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The myth of becoming a complete leader
David Pendleton DPhil
Associate Fellow
Saїd Business School and Green-Templeton Col...
Business Fads 1950 – 2000
(Richard Pascale)
Business Process Re-engineering
Continuous Improvement/Learning Organization
E...
The shift in ideas about leadership in the 20th century
I decide
You decide
Early 20 C Middle 20 C Late 20 C
Hierarchy
and...
Leading only by consent in the 21st Century?
• On March 24, 2014, Eich was promoted to CEO
of Mozilla Corporation.
• His a...
We need a leadership model and approach that are:
• Evidence based
• Reflective of 21st century society and needs
• Cohere...
The argument in a nutshell
The effect of leadership is indirect.
Leadership
Culture (what
we do)
Climate (how
it feels)
Di...
Combining who they are with what they do
Leadership
Traits
Intelligence
Emotional Stability
Extraversion
Openness to Exper...
Employee satisfaction, employee engagements, and business outcomes
A meta-analysis of 198,514 employees in 7,939
Business...
Further evidence of engagement’s impact on the bottom line
Towers-Perrin 2006 studied 50 companies (664,000 employees)
for...
Towers Watson Global Workforce study 2012
• N=32,000 full time workers from 29 countries on all
continents
• Key Findings
...
The argument in a nutshell moves on… and on
Leadership
Culture
(what we do)
Climate
(how it feels) Discretionary
effort
Em...
Conclusions from the evidence…
• Leadership makes a difference to performance
• It makes more of a difference in tougher t...
A new theory of Leadership
Leadership is creating the conditions for people and organisations to
succeed and achieve sign...
Leadership proposition 1: The Primary Colours® of Leadership
…and Coping with Pressure
Delivering
results
Building and
sus...
Think of this as body parts and capabilities
Thought/Figuring out
which way to go
Feeling/Emotional
Intelligence
Action/Ge...
So what is LEADING?
Delivering
results
Planning and
organising
Setting Strategic Direction
Creating
Alignment
Building and...
Leadership proposition 2: Incomplete individuals, complete teams…
• It’s hard to be world class in all areas.
• There are ...
The Heptathlete
• Javelin
• Shot
• 800 metres
• 200 metres
• High jump
• Long jump
• Hurdles
Summarising data from many years and thousand of leaders…
Gallup (2008)
“While the best leaders are not well-rounded, the ...
In praise of the incomplete leaders
“Rarely will a single person be skilled in all …. areas. That's why it's critical that...
Don’t try to be a duck
According to an Argentinian saying…
The duck walks, flies and swims
…..but none very well!
Leadership proposition 3: Choose carefully what to develop
Resistant
limitation
Fragile
strengthPERSONALITY
HINDERS
Potent...
Leadership proposition 4: Complementary contributions
Resistant
Limitations
STRENGTH LIMITATION
PERSONALITY
HELPS
PERSONAL...
So I cannot become a complete leader… But we can be complete together
Pendleton, D and Furnham, A (2012) Leadership: all y...
Thank you
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The myth of becoming a complete leader

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Presentation led by Dr David Pendleton from Edgecumbe Group at the APM Conference 2015

Veröffentlicht in: Leadership & Management
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The myth of becoming a complete leader

  1. 1. The myth of becoming a complete leader David Pendleton DPhil Associate Fellow Saїd Business School and Green-Templeton College, University of Oxford Executive Chair Edgecumbe Consulting Group, Bristol Visiting Professor in Leadership, Walker School of Business and Technology, Webster University, St Louis, USA
  2. 2. Business Fads 1950 – 2000 (Richard Pascale) Business Process Re-engineering Continuous Improvement/Learning Organization EmpowermentWorkout Visioning Cycle Time/Speed Benchmarking One Minute ManagingCorporate Culture Intrapreneuring Just in Time/KanbanMatrix MBWAPortfolio Management Restructuring/Delayering “Excellence” Quality Circles/TQM Wellness Decentralisation Value Chain ‘Theory Z’ Management by Objectives Conglomeration T-Group Training ‘Theory Z’ Brainstorming Theory X and Theory YSatisfiers/Dissatisfiers Managerial Grid Decision Trees 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Self Managing Teams Core Competencies Horizontal Organizations Zero Base Budgeting Strategic Business Units Diversification Experience Curve InfluenceIndex 2000
  3. 3. The shift in ideas about leadership in the 20th century I decide You decide Early 20 C Middle 20 C Late 20 C Hierarchy and authority Co-option through vision Partnership and co- leadership
  4. 4. Leading only by consent in the 21st Century? • On March 24, 2014, Eich was promoted to CEO of Mozilla Corporation. • His appointment sparked controversy over a $1,000 political donation Eich had made in 2008 to a California campaign for heterosexual marriage only (Proposition 8). • After his appointment to CEO, the controversy re- emerged. – OKCupid and two gay application developers called for a boycott of the company. – A number of Mozilla employees asked him to step down, while others spoke out on their blogs in his favour. • On April 3, 2014, Eich stepped down as CEO and resigned from working at Mozilla. In his personal blog, Eich posted that "under the present circumstances, I cannot be an effective leader."
  5. 5. We need a leadership model and approach that are: • Evidence based • Reflective of 21st century society and needs • Coherent • Simple • Memorable
  6. 6. The argument in a nutshell The effect of leadership is indirect. Leadership Culture (what we do) Climate (how it feels) Discretionary Effort Productivity, Creativity etc. (Results)
  7. 7. Combining who they are with what they do Leadership Traits Intelligence Emotional Stability Extraversion Openness to Experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness Leadership Behaviours Task oriented Relationship oriented Change oriented (Passive leadership) Leadership Effectiveness Leader effectiveness (58%)* Group performance (31%)* Follower job satisfaction (56%)* Satisfaction with leader (92%)* * Proportion of each measure of leadership effectiveness explained by a combination of leadership traits and leadership behaviours. DeRue, Nahrgang, Wellman and Humphrey, (2011) Trait and Behavioral Theories of Leadership, Personnel Psychology,
  8. 8. Employee satisfaction, employee engagements, and business outcomes A meta-analysis of 198,514 employees in 7,939 Business Units, found: – That employee engagement was directly linked to profitability, customer satisfaction, loyalty, sales, employee retention, productivity, and safety. – That employee satisfaction and engagement were mainly determined by satisfaction with immediate supervisor Hunter, Schmidt and Hayes, Journal of Applied Psychology, 2002
  9. 9. Further evidence of engagement’s impact on the bottom line Towers-Perrin 2006 studied 50 companies (664,000 employees) for a year across the globe. They found: – Operating income. • Companies with highly engaged employees +19.2% • Companies with below average engagement -32.7%. – Net income growth. • +13.7% compared with -3.8% – Earnings per share. • +27.8% compared with -11.2%
  10. 10. Towers Watson Global Workforce study 2012 • N=32,000 full time workers from 29 countries on all continents • Key Findings – Security of employment is key in recruitment and retention – Stress is rife – Retention is more to do with the quality of the work experience overall: relationship with line manager, trust in senior leadership, ability to manage stress on the job – Doubts about level of interest and support from above “Businesses appear to be at a critical tipping point in their ability to maintain engagement over time” Sustainable engagement is based on traditional engagement + enablement + promotion of well-being
  11. 11. The argument in a nutshell moves on… and on Leadership Culture (what we do) Climate (how it feels) Discretionary effort Employee retention Employee Engagement Intention to stay Productivity Whole-person Creativity (Results) Rational Commitment Emotional Commitment …and we can measure and/or estimate the size of the effects. EG moving from disengagement to strong engagement decreases the probability of leaving by 87% Source: Corporate Leadership Council 2004
  12. 12. Conclusions from the evidence… • Leadership makes a difference to performance • It makes more of a difference in tougher times when opportunities are scarce (like now!) • The effect is indirect and mediated largely through the effect on people • The impact is largely to do with the power of engagement and the effect on discretionary effort • The effect is a mixture of who we are and what we do. We will explore both.
  13. 13. A new theory of Leadership Leadership is creating the conditions for people and organisations to succeed and achieve significant goals: Four propositions
  14. 14. Leadership proposition 1: The Primary Colours® of Leadership …and Coping with Pressure Delivering results Building and sustaining relationships Team working Ref: Pendleton and Furnham 2012
  15. 15. Think of this as body parts and capabilities Thought/Figuring out which way to go Feeling/Emotional Intelligence Action/Getting things done
  16. 16. So what is LEADING? Delivering results Planning and organising Setting Strategic Direction Creating Alignment Building and sustaining relationshipsTeam working Leading Strategic Domain Operational Domain Interpersonal Domain • The nervous system – Sensing – Connecting – Balancing – Co-ordinating Leading
  17. 17. Leadership proposition 2: Incomplete individuals, complete teams… • It’s hard to be world class in all areas. • There are sound psychological reasons why this may be so and empirical evidence to support it. • Rather than trying to be good in all areas, it may be better to be great in one or two and work with others who are great in other areas.
  18. 18. The Heptathlete • Javelin • Shot • 800 metres • 200 metres • High jump • Long jump • Hurdles
  19. 19. Summarising data from many years and thousand of leaders… Gallup (2008) “While the best leaders are not well-rounded, the best teams are.” “Effective leaders surround themselves with the right people and build on each person’s strengths.”
  20. 20. In praise of the incomplete leaders “Rarely will a single person be skilled in all …. areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm of an unbalanced ship.” Deborah Ancona and colleagues HBR 2007
  21. 21. Don’t try to be a duck According to an Argentinian saying… The duck walks, flies and swims …..but none very well!
  22. 22. Leadership proposition 3: Choose carefully what to develop Resistant limitation Fragile strengthPERSONALITY HINDERS Potential strength Natural strengthPERSONALITY HELPS LIMITATIONSTRENGTH Work ON Work ONWork WITH Work AROUND
  23. 23. Leadership proposition 4: Complementary contributions Resistant Limitations STRENGTH LIMITATION PERSONALITY HELPS PERSONALITY HINDERS Fragile Strengths Potential Strengths Natural Strengths Fragile Strengths Potential Strengths Natural Strengths Resistant Limitations
  24. 24. So I cannot become a complete leader… But we can be complete together Pendleton, D and Furnham, A (2012) Leadership: all you need to know London, Palgrave Macmillan
  25. 25. Thank you

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