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  2. 2. ABSTRACT : Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for his sustenance and well-being ever since he came on the earth a few million years ago. Due to this a lot of energy resources have been exhausted and wasted. Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries where the roads, railway stations, bus stands, temples, etc. are all over crowded and millions of people move around the clock. This whole human/ bio-energy being wasted if it can be made possible for utilization it will be great invention. In this project we are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply walking or running on the foot step. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation. The control mechanism carries the piezoelectric sensor, AC ripples neutralizer, unidirectional current controller and 12v, 1.3amp lead acid dc rechargeable battery and an inverter is used to drive ac/dc loads.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: AIM : TO GENERATE POWER BY SIMPLY WALKING USING PIEZO ELECTRIC SENSOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: Title of the project : Foot step power generation system to run AC and DC loads Domain : Renewable Energy Management, Energy System Power Supply : +5V, 500mA Regulated Power Supply and 12V lead acid Battery Source : Piezoelectric transducers array Inverter : 1 Applications : Metros, Rural Applications etc.,
  4. 4. EMBEDDED SYSTEM: An embedded system can be defined as a control system or computer system designed to perform a specific task. The word embedded means it is built into the system. It is a permanent part in a bigger system. For example, a controller is embedded in an elevator and tells the motor to move the elevator to different floors based on buttons that are pushed.  A decoder is embedded in a satellite television set-top box to read a signal from the dish and send something that a TV understands. Embedded systems are used everywhere in modern life and there are many examples of their use.
  5. 5. APPLICATIONS: Telecommunications systems : uses them for telephones, cell phone network, and wi-fi routers. Consumer electronics : clock radios, MP3 players, mobile phones , video games, consoles digital cameras DVD players, GPS receivers, home security systems, and printers. Household appliances : microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers have embedded systems. Transportation : uses embedded systems for everything from locomotives for trains, airplanes and automobiles Industry : uses electric motors with electronic motor controllers, card readers and CNC machines which automatically make metal parts. Medical devices : like defibrillators, automated blood pressure readers, and automated insulin pumps. Military devices : like walkie-talkies, satellites and the guiding systems for missiles
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION:  Walking is the most common activity in day to day life. When a person walks, he loses energy to the road surface in the form of impact, vibration, sound etc.  This energy can be tapped and converted in the usable form such as in electrical form.  In this project the main role is played by piezoelectric sensor. These sensors convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy.  This energy is stored in rechargeable battery and this energy is used for operating A.C and D.C.  The control mechanism carries the piezoelectric sensor, A.C ripples neutralizer, unidirectional current controller and 12V, 1.3Amp lead acid dc rechargeable battery and an inverter is used to drive AC/DC loads.
  8. 8. PIEZO SENSOR AC RIPPLE NEUTRALIZER UNIDIRECTIONAL DIDODE BATTERY INVERTERSWITCH Converts M.E to E.E Grounds A.C Allows only in one direction Stores energy Converts dc to ac AC & DC loads
  9. 9. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Piezo sensors Capacitor LED(Resistor also recommended) Diode Battery Bulb Switch Inverter
  10. 10. COMPONENTS Piezoelectric Sensor - Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Mechanical Electrical
  11. 11. ---HISTORY--- The piezoelectric effect was discovered in 1880 by two French physicists, brothers Pierre and Paul-Jacques Curie. They took the name from the Greek word piezein, which means "to press."
  12. 12. ---Arrangement--- o 16 piezo sensors are connected in 4 4 pattern. o Arranged in parallel so that, if any sensor damaged it will not effect the system. o Each sensor is connected to zener diode.
  13. 13. ---BASIC PRINCIPLE--- Piezoelectricity…. Exactly balanced. Step 1 Exactly cancel out. Step 2 If the crystal is squeezed, forcing the charges out of balance. Step 3 No longer cancel one another out and net positive and negative charges appear on opposite crystal faces. By squeezing the crystal, can produced a voltage across its opposite faces—and that's piezoelectricity! Step 4
  14. 14. AC Ripple Neutralizer- ---PRINCIPLE--- o In the case of D.C. the Capacitor charges fully to the Charging Voltage and the Voltage across it will be equal to the Charging Voltage. The Voltage across the capacitance does not change after full charging and remains equal and opposite to the D.C. Voltage across it and hence no current can flow through it. o In the case of A.C., after full charging the Voltage across the capacitance decreases and reverses and so does the A.C. current through the capacitor. BLOCKS DC ALLOWS AC
  15. 15. Unidirectional Current Controller- A Diode is an electronic device that can allow the electric current to flow in one direction only. The diode performs the work of allowing the current to pass only in the forward direction and not in the reverse.
  16. 16. Lead acid battery The storage battery is such battery where electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy. And this chemical energy is then converted to electrical energy as when required .
  17. 17. Working of lead acid battery The conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy is known as charging of battery. conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy is known as discharging of secondary battery. Pb2 + 2H2 → Pb + 2H2O
  18. 18. Inverter An inverter is an electrical device that converts D.C to A.C . The converted AC can be used at any required voltage and frequency with the use of transformers, switching, and control circuits.
  19. 19. Working of inverter  The components required for working of inverter are 1. MOSFET 2. Transformer 3. RLC circuit
  20. 20. Working principle The basic working principle of our project is based on the piezoelectric sensor . To implement this we adjust the wooden plates above and below the sensors and moveable springs. Non-conventional energy using foot step is converting mechanical energy into the electrical energy.
  21. 21. Working procedure  Foot step board it consist of a 16 piezo electric sensors which are connected in parallel.  When the pressure is applied on the sensors, the sensors will convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.  This electrical energy will be storing in the 12v rechargeable battery.  DC voltage is converted to AC voltage by using an inverter  By using this AC voltage we can operate AC loads.
  22. 22. APPLICATIONS:  Foot step generated power can be used for agricultural, home applications, street lightning. It is also used in universities . In emergency power failure situations like hospitals.
  23. 23. ADVANTAGES: Power generation is simply walking on the step. Power also generated by running or exercising on the step. No need fuel input. This is a Non-conventional system. Battery is used to store the generated power. Reliable, Economical, Eco-Friendly. Less consumption of Non- renewable energies. Extremely wide dynamic range, almost free of noise Compact yet highly sensitive Self generating – no external power required
  24. 24. CONCLUSION The project “FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION TO RUN A.C. AND D.C. LOADS” is successfully tested and implemented which is the best economical, affordable energy solution to common people. This can be used for many applications in rural areas where power availability is less or totally absence. As India is a developing country where energy management is a big challenge for huge population. By using this project we can drive both AC as well as D.C loads according to the force we applied on the piezoelectric sensor.
  25. 25. REFERENCES : www.howstuffworks.com www.answers.com EMBEDDED SYSTEM BY RAJ KAMAL Magazines www.Electronics for you.com www.Electrikindia.com

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