2. WHAT IS LEARNING?
“We define learning as the
transformative process of taking in
information that—when internalized
and mixed with what we
have experienced—changes what we
know and builds on what we do. It’s
based on input, process, and
reflection. It is what changes us.”
–From The New Social Learning by
Tony Bingham and Marcia Conner
4. Its a relatively permanent change in
the strength of response to a single
stimulus due to repeated exposure
to that stimulus.
Habituation is an example of non-
associative learning in which the
strength or probability of a
response diminishes when the
response is repeated.
Active learning occurs when a
person takes control of his/her
learning experience. Since
understanding information is the
key aspect of learning, it is
important for learners to
recognize what they understand
and what they do not.
5. The process by which a person or animal learns an
association between two stimuli.
In classical conditioning a previously neutral
stimulus is repeatedly paired with a reflex eliciting
stimulus until eventually the neutral stimulus elicits
a response on its own. In operant conditioning, a
behavior that is reinforced or punished in the
presence of a stimulus becomes more on less likely
to occur in the presence of that stimulus.
It generally describes behavior with no
particular end in itself, but that improves
performance in similar future situations.
Play, as it pertains to humans as a form of
learning is central to a child's learning and
development. Through play, children learn
social skills such as sharing and collaboration.
6. ENCULTRATION: The process by
which people learn values and
behaviors that are appropriate or
necessary in their surrounding
Parents, other adults, and peers
shape the individual's
understanding of these values.
A change in behavior that occurs
as a result of an event.For
example, a fear of dogs that
follows being bitten by a dog is
7. Electronic learning or e-learning is
computer-enhanced learning. A
specific and always more diffused e-
learning is mobile learning (m-
learning), which uses different
equipment, such as cellular phones.
Meaningful learning is the concept
that learned knowledge (e.g., a fact) is
fully understood to the extent that it
relates to other knowledge.
To this end, meaningful learning
contrasts with rote learning in which
information is acquired without regard
to understanding. Meaningful learning,
on the other hand, implies there is a
comprehensive knowledge of the
context of the facts learned.
Benjamin Bloom has suggested three domains of learning:
• Cognitive: To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve,
• Psychomotor: To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike,
• Affective: To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear,
hate, worship, etc.
These domains are not mutually exclusive.
For example, in learning to play chess, the person must learn the
rules (cognitive domain)—but must also learn how to set up the
chess pieces and how to properly hold and move a chess piece
Furthermore, later in the game the person may even learn to love
the game itself, value its applications in life, and appreciate
its history (affective domain).
11. 1. Readiness implies a degree of concentration and eagerness. Individuals learn best when
they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn, and do not learn well if
they see no reason for learning.
2. The principle of Exercise states that those things most often repeated are best
remembered. It is the basis of drill and practice.
3. The principle of Effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It has a direct
relationship to motivation.
4. Primacy, the state of being first, usually creates a strong and durable impression. Things
learned first are usually learned easily and remain, without effort, in the mind of the
5. The principle of Recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered.
Conversely, the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or
understanding, the more difficult it is to remember.
6. The principle of Freedom states that things freely learned are best learned. Conversely,
the further a student is coerced, the more difficult is for him to learn, assimilate and
implement what is learned.
7. The law of Requirement states that "we must have something to obtain or do
something." It can be an ability, skill, instrument or anything that may help us to learn
or gain something
12. What exactly is game-based learning,
Is it a roomful of children playing video
games? Is it students designing games?
Or is it both of these?
13. WHAT IS GAME BASED LEARNING?
“Game-based learning can be defined as lessons which are competitive,
interactive, and allow the learner to have fun while gaining knowledge.”
Games have proved to be more
engaging and interactive to the core
because In a game, the learner is
occupied from start to finish of the
session unlike regular classroom
14. The best game-based learning has three main elements.
1. Competition: This need not be against another student or the teacher.
The competitive elements help to provide motivation for students who
might not find that motivation in normal learning methodologies.
2. Engagement: When a child is playing a game that engages their
curiosity and imagination, they don't even notice the learning elements
which leads to the element of engagement.
3. Immediate Rewards: It is vital to keep the learner invested and coming
back for more as well as helping the learning process. These rewards
might be as simple as letting them know they are correct, giving them
points, or even descriptive feedback expanding their knowledge.
15. Gaming that can inspire learners to develop skills and competencies as they focus on the activities of
the game. They can:
function as individual learning activities
a powerful content delivery mechanism over several sessions
last for the duration of the course
In order to deliver content as a game, faculty members tend to divide the syllabus into levels through which
the students must progress, with students getting feedback rather than grades.
In order for it to be effective, the game:
must align with learning outcomes
should not be competitive in the general sense
Sometimes, in fact, the game might require students to work collaboratively in order to solve problems,
while in other contexts, game mechanics might make students compete against one another in order to reach
a personal best.
17. 1. Highly motivating and engaging-Game-based learning highly
motivates the learners by offering them a platform where they can
learn in an atmosphere that is fun-filled, yet the desired learning
outcome is generated.
2. Standardized assessments- The assessments that game-based
learning proposes are standardized as all the learners who take up
the same course and go through the similar assessment formats such
as quizzes, games, etc.
3. Constant feedback- It’s because the feedback on what went wrong or
what needs to be done pops up instantly. Moreover, any errors
committed during the learning course can also be rectified.
18. CHALLENGES- GAME BASED LEARNING
As with any new educational approach, there are numerous challenges to using
games both in the classroom and in library instruction.
In the article, “Gaming and Learning: Winning information literacy collaboration,”
Spiegelman and Glass discuss potential Barriers to Games Based learning. These
include the following:
Games take time to learn and design properly
Wasted efforts will be the greatest administrative fear
Involve materials that range from the inexpensive to the costly
Design efforts are often funded via grants which have to be managed
Issues of access and the digital divide
An examination is needed as to whether students actually prefer this
approach to teaching.
• The marketing concept concentrates on the
buyer’s needs, and so, the customer is
regarded as the king of the market.
• Marketing begins with the customer.
• Marketing is a broad term that involves a
chain of activities such as market research,
promotion, and sales.
• Marketing focuses on customer’s need,
whereas sales stresses on the needs of the
• Marketing is all about ascertaining human
needs and satisfying them, by providing the
products they require, or say, it is about
meeting needs profitably.
• For increasing the market of any product
normally special offers are introduced to
attract the customers
• On the other hand, selling concept stresses
on the needs of the seller and so, it is the
seller who rules the market.
• To sell something, you must have a customer
first. Selling begins with a product or a
• Sales refer to the exchange of products and
services for money.
• On the other hand, sales is simply, inducing
the customers to make purchase of goods or
services offered by the company.
• For promoting sales, normally the special
prices or discounts are offered by the entities
to attract customers towards their products.
There are many activities involved in