Verification and Valuation
Difference between Verification and Valuation
Relationship between Verification and Valuation
Classification of Assets
Verification and Valuation of Assets
One of most important duties of an Auditor is audit of
accounts of a concern, to verify the assets & liabilities
appearing in the balance sheet of business concern.
Verification of Assets is a enquiry into title
(ownership), existence, possession, Classification
and verify that assets are free from charge or not.
6. Advantages Of Verification
It display true and
actual position of
Proper recording of
Assets & Liabilities
Avoid manipulation of
Meaning determine the current worth of something.
Determining the value of the assets shown in the Balance
Sheet on the basis of generally accepted accounting
If valuation of assets is not correct, than the financial
statements (B.S & P&L a/c ) can not be correct.
Valuation is primary duty of Company officials.
8. Difference Between Verification & Valuation
Verification is a final
Verification is the work
Verification is made at
the end of the year.
Valuation is the initial
work and it need to
Valuation is the work of
concerned authority or
Valuation is made
throughout the year
9. Relationship Between Verification and Valuation
Valuation of assets is the part of verification, without
proper valuation of assets, verification is not possible.
Verification includes apart from (except) valuation “the
examination of ownership right, the existence of the
assets in business & its freeness from any mortgage”.
Verification and valuation of assets are almost
Verification and valuation of assets is a combined
process by which the position of different assets
appearing in the balance sheet is examined.
10. Window Dressing
The fraud through manipulation of accounts is known as window
dressing because accounts are manipulated to show a wrong picture
of the profit or loss of the business and its financial affairs.
It is action taken to improve the appearance of a company’s
financial statements .
It may also be used when a company want to impress a lender for
qualify of a loan.
Income of previous year may be recorded in the current year.
Showing short term liabilities as long term liabilities.
12. Fictitious Assets
No physically existence
No realizable value but represents actual cash
The purpose of creating a fictitious assets is to
account for expenses those incurred at the time of
i.e. Preliminary Expenses, discount on issue of
Fictitious assets are written off as soon as possible
from earnings of the company.
13. Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are those assets which have no
Can be realize
They does not shows in the balance sheet until
o Patent rights
15. Intangible Assets Fictitious Assets
The intangible assets can
The intangible assets also
don’t posses physical
existence like intangible
Goodwill does not appear
in the balance sheet
except when it is actually
The fictitious can not be
Fictitious assets are
deferred revenue (future
whose benefit is derived
over long period of time
The fictitious assets
appear in balance sheet.
Difference Between Intangible and Fictitious
16. Fixed Assets
Assets which are purchased for long term use for the
purpose of producing or providing goods or service
and not for sale in the normal course of business
Not easily converted into cash.
Land & buildings
Fixtures and Furniture
Plant and Machinery
18. Land & Building
Classified in two types
A property which is free from hold
This means that the property you are buying is
free from the hold of any body besides the owner.
That's why the owner enjoys complete ownership.
The property which is on lease (rent).
The property (plot/flat/villa/mall/factories) which is
leased by the landlord for a certain period of time to the
lessee (tenant / leaseholder / renter / occupant /
The (tenant) have been given the right to use during that
specified time by the landlord.
Generally, the lease varies from 30 to even 99 years (in
case of long term leases).
The ownership of the property returns to the landlord
when the lease comes to an end.
20. Verification of Freehold Property
Auditor verify the title deed first of all.
He should check that land is in the name of
Note the area covered
If deed is deposited as mortgage than auditor obtain
certificate for verification.
21. Valuation of Freehold Property
The cost of buildings should be depreciated at
appropriate value, depending upon the quality of their
structure and the use, which is being made of them.
The auditor has to see the basis of revaluation & confirm
that same method has been used in past.
Ensure that depreciation charged on building only not on
land (but in some cases depreciation can be charged on
land, in case of Location, structure & Quality).
22. Verification of Leasehold Property
Auditor examined the lease agreement / deed for
find out the amount of premium paid for period &
other term. i.e. lease period, maintenance,
Note the area covered
Also confirm the write-off the
legal expense incurred for lease.
Auditor should note down the
condition of lease check the
properly physically if possible
23. Valuation of Leasehold Property
The value of lease checked from lease deed.
Valuation of property depend on the type of the property,
its structure and durability, on the situation size, shape,
outlook , width of roadways the quality of materials used
in the construction and present days prices of material.
Auditor check if any maintains with reference (Bills) also
check physically if possible.
24. Hire Purchase System
Meaning: The hire-purchase system is a system under which the
purchase price is paid in a number of installments. As soon as the
contract is entered into and the first installment is paid the hire-
purchase acquires possession (not the ownership) of the goods.
After the payment of the final installment, the hire-purchaser becomes
the full fledged owner of the goods. So long as he does not become the
owner, the installments paid by him are considered to be the payment
for hire. In case the hire-purchase fails to pay any particular
installment, the seller or vendor can the away the goods, and the
installment already paid become forfeited.
25. Verification of Assets purchase under Hire
The hire purchase agreement should be inspected in
order to find out the term and conditions of
After the payment of the final installment, the
purchaser becomes the full fledged (with complete
control) owner of the goods
26. Valuation of Assets purchase under Hire Purchase
The auditor should see the hire purchase deed and
determine the price of asset.
The calculation of the annual depreciation should be
based on the cash price of the asset and not on the
total installment value.
27. Verification and Valuation of Investment
Money committed or property acquired for future
The investment classified as under
a) Quoted Investment
b) Unquoted Investment
A company is said to be "listed", or "quoted”,
If its shares can be traded on a stock exchange.
i.e. Public Limited Companies .
A company is said to be “unlisted", or “unquoted” stocks that are
not listed on an stock exchange and so have no publicly stated ( price.
Investment which is difficult to value e.g. shares which have no stock
i.e. Private Company etc.
30. Verification of Quoted Investment
Check of authorization for the purchase of the investment. e.g. review of appropriate
board minute book (book which record the conclusion of meeting).
Vouch the purchase to brokers contract note and share certificate to the cash
Examine the Share certificate to ensure that the type of security and number of
share agrees with investment account and that the share is held in the company with
Use a share information service to determine the dividend which should have been
received during the year.
Check that the investments are properly classified for Company Act disclosure
31. Valuation of Quoted Investment
The auditor should satisfy himself that the
investment has been valued in the financial
statement in accordance with recognized
accounting policies and practices and relevant
The auditor should examine whether in
computing the cost of investment, expenditure incurred on account of
transfer fees stamp duty, brokerage etc is included in the cost of
32. Verification of Unquoted Investment
Study the Memorandum of Association as an authority for such
Where investments are in large numbers, the auditor should obtain the
schedule of securities certified by a senior officer of the company.
Obtain the schedule of investment comprises for information about the
names of the securities / investment, date of their acquisition, nominal/
face value, cost price, book value paid up value market value, rates of
interest applicable, dates of interest due, tax deduction, etc. at the date
of balance sheet.
33. Valuation of Unquoted Investment
The auditor should examine the method adopted by
the organization for determining the market value of
such securities he should examine whether the
method of valuation of securities such as by entity is
one of the recognized methods of valuation of
securities. Such as breakup value method,
capitalization of yield method, yield to maturity
34. Verification of Contingent Assets
A contingent asset is a possible asset which arise from future due to
occurrence of events that are not under an organizational control.
Receiving of bad debts
Refund of octroi (duty) paid for goods, which have been sent out later.
Uncalled share capital of company (uncalled share capital refers to the
amount of the nominal value of a share which is unpaid and has not
been called up by the company).
35. Bank Overdraft
Overdraft is an extension of credit from a lending
institution when an account reaches zero.
An overdraft allows the individual to continue
withdrawing money even if the account has no funds
in it. Basically the bank allows a set amount of
36. Verification of Overdraft
The auditor should see Memorandum of association
for borrowing power and limitation of company.
He should examine the term and condition of
overdraft from the agreement between bank and
The auditor should examine the interest on overdraft
has been paid or not.
Confirm & check the amount limit sanctioned by
Check if any security was offered as terms of
37. Proposed Divided
It is a way in which a company shares its profit to its
It is given in percentage of the value of the share.
It is declared in Company’s general meeting from
that day its became as liability.
38. Verification of Proposed Divided
Examine special provisions in the Memorandum or Article of
Association in respect of payment of dividends.
Ascertain that it does not included unpaid (unclaimed) dividends,
which must be excluded from it and shown separately.
See that the amount of proposed dividend recommended by the board
that must stated in the balance sheet.
39. Contingent Liabilities
Obligation which arises from future event.
It is not to record contingent liabilities in the books
A reference is made to them by way of a footnote to
the balance sheet.
Pending labor disputes
40. Verification f Contingent Liabilities
Auditor should see that unknown and known such
liabilities are record into account on the date of
He should verify that such liabilities are shown on
the balance sheet by foot note.
Auditor should obtain certificate from the
responsible officer (Accountant/Bookkeeper) that all
known liabilities been taken into account.
Auditor should also check that sufficiently reserve
has been allocated for such liability which is likely to
result in a loss.
41. Event occurring after the Balance Sheet
Financial events that occur after the date of the
balance sheet, but before the date that the balance
sheet are issued.
42. Adjusting Events
Those events that provide further evidence about the
existed at the end of reporting is called adjustment
A loss on a trade receivable account which is
confirmed by the insolvency of a customer which
occurs after the balance sheet date.
A fraud during the accounting period is detected
after the balance sheet date but before the approval .
43. Non-Adjusting Events
Those events that provide that reflect the end of
A decline in market value of investment between the
balance sheet date and the date on which the
financial statement are approved.
44. Prior Period and Extraordinary Item and Change in
Prior (past) Period:
The financial accounting term prior period
adjustment refers to either a correction to a existing
period’s financial statement.
Prior period generally used in association with
adjustments made in the revenue or expenses of the
current accounting year to reflect a new accounting
policy or error corrections.
45. Extraordinary Item
These are income statement item that are
unusual in nature and infrequent in occurrence.
Loss from an earthquake and loss from a country
taking over a company’s oil refinery.
46. Accounting Policies:
Accounting policy are the specific principles,
bases convention rules and practice applied by an
entity in presenting financial statements.
Change in accounting policies
According to IAS8 The International Accounting
Standard code has power to select and change
accounting policy, accounting for change in
estimates reflecting correction of prior period.