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Chapter 3 - Critical thinking

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Chapter 3 - Critical thinking

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  1. 1. CRITICAL THINKING IN CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Dr. Ayanna Lynch
  2. 2. THINKING  Thinking is natural  essential for every day life  Critical thinking is valuable and encouraged  Part of the BSU curriculum  But why? What is it? How do we do it?
  3. 3. CRITICAL THINKING  Defined: thinking about thinking  Critical thinking involves being conscientious about the how and why we think the way we do  How we process information?  Why we draw the conclusions we do?  Why we are quick to accept some information as truth without further analysis and treat other information as skeptical?  When are we susceptible to making errors in judgment?  What are the specific tools to think critically?
  4. 4. CRITICAL THINKING TOOLS  Metathinking  A series of cognitive skills that can be taught and learned to develop analytical thinking  Specific strategies for inquiry and problem solving
  5. 5. CRITICAL THINKING  Metathoughts  Thoughts about thoughts  Serve as antidotes: antidotes  An antidote is a remedy used to prevent our counteract an adverse event  Analogous to medicine  We need cognitive antidotes to help counter our natural way of thinking which can be biased, rigid, simplistic, etc.
  6. 6. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  Language allows us to describe various phenomenon  Events, situations, people  We attempt to describe rather than evaluate/judge  Descriptions are objective  free of judgment; everyone agrees with perception/label  Evaluations are subjective  based on judgment; individual differences in perception/label
  7. 7. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE “To describe is to prescribe” What do you think this means?
  8. 8. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  “To describe is to prescribe”  We have a natural tendency to describe things subjectively when attempting to do so objectively  We unconsciously label things  By using words that simultaneously describe and evaluate (we are not neutral)  Therefore, we prescribe, through our word choice, what we like and dislike
  9. 9. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  The distinction between objective and subjective is not always clear  We describe things objectively  We use the same terms to describe people subjectively  Room temperature: hot and cold  Person: hot and cold Do these terms mean the same thing in each instance? Which is objective and which is subjective?
  10. 10. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  Reciprocal influence of attitudes and language  Our beliefs, values, perceptions influence our language and vice versa  How we refer to someone/thing shapes how we perceive and treat them  Examples: “All men cheat” or “All black women have attitudes”
  11. 11. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  Bidirectional relationships also influence the choice in words that we use  Politically correct terms are an example  We have made changes in how we label others or others have changed the way they label themselves.  For example, ethnic groups  People of African descent have evolved from “Blacks, Negroes, Colored, N______) and now prefer the less derogatory term African Americans Can you think of other examples of politically correct terms?
  12. 12. DICHOTOMOUS VARIABLES  Defined: two mutually exclusive or contradictory categories  We tend to describe things that are continuous as dichotomous  Black vs. white  Old vs. young  Pregnant vs. not pregnant (can’t be both…or in between)
  13. 13. CONTINUOUS VARIABLES  Continuous variables: the various points between two polar opposites  Shades of gray  We often confuse dichotomous with continuous variables  Not everything is black and white  Tend to do so when describing people or behavior  Continuous variables tend to be more accurate and meaningful descriptions or explanations
  14. 14. The Barnum Effect  Barnum Statements- statements directed towards an individual or group that is true for just about all human beings.  Be sure to review the list of Barnum statements example provided in the textbook  Barnum Effect- is when individuals accept Barnum statements as true  Do all Black people really like fried Chicken (and red Kool Aid)?  Is this the only culture that likes (okay, loves) fried chicken? I think not.  Yet, we all nod our heads in agreement when we hear generalizations like these.  Can you think of other examples?
  15. 15. Schema  Defined: a cognitive structure that organizes our knowledge, beliefs, and past experiences, thereby providing a framework for understanding new events and future experiences.  I like to think of schema as the “lens” through which we see the world.  Seeing the world through rose colored glasses.  If your glasses are rose tinted, you will see the world as rosy (and likely full of optimism). If your glasses are cracked and dirty, your outlook on life will likely be skewed  What are other examples of schema that someone could have?
  16. 16. Schema  When we encounter new information or experiences, we can do one of two things: Accommodate or assimilate the information.  Accommodation- modifying our schema to fit the data  Changing our lenses to make sense of the new info/experience  May cause one to rethink their values or beliefs  Assimilation- modifying the data to fit the schema  Trying to make the new info/experience match what our existing lenses wants us to see  May cause one to distort the truth just to hold on tight to their original values for dear life
  17. 17. Assimilation Bias  Assimilation Bias- the tendency to engage in assimilation rather than accommodation  To reject rather than accept information
  18. 18. Heuristics  Heuristic- A mental shortcut or rule of thumb strategy for problem solving.  Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally  I before E except after C  In general, heuristics can be great as they allow us to process information quickly  Who has time to fully process everything  However, shortcuts sometimes cause errors in processing that could have been avoided if we had fully processed the information  At times, using heuristics might cause us to make underestimations or overestimations
  19. 19. Representativeness Bias  Representativeness Heuristic- a method used to estimate the probability of two entities are related  Representativeness Bias- when representativeness heuristic cause a systematic error in information processing.  Think back to the DC Sniper. Tell the truth, what was the racial profile that most people assumed fit the sniper?  Based on our “representation” of a sniper, we made a MAJOR error in judgment about who the perpetrators were.
  20. 20. Availability Bias  Availability heuristic- process by which individuals determine frequency, incidences, or the likelihood of an event based one how accessible it is from memory.  Availability Bias- when Availability heuristic cause a systematic error in information processing.  When we can easily conjure up an image in our minds about an event, we are more likely to overestimate it. We are likely to underestimate events that are hard to imagine.  How many airplane crashes are there per year?  How many bicycle accidents are there per year?  Which was harder to guestimate?
  21. 21. Availability Bias  Tell the truth, when you heard about Whitney Houston’s death, did you assume it was a drug overdose?  Isn’t it much easier to conjure up images of celebrities and drug overdoses rather than accidents or natural causes?
  22. 22. Fundamental Attribution Error  Fundamental Attribution Error- individual’s tendency to associate behaviors with internal factors and give external factors less consideration or completely ignore them.  Cognitive Bias- errors produced by our limited thinking capacity  e.g. caused by fatigue, distraction, low IQ  Motivational Bias- errors produced by efforts to satisfy our own selfish needs
  23. 23. Self Fulfilling Prophecy  Defined: When people’s attitudes, beliefs, or assumptions about another person actually produce the expected behaviors.  Can happen intentionally or unintentionally  Knowledge of a person’s low expectations of may subconsciously cause someone to perform below their capabilities  Affirmations are positive examples of SFP’s: you can speak positivity into your existence
  24. 24. Self Fulfilling Prophecy  An important note about SFPs (which most students often overlook)  There are actually four parts to this phenomenon: h Awareness of an expectation (either someone elses or your own) n Subconscious internalization of this expectation t This subconsciously impacts the person’s behavior (either deflating or boosting their confidence or motivation) s The predicted behavior is manifested or demonstrated It is not enough to simply be aware of an expectation…the prophecy (the prediction) has to actually come true.  Can you think of personal examples of a self-fulfilling prophecy?
  25. 25. Correlation & Causation  Correlation- there is a relationship among the variables, positive or negative  does not recognize cause and effect  Correlation ≠ causation!  Just because there is correlation or relationship between crime and urban neighborhoods, living in “the hood” does not “cause” someone to commit crime.
  26. 26. Correlation & Causation  Causation: There is a direct influence between variables; one explains the presence of the other  Bidirectional Causation-  Event A causes Event B and Event B causes Event A  Multiple Causation-  More than one cause  Event A, B and C caused/contributed to Event D
  27. 27. Naturalistic Fallacy  Defined: An individual’s tendency to determine whether something is good or bad based on frequency  There are Four Types (grouped into 2 pairs) Common = Good Uncommon = Bad Common = Bad Uncommon = Good Most people tend to use one pair or the other to guide their thinking and behaviors.
  28. 28. Naturalistic Fallacy Common = Good and Uncommon = Bad Those with this type of thinking would believe the following: If something is really popular (common), “that’s hot” If something is unpopular (rare/uncommon), it’s “not the business” Common = Bad and Uncommon = Good Those with this type of thinking would believe the following: If something is really popular (common), “I’m doing just the opposite” If something is unpopular (rare/uncommon), “That’s for me” Which thinking style describes you?
  29. 29. Belief Perserverance Effect  Occurs when an individual’s beliefs are being challenged.  The individual tends to protect his/her belief.  As a result, the individual will hold on to his/her belief despite facts that dismiss the belief

Transkript

  1. 1. CRITICAL THINKING IN CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Dr. Ayanna Lynch
  2. 2. THINKING  Thinking is natural  essential for every day life  Critical thinking is valuable and encouraged  Part of the BSU curriculum  But why? What is it? How do we do it?
  3. 3. CRITICAL THINKING  Defined: thinking about thinking  Critical thinking involves being conscientious about the how and why we think the way we do  How we process information?  Why we draw the conclusions we do?  Why we are quick to accept some information as truth without further analysis and treat other information as skeptical?  When are we susceptible to making errors in judgment?  What are the specific tools to think critically?
  4. 4. CRITICAL THINKING TOOLS  Metathinking  A series of cognitive skills that can be taught and learned to develop analytical thinking  Specific strategies for inquiry and problem solving
  5. 5. CRITICAL THINKING  Metathoughts  Thoughts about thoughts  Serve as antidotes: antidotes  An antidote is a remedy used to prevent our counteract an adverse event  Analogous to medicine  We need cognitive antidotes to help counter our natural way of thinking which can be biased, rigid, simplistic, etc.
  6. 6. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  Language allows us to describe various phenomenon  Events, situations, people  We attempt to describe rather than evaluate/judge  Descriptions are objective  free of judgment; everyone agrees with perception/label  Evaluations are subjective  based on judgment; individual differences in perception/label
  7. 7. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE “To describe is to prescribe” What do you think this means?
  8. 8. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  “To describe is to prescribe”  We have a natural tendency to describe things subjectively when attempting to do so objectively  We unconsciously label things  By using words that simultaneously describe and evaluate (we are not neutral)  Therefore, we prescribe, through our word choice, what we like and dislike
  9. 9. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  The distinction between objective and subjective is not always clear  We describe things objectively  We use the same terms to describe people subjectively  Room temperature: hot and cold  Person: hot and cold Do these terms mean the same thing in each instance? Which is objective and which is subjective?
  10. 10. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  Reciprocal influence of attitudes and language  Our beliefs, values, perceptions influence our language and vice versa  How we refer to someone/thing shapes how we perceive and treat them  Examples: “All men cheat” or “All black women have attitudes”
  11. 11. THE EVALUATIVE BIAS OF LANGUAGE  Bidirectional relationships also influence the choice in words that we use  Politically correct terms are an example  We have made changes in how we label others or others have changed the way they label themselves.  For example, ethnic groups  People of African descent have evolved from “Blacks, Negroes, Colored, N______) and now prefer the less derogatory term African Americans Can you think of other examples of politically correct terms?
  12. 12. DICHOTOMOUS VARIABLES  Defined: two mutually exclusive or contradictory categories  We tend to describe things that are continuous as dichotomous  Black vs. white  Old vs. young  Pregnant vs. not pregnant (can’t be both…or in between)
  13. 13. CONTINUOUS VARIABLES  Continuous variables: the various points between two polar opposites  Shades of gray  We often confuse dichotomous with continuous variables  Not everything is black and white  Tend to do so when describing people or behavior  Continuous variables tend to be more accurate and meaningful descriptions or explanations
  14. 14. The Barnum Effect  Barnum Statements- statements directed towards an individual or group that is true for just about all human beings.  Be sure to review the list of Barnum statements example provided in the textbook  Barnum Effect- is when individuals accept Barnum statements as true  Do all Black people really like fried Chicken (and red Kool Aid)?  Is this the only culture that likes (okay, loves) fried chicken? I think not.  Yet, we all nod our heads in agreement when we hear generalizations like these.  Can you think of other examples?
  15. 15. Schema  Defined: a cognitive structure that organizes our knowledge, beliefs, and past experiences, thereby providing a framework for understanding new events and future experiences.  I like to think of schema as the “lens” through which we see the world.  Seeing the world through rose colored glasses.  If your glasses are rose tinted, you will see the world as rosy (and likely full of optimism). If your glasses are cracked and dirty, your outlook on life will likely be skewed  What are other examples of schema that someone could have?
  16. 16. Schema  When we encounter new information or experiences, we can do one of two things: Accommodate or assimilate the information.  Accommodation- modifying our schema to fit the data  Changing our lenses to make sense of the new info/experience  May cause one to rethink their values or beliefs  Assimilation- modifying the data to fit the schema  Trying to make the new info/experience match what our existing lenses wants us to see  May cause one to distort the truth just to hold on tight to their original values for dear life
  17. 17. Assimilation Bias  Assimilation Bias- the tendency to engage in assimilation rather than accommodation  To reject rather than accept information
  18. 18. Heuristics  Heuristic- A mental shortcut or rule of thumb strategy for problem solving.  Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally  I before E except after C  In general, heuristics can be great as they allow us to process information quickly  Who has time to fully process everything  However, shortcuts sometimes cause errors in processing that could have been avoided if we had fully processed the information  At times, using heuristics might cause us to make underestimations or overestimations
  19. 19. Representativeness Bias  Representativeness Heuristic- a method used to estimate the probability of two entities are related  Representativeness Bias- when representativeness heuristic cause a systematic error in information processing.  Think back to the DC Sniper. Tell the truth, what was the racial profile that most people assumed fit the sniper?  Based on our “representation” of a sniper, we made a MAJOR error in judgment about who the perpetrators were.
  20. 20. Availability Bias  Availability heuristic- process by which individuals determine frequency, incidences, or the likelihood of an event based one how accessible it is from memory.  Availability Bias- when Availability heuristic cause a systematic error in information processing.  When we can easily conjure up an image in our minds about an event, we are more likely to overestimate it. We are likely to underestimate events that are hard to imagine.  How many airplane crashes are there per year?  How many bicycle accidents are there per year?  Which was harder to guestimate?
  21. 21. Availability Bias  Tell the truth, when you heard about Whitney Houston’s death, did you assume it was a drug overdose?  Isn’t it much easier to conjure up images of celebrities and drug overdoses rather than accidents or natural causes?
  22. 22. Fundamental Attribution Error  Fundamental Attribution Error- individual’s tendency to associate behaviors with internal factors and give external factors less consideration or completely ignore them.  Cognitive Bias- errors produced by our limited thinking capacity  e.g. caused by fatigue, distraction, low IQ  Motivational Bias- errors produced by efforts to satisfy our own selfish needs
  23. 23. Self Fulfilling Prophecy  Defined: When people’s attitudes, beliefs, or assumptions about another person actually produce the expected behaviors.  Can happen intentionally or unintentionally  Knowledge of a person’s low expectations of may subconsciously cause someone to perform below their capabilities  Affirmations are positive examples of SFP’s: you can speak positivity into your existence
  24. 24. Self Fulfilling Prophecy  An important note about SFPs (which most students often overlook)  There are actually four parts to this phenomenon: h Awareness of an expectation (either someone elses or your own) n Subconscious internalization of this expectation t This subconsciously impacts the person’s behavior (either deflating or boosting their confidence or motivation) s The predicted behavior is manifested or demonstrated It is not enough to simply be aware of an expectation…the prophecy (the prediction) has to actually come true.  Can you think of personal examples of a self-fulfilling prophecy?
  25. 25. Correlation & Causation  Correlation- there is a relationship among the variables, positive or negative  does not recognize cause and effect  Correlation ≠ causation!  Just because there is correlation or relationship between crime and urban neighborhoods, living in “the hood” does not “cause” someone to commit crime.
  26. 26. Correlation & Causation  Causation: There is a direct influence between variables; one explains the presence of the other  Bidirectional Causation-  Event A causes Event B and Event B causes Event A  Multiple Causation-  More than one cause  Event A, B and C caused/contributed to Event D
  27. 27. Naturalistic Fallacy  Defined: An individual’s tendency to determine whether something is good or bad based on frequency  There are Four Types (grouped into 2 pairs) Common = Good Uncommon = Bad Common = Bad Uncommon = Good Most people tend to use one pair or the other to guide their thinking and behaviors.
  28. 28. Naturalistic Fallacy Common = Good and Uncommon = Bad Those with this type of thinking would believe the following: If something is really popular (common), “that’s hot” If something is unpopular (rare/uncommon), it’s “not the business” Common = Bad and Uncommon = Good Those with this type of thinking would believe the following: If something is really popular (common), “I’m doing just the opposite” If something is unpopular (rare/uncommon), “That’s for me” Which thinking style describes you?
  29. 29. Belief Perserverance Effect  Occurs when an individual’s beliefs are being challenged.  The individual tends to protect his/her belief.  As a result, the individual will hold on to his/her belief despite facts that dismiss the belief

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