Interactive Rendering and Stylization of Transportation
Networks using Distance Fields
Matthias Trapp, Amir Semmo, Jürgen ...
INTRODUCTION
Towards Cartography-oriented Stylization
Paris Street Map – 1780
P1: contour lines surround fine-textured fills or solid colors
to add visual contrast and improve ...
London Street Map – 1913
London Underground Map – 1933
Modern Tourist Map of Paris
P7: yellow established as a conventional color tone for main
streets, with a discrete gradatio...
Conceptual and Technical Requirements
 Pre-processing of discrete level-of-details consume additional memory and yield
in...
RELATED WORK
Related Work :: Overview
Street Rendering Approaches
Object-space Approaches
Geometry-based Approach
Texture-based Approac...
Geometry-based Approach
Basic Principle:
 Pre-compute geometry at different LoD
 Forward rendering geometry
 Most flexi...
Texture-based Approach
„Interactive 3D Visualization of Vector Data in GIS”
O. Kersting, J. Döllner, ACM GIS 2002
Basic Pr...
Stencil-based Approach
„High-Quality Cartographic Roads on High-Resolution DEMs”
M. Vaaraniemi, M. Treib, R. Westermann, W...
Discard-based Approach
„A screen-space approach to rendering polylines on terrain”
D. Ohlarik, P. Cozzi; SIGGRAPH Poster 2...
Distance-fields for Stylization Parametrization
„ Real-Time Rendering of Water Surfaces with Cartography-Oriented Design”
...
APPROACH
Overview of Approach
Forward Rendering Pass Deferred Rendering Pass
Open Street Map (OSM) Data Representation
Overview of Distance-Field Generation
Geometry Generation
Attributed Vertex Cloud
+
Geometry Shader
+
Vertex Pulling
Encoding of Distance using Texturing
dresult = min(dsource , ddestination)
Blending Modes
No Blending Min-Blending
Distance Field Colored Distance Field Colored
Result: 2D Texture-Array
Memory consumptions: #layer  width  height  precision (3 * 32 Bit = 12 Byte)
Evaluation of Distance Fields :: Procedural Textures
Procedural textures evaluated on a per-fragment basis:
 Deferred tex...
Final Compositing Step
Bottom-up evaluation of each layer (street category) and blending
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Application Examples :: Distance-based Evaluation
Application Examples :: Stylization Variants
Application Examples :: Regions-of-Interest
Application Examples :: Regions-of-Interest
Performance Evaluation
 Test data sets of different complexity
from Open Street Map (OSM) data base
 Approach is fill-li...
Limitations
Distance-field generation:
 Intrusion
 Protrusion
Memory consumptions for large numbers of categories
Intrus...
Future Work :: Geometry Draping
Draping
Digital Elevation Model Result
Planar Network Geometry
Future Work :: Geometries
 Generate alternative geometric representations
 View-dependent adaptation of geometric repres...
Conclusions
 A concept for high-quality cartographic rendering exemplified
for complex street networks.
 Interactive har...
Questions & Comments ?
Contact:
 Matthias Trapp / matthias.trapp@hpi.de
 Amir Semmo / amir.semmo@hpi.de
 Jürgen Döllner...
Interactive Rendering and Stylization of Transportation
Networks using Distance Fields
Matthias Trapp, Amir Semmo, Jürgen ...
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Interactive Rendering and Stylization of Transportation Networks Using Distance Fields

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Transportation networks, such as streets, railroads or metro systems, constitute primary elements in cartography for reckoning and navigation. In recent years, they have become an increasingly important part of 3D virtual environments for the interactive analysis and communication of complex hierarchical information, for example in routing, logistics optimization, and disaster management. A variety of rendering techniques have been proposed that deal with integrating transportation networks within these environments, but have so far neglected the many challenges of an interactive design process to adapt their spatial and thematic granularity (i.e., level-of-detail and level-of-abstraction) according to a user's context. This paper presents an efficient real-time rendering technique for the view-dependent rendering of geometrically complex transportation networks within 3D virtual environments. Our technique is based on distance fields using deferred texturing that shifts the design process to the shading stage for real-time stylization. We demonstrate and discuss our approach by means of street networks using cartographic design principles for context-aware stylization, including view-dependent scaling for clutter reduction, contour-lining to provide figure-ground, handling of street crossings via shading-based blending, and task-dependent colorization. Finally, we present potential usage scenarios and applications together with a performance evaluation of our implementation.

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  • http://blogs.agi.com/agi/2011/04/25/a-screen-space-approach-to-rendering-polylines-on-terrain/
  • Drawbacks of distance fields: Intrusion / Protrusion

    Memory consumptions: Fat framebuffers
  • As you may have noticed: 2D only
  • Interactive Rendering and Stylization of Transportation Networks Using Distance Fields

    1. 1. Interactive Rendering and Stylization of Transportation Networks using Distance Fields Matthias Trapp, Amir Semmo, Jürgen Döllner Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam, Germany
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION
    3. 3. Towards Cartography-oriented Stylization
    4. 4. Paris Street Map – 1780 P1: contour lines surround fine-textured fills or solid colors to add visual contrast and improve figure-ground perception P2: primary streets overlap secondary or tertiary streets in hierarchical representations of street networks; wavy or fuzzy to express uncertainty P3: names follow principal line directions and are placed within streets or outside line segments
    5. 5. London Street Map – 1913
    6. 6. London Underground Map – 1933
    7. 7. Modern Tourist Map of Paris P7: yellow established as a conventional color tone for main streets, with a discrete gradation towards grey and white shading for tertiary roads P6: streets are tinted using qualitative color schemes to represent street classes and distinguish them from the underlying terrain P5: a hierarchy of emphasis is drawn among reference elements, such as different line weights and colors to portray different grades of roads P4: dynamic filtering and scaling of geometric features improves perception of roads at high view distances and avoids cluttering.
    8. 8. Conceptual and Technical Requirements  Pre-processing of discrete level-of-details consume additional memory and yield incoherent rendering when switching between these levels during zooming or within perspective projection.  Levels-of-Detail should be computed during rendering based on viewing settings  Increasingly detailed networks require high amounts of main/video memory.  Network representation should exhibit a small memory footprint and fast updates  View-dependent cartographic stylization of transportation networks are key features for a number of applications.  Rendering technique should provide a sufficient parameterization, i.e., covering level-of-detail rendering, interactive filtering, and highlighting
    9. 9. RELATED WORK
    10. 10. Related Work :: Overview Street Rendering Approaches Object-space Approaches Geometry-based Approach Texture-based Approach Screen-Space Approaches Stencil-based Approach Discard-based Approach
    11. 11. Geometry-based Approach Basic Principle:  Pre-compute geometry at different LoD  Forward rendering geometry  Most flexible approach w.r.t. stylization Limitations:  High memory consumptions for complex networks  No transitions between static LoD  High rendering costs
    12. 12. Texture-based Approach „Interactive 3D Visualization of Vector Data in GIS” O. Kersting, J. Döllner, ACM GIS 2002 Basic Principle:  Generate texture trees from geometry  Off-screen rendering at different resolutions  Use for texturing during scene rendering Limitations:  Relies on data pre-processing  Requires intermediate representation  Suffers from texturing artifacts
    13. 13. Stencil-based Approach „High-Quality Cartographic Roads on High-Resolution DEMs” M. Vaaraniemi, M. Treib, R. Westermann, WSCG Journal 2011 Basic Principle:  Generate shadow volume per street segment  Avoid cracks between segments using cap cones  Enables distance-based scaling of street segments  Rendering using shadow volume approach Limitations:  Requires additional data structure (volumes)  Limited styling capabilities (color + outline)
    14. 14. Discard-based Approach „A screen-space approach to rendering polylines on terrain” D. Ohlarik, P. Cozzi; SIGGRAPH Poster 2011 Basic Principle:  Extrude polylines to walls  Compute intersection with terrain  Discard fragments accordingly  Avoid dashing and smearing Limitations:  Stylization with single color only  No distance-dependent segment width
    15. 15. Distance-fields for Stylization Parametrization „ Real-Time Rendering of Water Surfaces with Cartography-Oriented Design” A. Semmo, J. E. Kyprianidis, M. Trapp, J. Döllner; CAe 2014
    16. 16. APPROACH
    17. 17. Overview of Approach Forward Rendering Pass Deferred Rendering Pass
    18. 18. Open Street Map (OSM) Data Representation
    19. 19. Overview of Distance-Field Generation
    20. 20. Geometry Generation Attributed Vertex Cloud + Geometry Shader + Vertex Pulling
    21. 21. Encoding of Distance using Texturing
    22. 22. dresult = min(dsource , ddestination) Blending Modes No Blending Min-Blending Distance Field Colored Distance Field Colored
    23. 23. Result: 2D Texture-Array Memory consumptions: #layer  width  height  precision (3 * 32 Bit = 12 Byte)
    24. 24. Evaluation of Distance Fields :: Procedural Textures Procedural textures evaluated on a per-fragment basis:  Deferred texturing based on distance fields  Application of procedural and image textures possible  Bottom-up compositing based on street rank “Improved Alpha-Tested Magnification for Vector Textures and Special Effects” Chris Green; SIGGRAPH 2007
    25. 25. Final Compositing Step Bottom-up evaluation of each layer (street category) and blending
    26. 26. RESULTS & DISCUSSION
    27. 27. Application Examples :: Distance-based Evaluation
    28. 28. Application Examples :: Stylization Variants
    29. 29. Application Examples :: Regions-of-Interest
    30. 30. Application Examples :: Regions-of-Interest
    31. 31. Performance Evaluation  Test data sets of different complexity from Open Street Map (OSM) data base  Approach is fill-limited w.r.t. number of street categories to render ID Data Set # Nodes #Ways A Berlin 1 5571 1028 B Istanbul 2004 263 C Berlin 2 9502 1766 A B C A B C A B C 390 x 260 670 x 450 1280 x 800 1 Category 3 2.9 3 3 2.9 3 25.5 25.4 25.3 2 Categories 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 29 29 29.2 4 Categories 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2 36.1 26.2 36.2 8 Categories 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.8 50.1 50.1 50.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Milliseconds
    32. 32. Limitations Distance-field generation:  Intrusion  Protrusion Memory consumptions for large numbers of categories Intrusion Protrusion
    33. 33. Future Work :: Geometry Draping Draping Digital Elevation Model Result Planar Network Geometry
    34. 34. Future Work :: Geometries  Generate alternative geometric representations  View-dependent adaptation of geometric representations
    35. 35. Conclusions  A concept for high-quality cartographic rendering exemplified for complex street networks.  Interactive hardware-accelerated rendering technique having minimal memory footprint for network representation.  Interactive stylization and colorization using deferred texturing based on distance fields generated on per-frame basis  Potentials for future research
    36. 36. Questions & Comments ? Contact:  Matthias Trapp / matthias.trapp@hpi.de  Amir Semmo / amir.semmo@hpi.de  Jürgen Döllner / juergen.doellner@hpi.de Publications: www.4dndvis.de/publikationen.html This work was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany within the InnoProfile Transfer research group "4DnD-Vis".
    37. 37. Interactive Rendering and Stylization of Transportation Networks using Distance Fields Matthias Trapp, Amir Semmo, Jürgen Döllner Hasso-Plattner-Institut, University of Potsdam, Germany

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