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Instructional strategies

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Instructional strategies

  1. 1. Closing the Gap: Raising Special Education Achievement through Differentiation Adam Zunic
  2. 2. Something to think about… We Learn... 10% of what we Read 20% of what we Hear 30% of what we See 50% of what we See and Hear 80% of what we Experience Personally 95% of what we Teach Others -William Glasser 70% of what we Discuss With Others
  3. 3. Our Goal  10% increase in the number of students in our IEP population scoring Proficient or Advanced on PSSA Math  How?  Differentiated Instruction  Understanding by Design - Backwards Design  Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy and Higher-Order Thinking
  4. 4. Our Vision  Aide in the development of our students’ intellectual abilities.  Focus on all aspects of human development necessary for mature adult living  Educate and inspire a community of life long learners  Students are academically proficiency and have the ability to succeed in either higher education or productive employment.
  5. 5. Our Mission  To insure that all of our graduates achieve their full potential as persons competent to participate and interact intelligently in the complex and dynamic society of the 21st century.
  6. 6. It Fits  Higher-Order Thinking  Students become problem solvers, not problem do-ers  Backwards Design  All students will gain the same core set of knowledge and skills, meeting state standards  Differentiation  All students will be successful!
  7. 7. Research  Cognitive Development  Higher-order thinking engages frontal lobe of the brain.  This engagement helps learners make connections between past and new learning, create new pathways, strengthens existing pathways, and increases the likelihood that the new learning will be consolidated and stored for future retrieval.  Asking students for explanatory responses to higher-level questions prior to instruction activates prior knowledge and focuses attention, resulting in better learning. Sousa, David. How the Brain Learns. Chapter 7: Thinking and Learning Skills. p. 245-274. Pressley, M., (1984). Synthesis of research on teacher questioning. Educational Leadership, 42(3), 40–46. 1 1 1 2 2
  8. 8. Research  TIMMS  High achieving countries had similarities  Rather than “covering” many discrete skills, primary aim is to develop conceptual understanding in their students.  Emphasize depth vs. superficial coverage  Emphasize problem-based learning, in which rules and theorems are derived and explained by the students, thus leading to deeper understanding Martin, M., Mullis, I., Gregory, K., Hoyle, C., Shen, C. (2000). Effective schools in science and mathematics: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Boston: International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
  9. 9. Student Performance Data 2007-2008 11th Grade Demographics General Information Enrollment 399 Special Education Population 15% 11th Grade Math PSSA Performance Total Number Assessed Percentage* of Students in each Performance Level Below Basic Basic Proficient Advanced All Students 399 12 16 32 40 IEP 59 42 39 19 0 *percentages are rounded.
  10. 10. Our Concerns  Only 21% of our Special Education population scoring proficient or above.  32% drop in the number of IEP students scoring proficient or above between middle and high school.
  11. 11. DI: What is It?  A way of teaching in which:  The teacher proactively modifies the curriculum, instructional strategies, and student products  Lessons are designed around student readiness, interest, and learning styles  The teacher and students collaborate in learning  Teacher and students work together flexibly  Maximum growth and individual success are the ultimate goal
  12. 12. Handout #1 DI: What is It?
  13. 13. Three General Principals of DI  Respectful Tasks: Know your Students  Learning Profile: How a student learns  Learning Styles – www.howtolearn.com  Readiness: What does the student know already?  Interest: Students’ affinity, curiosity, or passion for a topic or skill
  14. 14. Three General Principals of DI  Flexible Grouping: Options
  15. 15. Three General Principals of DI  Flexible Grouping  Heterogeneous grouping  Individual, Small group, or Whole Group instruction
  16. 16. Three General Principals of DI  Ongoing Assessment and Adjustment  Instruction and assessment are inseparable  Content, process, and product are adjusted based on the needs of the student
  17. 17. What does DI look like?  Video: A Visit to a Differentiated Classroom  Small Group Discussion:  What evidence of DI did you see in the video?  What questions do you have about DI after watching this video?  Whole Group Discussion:  Share your observations and questions
  18. 18. The DI Continuum  Where are you on the continuum?  Place an ‘x’ on the line where you feel your classroom practices fall.  Are your practices more traditional or more differentiated? Handout #2
  19. 19. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy  Six levels of thinking provide a framework for planning units that incorporate low to high-level thinking activities  When used as a planning framework we can plan for student thinking at all levels.  Teach Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
  20. 20. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analyzing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognizing, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding Handout #3
  21. 21. How to use it  Higher order thinking occurs at the top three levels of the taxonomy: creating, evaluating, and analyzing  We must teach students how to think, providing opportunities for:  Problem-solving  Open-ended responses
  22. 22. Teaching HOTS  Help students understand the thinking process  Incite discovery, invention, and creativity  Make learning meaningful to the student  Engage students in real life problem solving  Encourage questions and discussion  Make cross-curricular connections  Provide models, graphic organizers
  23. 23. The Top Three Levels  Analyzing:  Breaking information into parts to explore understanding and relationships  Analyzing Verbs:  Comparing  Organizing  Deconstructing  Attributing  Outlining  Finding  Structuring  Integrating
  24. 24. The Top Three Levels  Evaluating:  Justifying a decision or course of action  Evaluating Verbs  Checking  Hypothesizing  Critiquing  Experimenting  Judging  Testing  Detecting  Monitoring
  25. 25. The Top Three Levels  Creating:  Generating new products, ideas, ways of thinking, or ways of viewing things  Creating Verbs:  Designing  Constructing  Planning  Producing  Inventing  Devising  Making
  26. 26. Put your HOTS to the test  Take a Concept Up the Taxonomy  Split your small group into pairs  Choose a concept that you teach in class  Using the handout, create a question or activity related to your concept for each level of the taxonomy. Handout #4
  27. 27. Understanding By Design - Backwards Design BEGIN with the END in mind
  28. 28. What is Backwards Design?  An approach to designing curriculum or unit that begins with the end in mind and designs toward that end.  Viewed as backward because many teachers begin their unit with the means - textbooks, favored lessons, and time-honored activities - rather than deriving those from the end - the targeted results, as content standards or understandings. (Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design, 2005, page 338)
  29. 29. How to use it  Identify desired results  Goals, knowledge and skills, essential questions, enduring understanding  Determine acceptable evidence  Tests or quizzes, academic prompts, formative assessment, performance tasks, observations or dialogue  Plan learning experiences and instruction  Based on desired results and acceptable evidence
  30. 30. Handout #5 Backwards Framework  This framework can be used to plan your lessons utilizing backwards design  Stage 1 – Utilize the Standards  Stage 2 – Products and Assessments  Stage 3 – Implement DI  Video: Connecting Differentiated Instruction, Understanding by Design and What Works in Schools: An Exploration of Research-Based Strategies
  31. 31. Culminating Activity  Lets put it all together  You will need:  Handout #2 – DI Continuum  Handout #4 – Take a Concept up the Taxonomy  Handout #5 – Backwards Design Framework
  32. 32. Culminating Activity  Your Task:  Choose a concept you teach in class  Create a lesson using the Backwards Design Framework  Include differentiated instruction strategies  Include questions/activities related to Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
  33. 33. Questions for Discussion  How can you implement DI in your classroom?  Using HOTS  Using Backwards Design  How can we support you in this process?  What resources/support systems will you need to be successful?
  34. 34. Closure  Set a goal.  Choose an area from the DI continuum that you rated yourself more traditional  Brainstorm ways to make this are more differentiated  Create a Plan of Action describing how you will implement this change in your classroom  Share this with your principal for informal observations and feedback  See Handout #6 “Look-Fors”
  35. 35. Remember:  Our goal is to increase the success of our students on the Math PSSA’s.  Take what you learned today and use it to help our students reach their maximum potential!