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Introduction lecture

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Cross Cultural Psy Intro
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Introduction lecture

  1. 1. Exploring Cross Cultural Psychology Ayanna Lynch, Ph.D. Bowie State University
  2. 2. Introduction  The Plan: • To provide a cursory exploration of cross cultural psychology  The purpose: • Sneak peek of my teaching style • Stimulate your thoughts about culture  The Goal: • Enlightenment  Leave with increased awareness and/or greater appreciation • Entertainment
  3. 3. Who I Am Poems  Take one minute to create a poem called "Who I Am."  The only rule for the poem is that each line must start with the phrase "I am..."
  4. 4. Culture Defined  A set of attitudes, behaviors and symbols shared by a large group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next.
  5. 5. Culture What comes to mind when you hear the word “culture”?  Race  Gender  Gangs  Ethnicity  Sexual orientation  Foodies  Religion  Age  Hip Hop  Geography  Political Affiliation  Techies  Education  Melting Pot  Soccer Moms  Socioeconomic  Diversity status  Military  Multiethnic  Your own family  Health status  Cultural sensitivity  Occupation
  6. 6. Attitudes  Beliefs  Values  General knowledge  Superstitions  Opinions  Stereotypes
  7. 7. Behaviors  Norms  Roles  Customs  Traditions  Habits  Practices  Fashions
  8. 8. Symbols  Things or ideas that people attach specific meaning to  Explicit and implicit characteristics
  9. 9. Shared Experiences  Catholics vs. Muslims  Parents • Pumping • Play dates • Potty Training • WonderPets  Education • Bowie vs. Howard vs. Harvard • Finals vs. Comps • Licensure or Tenure
  10. 10. Shared Experiences  Generation • VCR vs. Tivo vs. You Tube • Encyclopedia Britannica vs. Wikipedia • Rock & Roll vs. Hip Hop • JFK vs Obama • Pearl Harbor vs Sept 11th
  11. 11. Cross Cultural Psychology  No society is culturally homogenous and no two cultures are entirely similar or different.  We learn how to think, feel, behave and understand the world around us by social influences  Examples?
  12. 12. Cross Cultural Psychology  Examples: parents societal expectations/requirements traditions of our ancestors  How we think, feel and behave influences the behavior of others, which then influences others thoughts, feelings, behaviors and needs
  13. 13. Cross Cultural Psychology  The critical and comparative study of cultural effects on human psychology • Comparative: any cross cultural psychology study compares at least two samples representing two cultural groups • Critical: the investigation of this comparison requires critical thinking skills
  14. 14. Cross Cultural Psychology  The study of diversity and the underlying reasons for that diversity • Are hallucinations and delusions perceived the same way across cultures?  If so, can the way psychosis is treated in the U.S. be successfully applied in the Dominican Republic or Vietnam?
  15. 15. Cross Cultural Psychology  Studies cross cultural interactions: • The influences of one culture upon another  Ex: French influences upon African culture – where?
  16. 16. Cross Cultural Psychology  Studies of universal or shared psychological aspects across cultures • Human personality is universal  Relatively enduring/fixed patterns of thinking, feeling, acting
  17. 17. Implications of Cross Cultural Psychology  Cross Cultural awareness and sensitivity is important:  Research • The samples we include and & the questions we ask  Clinical work • Clinical diagnoses and interpretations of behavior  Professionally • Corporate movement towards inclusion and acceptance  Personally • Appreciative of other’s differences and similarities
  18. 18. Cross Cultural Research  Emotional Expression  Help Seeking Behaviors  Motivation  Health Attitudes  Clinical Syndromes
  19. 19. Applications Cross Cultural Psychology The Mental Int’l Education Health Business Average Health Relations Joe
  20. 20. Cultural Psych vs. Cross-Cultural Psych  Cultural Psychology: perceives individual behavior as meaningful only when you look at it in context of the environment they are in  How attitudes and behavior are shaped by the surrounding culture Ex: how religious principles shape consciousness or behavior
  21. 21. Society, race and ethnicity  Race: • a group of people distinguished by certain similar and genetically transmitted physical characteristics Hispanic: generally refers to the Spanish heritage in Latin America
  22. 22. Society, race and ethnicity  Ethnicity: • usually indicates cultural heritage, common experience by people who share ancestral origin, language, traditions; can also include shared religion and geographic territory
  23. 23. Knowledge  Defined: information that has a purpose or use  There are four types of knowledge about psychology can be recognized • Scientific • Popular beliefs or folk theories • Ideological/value based • Legal
  24. 24. Knowledge  Scientific: derived from systematic observation, measurement and evaluation  Popular beliefs or folk theories: everyday assumptions ranging from commonly held beliefs to individual opinions about psychological phenomena • Old wives tales; superstitions • May or may not be consistent with scientific theory  The world is square; schizophrenics are more dangerous than others
  25. 25. Knowledge  Ideological/value based: a stable set of beliefs held around the world that are centered around an organizing principal or central idea  e.g. the nature of good vs evil, right vs wrong  Religion is best example  Legal: laws and other prescriptions/rules/principles established by authorities  Tribal or community leaders, national government  Establish boundaries for acceptable behavior
  26. 26. Knowledge  It is critical for Cross Cultural Psychologists to treat all four forms of knowledge with sensitivity, understanding and respect
  27. 27. Cultural Traditionalism  Two types of cultural influences can be recognized: • traditional • nontraditional
  28. 28. Cultural Traditionalism  Traditional culture: rooted in traditions, rules, symbols and principles predominately established in the past • Tends to be confined in local and regional areas, conservative and intolerant of change or new knowledge (Eastern Europe); obedience is expected
  29. 29. Cultural Traditionalism  Nontraditional culture: modern culture -- new principles, ideals and practices • Tends to be flexible, absorbing and dynamic (always changing); change is welcomed
  30. 30. Questions & Comments
  31. 31. Define “Black” culture? (What does it mean to you?) Has the definition changed over time?
  32. 32. What Cross Cultural Psychologists Do  Establish and conceptualize the main culture's features in terms of cultural dichotomies • Refers to cultural distinctions – • this vs. that; high vs. low
  33. 33. What Cross Cultural Psychologists Do  Power distance: • the extent to which members of a society accept that power is distributed unequally among institutions and organizations  High Power Distance cultures: • expect inequality between leaders and the led (followers); elite and common folk
  34. 34. Cultural Dichotomies  Masculinity vs femininity: • impacts expectations about responsibility, decisiveness, ambition and liveliness • Masculinity:  work/achievement, leadership, productivity, protecting others
  35. 35. Cultural Dichotomies  Uncertainty avoidance: • The extent members feel unconfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity  Hi Uncertainty Avoidance:  support beliefs promising certainty and expect conformity  Lo Uncertainty Avoidance:  support nonconformity, unpredictability, creativity
  36. 36. Cultural Dichotomies  Collectivism vs. Individualism • Frequently mentioned and studied  Collectivism: • behavior reflecting primary concern for others and respect for traditions and values; group norms influence individual behavior • Promotes the well being and harmony of the group  Motto: “What's mine is ours” or “Mi casa es su casa”
  37. 37. Cultural Dichotomies  Individualism: • generally defined as behavior reflecting concern for oneself and one's immediate family or primary group only -- not the group or society they belong to Promotes competition between individuals and subgroups Motto: “What’s mine is mine?”
  38. 38. Sociobiological Approach  Sociobiology defined: • a theoretical model that explores how biological factors affect human behavior • It suggests that culture is a form of existence that provides for fundamental human needs and subsequent goals • Impacts our drive to secure food, resources and reproduction Survival of the fittest - Charles Darwin  Speaks to cultural phenomenon of competition among all species
  39. 39. Sociobiological Approach  Focuses on the broad social structures that influence society as a whole, which in turn impacts individuals  Social forces shape behaviors of large groups and then individuals adjust their thinking and behavior in response to social demands and pressures
  40. 40. Ecocultural Approach  The individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context • There is constant interaction and mutual influence between individuals and the environment Global warming
  41. 41. Ethnocentrism  Think of it as subconscious exaggeration of one's own ethnic, national or cultural group in comparison to other groups (or a distortion of reality)  Narrows our perception of other cultural groups and countries • Can make incorrect assumptions and judgments  Being ethnocentric is judging from the position of a cultural majority • Values and norms of the majority are accepted as superior
  42. 42. Multiculturalism  An individual psychological and theoretical view that encourages the recognition of equality for all cultural and national groups  But promotes that each culture has the right to define and follow their own values, etc.
  43. 43. History of the field  Cross culturally psychology is a relatively new field • It began to establish itself as an independent discipline in the 1960's • but has links to  Anthropology  Physiology  Sociology  History  political science
  44. 44. History of the field  Primarily developed in the U.S. • Believes that all psychology is culture and all cultures are psychological • Including several minority and ethnic groups in one country
  45. 45. Questions & Comments
  46. 46. Weekly’s Assignment Due Wed, Feb 8th Discussion Board Topic Define “Ghetto” culture 1. Reflect on your definition of ghetto and to whom the term applies. 2. Is it a culture? Justify your answer. 3. Is it just about race? Socioeconomic status? Or something more. 4. Research the historical roots of the word ghetto and to whom the term referred. 5. Share your thoughts about how the term has evolved. *** Be sure to answer thoroughly and thoughtfully. You must also respond meaningfully to at least two of your fellow classmates. Please be sure to edit your responses before submitting.