing cities require local solutions. Local authorities need to be empowered with financial and human resources to deliver services and infrastructure to the urban poor. Cities should draw up local long-term strategies for improving the lives of slum dwellers.
  11. 11. Role of the government and the NGOs. In a usual scenario a migrated laborer secures a job with security agencies, waste management service providers, contractors, householders etc. They usually employ slum dwellers as rag pickers, sweepers, construction labors, masons, carpenters, domestic helps etc. For such migrating labors there should be acentralized labor registration center where they can register themselves and secure their labor ID number. These centers should have direct contact with prospective employers and they should try to find suitable jobs for these workers according to their skills. These migrated labors should also be allotted dwelling units and the accommodation expenses should be borne by their respective employers. The dwelling units should be located on the outskirts of the town and transport facilities should be made available to the workers in order to make commutation easy for them. Locating proper dwelling units on the outskirts would minimize the proliferation of dingy slums in the city. Along with these arrangements certain regulations should be made by the government:

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