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HOUSING PROBLEMS IN
MAIN REASONS FOR HOUSING
HIGH DEMAND OF HOUSES
INCREASING LAND COST
PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUES
WHAT ARE SLUMS??
Slums in Mumbai have always existed.
Even back in the time when the fort was
developed, the native villages have
always been close to slums. They never
underwent any planning, infrastructure
construction or implementation of
facilities such as water, sewage and
drainage. This has led to many problems
with Mumbai's poor population.
WHY SLUMS ARE INCREASING?
Slums have risen dramatically since 1950. Most of this is
due to the fact that Mumbai's tripled since India's
independence in 1947. The island of Bombay is only 12
miles long, and Greater Mumbai, including Salsette Island,
occupies an area of 240 square miles and it has a density of
16500 people per square mile, extremely dense.
Housing in Mumbai is scarce and expensive. In 1976, the
Government passed the Urban Land Act which was supposed to
enlarge the area on which middle and lower class housing was to
be built, however the act has been used, once again in the elitist
fashion, to build more upper class housing and to keep hold of
wealthy neighborhoods which has only worsened the slum
Slums are the products of failed policies, bad governance, corruption,
inappropriate regulations, dysfunctional land markets, unresponsive
financial systems and a fundamental lack of political will.
Each of these failures adds to the toll of people already deeply
burdened with poverty. This frustrates the enormous potential for human
development that opportunities in urban life offer.
Urbanisation has created a number of problems like shortage of
dwelling units, mushrooming growth of jhuggis, encroachment of public
land and expansion of unauthorized residential colonies. The rapid
growth of urbanization is creating a number of problems. Whenever a
big project is commenced, a lot of workers migrate to towns in quest of
employment. With no proper place to live, they usually encroach public
land and the sites earmarked for various developmental projects. This
causes expansion of jhuggis and unauthorized colonies.Thus building
enormous pressure on civic services and creating major bottlenecks in
the proper development of cities.
Where are the slums in mumbai?
In the 19th century slums grew around the mills and
other places of employment. Now they grow in any
empty space. Although older slums
in Byculla, Dharavi,sakinaka,mahim and Khar were
initially separate villages, with their own traditional
industries, most people who live in slums work
PROBLEMS DUE TO BAD HOUSING:
LACK OF SANITORYCONDITIONS:`
Poor sanitary conditions and poor quality of water lead to illnesses
like diarrhoea and other water borne diseases, affecting the life
expectancy of slum dwellers. According to a recent case study, water
and sanitation diseases are responsible for 60 per cent of
environmental health. Among water borne diseases, diarrhoea
disproportionately affects children under the age of five. Poor health
among children adversely affects the attendance rate at schools.
In dense, overcrowded urban conditions it is often difficult for people
to find space to build latrines. Many have to defecate in the open or
share whatever limited facilities are available which tend to offer no
privacy, safety or hygiene.
Because of human waste and refuse collecting in stagnant pools
spread disease and contaminate water sources. The problem is made
worse during the rainy season when rubbish and excrement are
washed into cramped living areas.
The slum environment is the perfect breeding ground
for a wide range of social problems. High
unemployment often causes men to stay around the
home growing increasingly frustrated with their
pathetic situation and the worsening poverty.
Cramped conditions mean that there is nowhere to go
when tensions rise, a factor that regularly leads to
domestic violence. Sometimes the situation goes to
the other extreme, where people abandon their homes,
lured by the prospect of oblivion through alcohol or
drug abuse. Once people develop such problems the
prospects of finding work diminish. They fall deeper
into poverty and the cycle continues.
Many children in the slums start work at a very early age
with no prospect of getting any education. They make
money by rag picking (trawling through rubbish dumps to
retrieve anything that can be sold), selling newspapers in
traffic jams, peddling drugs or begging. They are at risk of
exploitation as well as all the health problems that
accompany their lifestyles. Incest and abuse can occur
and child marriages are still encouraged in some areas.
Problems of the slum can be dealt by little initiative taken by the
government, NGOs and employers. Some of the possible solutions can
Countries need to recognize that the urban poor are active
agents and can contribute to national growth.
Local authorities and national governments should collaborate with the
organizations of the urban poor in upgrading slums and providing
alternatives to slum formation. Whenever a worker migrates to a city
for work his employer must ensure that he is provided with appropriate
accommodation. This should be the responsibility of all big and small
Managing cities require local solutions. Local authorities need to be
empowered with financial and human resources to deliver services and
infrastructure to the urban poor. Cities should draw up local long-term
strategies for improving the lives of slum dwellers.
Role of the government and the NGOs. In a usual scenario a
migrated laborer secures a job with security agencies, waste
management service providers, contractors, householders etc.
They usually employ slum dwellers as rag pickers, sweepers,
construction labors, masons, carpenters, domestic helps etc. For
such migrating labors there should be acentralized labor
registration center where they can register themselves and
secure their labor ID number. These centers should have direct
contact with prospective employers and they should try to find
suitable jobs for these workers according to their skills. These
migrated labors should also be allotted dwelling units and the
accommodation expenses should be borne by their respective
employers. The dwelling units should be located on the outskirts
of the town and transport facilities should be made available to the
workers in order to make commutation easy for them. Locating
proper dwelling units on the outskirts would minimize the
proliferation of dingy slums in the city. Along with these
arrangements certain regulations should be made by the