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TRANSPORTATION
ENGINEERING II
MODULE 3
HARBOUR AND DOCK
ENGINEERING
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
TRANSPORTATION
ENGI...
 Introduction
 Water Transportation
 Harbours
 Classification of
Harbours
 Accessibility
 Size of Harbours
 Site Se...
INTRODUCTION
 Importance of waterways
› Comparison with railways and roadways
 Need for a place of approach
Asnidha.V ,A...
WATER TRANSPORTATION
 Importance
 Types
› Inland water transportation
 River or canal
› Ocean water transportation
 Ad...
 Advantages
› Provides means of defence.
› Cheapest mode
› Leads to overall development
and international trade.
› High l...
 Disadvantages
› Slow in operation, consumes
› Useful only when water is available
transport
› May lead to accident In ca...
› Sheltered area
› For loading and unloading of cargo
› Vessels are also built, repair, and launch
“A harbour can be defin...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
 Basin
› water reservoir of required area
› Navigable when depth of water in the basin is
greater than draft required for...
1. Classification depending upon the
protection needed
2. Classification depending upon the
3. Classification based upon t...
1. Classification depending upon the
needed.
a) Natural Harbour or Natural Roadsteads
b) Semi Natural Harbour
c) Artificia...
NATURAL HARBOURS
› Inlet protected from storms and waves by natural
configuration of land.
› Natural formations affording ...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Natural harbour
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Mumbai port
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Kandla port
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NATURAL ROADSTEADS
› A deep navigable channel
bank or shoal to seaward
natural roadstead.
› Circumscribed natural roadstea...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Natural Roadstead
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Circumscribed natural roadstead
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Circumscribed natural roadstead
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Pro...
SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR
› Protected on sides by headlands and it requires
man-made protection only at the entrance
› Eg: Vish...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Semi Natural Harbour
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Vishakhapatnam
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ARTIFICIAL HARBOURS
› Harbour having no natural protection
arrangement are made to protect the harbour
storm and wind.
› A...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,MArtificial Harbours
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Artificial Harbours
Palm island ,dubai
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Artificial Harbours
Palm island ,dubai
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
2) Classification based on
a) Harbours of refuge
b) Commercial harbours
c) Fishery harbours
d) Military harbours
e) Marina...
HARBOURS OF REFUGE
› The harbor used for ships
condition.
› good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea.
› e.g.: ...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Harbours Of Refuge
32
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
COMMERCIAL HARBOURS
› may be a part of bigger complex harbor or
Independent unit or single commodity harbor.
› Terminal as...
Commercial Harbours
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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Commercial Harbours
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Commercial Harbours 36
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
FISHERY HARBOUR
› Provided for fishing crafts and trawlers
Requirements
i. Constantly open for departure and arrival of fi...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Fishery Harbour
38
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
MILLITARY HARBOR:
› This harbor is meant for
crafts and serves as a supply deport.
› The layout of this type of harbor is ...
Millitary Harbour
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Millitary Harbour
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MARINA HARBOURS
Definition
Marina is a harbour providing facilities
showers, telephones etc. for small boat owners
tempora...
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Marina Harbours
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Marina Harbours
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
3.Classification based on the
a) Canal harbour - harbour
navigations.
b) Lake Harbour - harbour
lake.
c) River Harbour or ...
ACCESSIBILITY
 Depends on location of harbours
 The harbour entrance should be
located for quick and easy navigation
 T...
SIZE OF A HARBOUR
Size depends upon
 No. and size of ships likely to use the harbour at one time.
length: 275m to 300m,
...
SITE SELECTION
Following factors play a great role in the choice of site of a
 Availability of cheap land &
 Natural pro...
SHAPE OF HARBOUR
Principles
 Pierheads – one should project
other - to protect from sea waves
 Pier heads - width should...
HARBOUR DEPTH
 Determined by
D = D1 + H/3 + D2
Where,D1 = draft for largest ship to be
D2 = allowance for squat of moving...
MARINE SURVEYS
 Collect sufficient information about the area before
finalising the layout of the harbour and design of i...
HARBOUR PLANNING
It should be carried out after collecting necessary
information of the existing features at the proposed
...
 The existence of sea insects & various animals
residing at site should be noted.
 Borings and soundings should be carri...
FEATURES OF A HARBOR
 Entrance Channels
 Berthing & Turning
Basin
 Break Water
 Pier Head
 Quays & Wharves
Asnidha.V ...
ENTRANCE CHANNEL
› When sea around the harbour
required for the largest ship visiting the
separate approach demarcated and...
Entrance &
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Entrance & Entrance Channel
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Entrance & Entrance Channel
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Entrance Channel
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS:
› Berthing basins are used for the parking of
ships.
› While turning for the turning of ships...
Berthing and Turning Basins:
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BREAK WATER:
It is the protective barrier constructed to
enclose harbours and to keep the
undisturbed by the effect of hea...
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Break Water:
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Break Water:
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
PIER HEAD:
› The structure provided at the tip of break water
› Serves the purpose of entrance mark.
› Such as light house...
PierHead
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
WHARVES
› Platforms or loading places
come close enough to the shore they are called
wharves.
› wharves constructed parall...
Quays.
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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Piers.
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
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JETTIES:
› Piled projections from shore to berth vessels.
› Used for loading and unloading of cargo
› Made usually from sh...
Jetties
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
Jetties:
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Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
› Depth of water is found insufficient for different ships.
› The size of harbour is found insufficient to
accommodate the...
› The depth of a harbour should be sufficient for
every type of visiting ships.
› The bottom of harbor should provide secu...
THANK YOU
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M
THANK YOU
73
Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
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harbour and dock engineering ppt 01 introduction

  1. 1. TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II MODULE 3 HARBOUR AND DOCK ENGINEERING Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II MODULE 3 HARBOUR AND DOCK ENGINEERING Chapter 1 1 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  2. 2.  Introduction  Water Transportation  Harbours  Classification of Harbours  Accessibility  Size of Harbours  Site Selection  Shape of Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M CONTENTS  Harbour Depth  Marine Surveys  Harbour Planning  Features of a Harbour  Defects in Harbours  Requirements of a Good Harbour 2 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Importance of waterways › Comparison with railways and roadways  Need for a place of approach Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M INTRODUCTION Importance of waterways Comparison with railways and roadways Need for a place of approach 3 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  4. 4. WATER TRANSPORTATION  Importance  Types › Inland water transportation  River or canal › Ocean water transportation  Adopted for trade and commerce  75 % of Indian trade  No limitations and high flexibility Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M WATER TRANSPORTATION Inland water transportation Ocean water transportation Adopted for trade and commerce No limitations and high flexibility 4 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  5. 5.  Advantages › Provides means of defence. › Cheapest mode › Leads to overall development and international trade. › High load carrying capacity. › Encourages consumption of foreign goods. › Requires cheap motive power › Brought countries separated by oceans very near. Water Transportation Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M defence. overall development of commerce, industry and international trade. capacity. Encourages consumption of foreign goods. cheap motive power for its working. Brought countries separated by oceans very near. Water Transportation contd… 5 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  6. 6.  Disadvantages › Slow in operation, consumes › Useful only when water is available transport › May lead to accident In case of frequent ocean storms › More chances of attack by other countries › The fluctuations in water level causes against the berths › Mountainous rivers, waterfalls transportation Water Transportation Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M in operation, consumes more time only when water is available as mode of In case of frequent ocean storms by other countries The fluctuations in water level causes rubbing of ships Mountainous rivers, waterfalls e.t.c. hinder water Water Transportation contd… 6 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  7. 7. › Sheltered area › For loading and unloading of cargo › Vessels are also built, repair, and launch “A harbour can be defined as a road-stead of navigable waters or artificially from action of wind and waves situated along sea-shore, river estuary, lake or canal connected to sea” Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M HARBOUR For loading and unloading of cargo Vessels are also built, repair, and launch can be defined as a basin or haven or of navigable waters well protected naturally or artificially from action of wind and waves , and is shore, river estuary, lake or canal 7 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  8. 8. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 8 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  9. 9.  Basin › water reservoir of required area › Navigable when depth of water in the basin is greater than draft required for largest ship likely to visit the harbour.  Draft › Vertical linear immersion water surface for the ship to float in a stable condition.  Min. vertical clearance Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M of required area when depth of water in the basin is greater than draft required for largest ship likely Vertical linear immersion of the ship below the water surface for the ship to float in a stable Min. vertical clearance for safe floating. Harbour contd... 9 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  10. 10. 1. Classification depending upon the protection needed 2. Classification depending upon the 3. Classification based upon the CLASSIFICATION OF Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Classification depending upon the protection needed. Classification depending upon the utility. Classification based upon the location. CLASSIFICATION OF HARBOURS 10 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  11. 11. 1. Classification depending upon the needed. a) Natural Harbour or Natural Roadsteads b) Semi Natural Harbour c) Artificial Harbour or Artificial Roadsteads Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Classification depending upon the protection or Natural Roadsteads Harbour or Artificial Roadsteads Harbours Contd.. 11 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  12. 12. NATURAL HARBOURS › Inlet protected from storms and waves by natural configuration of land. › Natural formations affording safe discharge facilities for ships on sea coast in form of creeks and basins. › E.g.: Bombay, Kandla Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Inlet protected from storms and waves by natural affording safe discharge facilities for ships on sea coast in form of creeks Harbours Contd.. 12 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  13. 13. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Natural harbour 13 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  14. 14. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Mumbai port 14 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  15. 15. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Kandla port 15 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  16. 16. NATURAL ROADSTEADS › A deep navigable channel bank or shoal to seaward natural roadstead. › Circumscribed natural roadstead Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M navigable channel with a protective natural bank or shoal to seaward is a good example of a Circumscribed natural roadstead. Harbours Contd.. 16 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  17. 17. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 17 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  18. 18. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Natural Roadstead 18 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  19. 19. Circumscribed natural roadstead Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Circumscribed natural roadstead 19 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  20. 20. SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR › Protected on sides by headlands and it requires man-made protection only at the entrance › Eg: Vishakhapatnam Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M SEMI NATURAL HARBOUR Protected on sides by headlands and it requires made protection only at the entrance. Harbours Contd.. 20 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  21. 21. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Semi Natural Harbour 21 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  22. 22. Vishakhapatnam Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 22 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  23. 23. ARTIFICIAL HARBOURS › Harbour having no natural protection arrangement are made to protect the harbour storm and wind. › Area protected from the effect of waves either by breakwaters or by dredging. ARTIFICIAL ROADSTEADS › created by constructing a breakwater or to the coast or curvilinear from the coast. Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M no natural protection but artificial arrangement are made to protect the harbour from from the effect of waves either by breakwaters or by dredging. created by constructing a breakwater or wall parallel or curvilinear from the coast. Harbours Contd.. 23 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  24. 24. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 24 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  25. 25. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,MArtificial Harbours 25 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  26. 26. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Artificial Harbours Palm island ,dubai 26 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  27. 27. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Artificial Harbours Palm island ,dubai 27 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  28. 28. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 28 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  29. 29. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 29 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  30. 30. 2) Classification based on a) Harbours of refuge b) Commercial harbours c) Fishery harbours d) Military harbours e) Marina harbours Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 2) Classification based on utility refuge harbours harbours harbours harbours Harbours Contd.. 30 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  31. 31. HARBOURS OF REFUGE › The harbor used for ships condition. › good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea. › e.g.: Dover in England Requirements i. Ready accessibility from the high seas ii.Safe and convenient anchorage iii.Facilities for obtaining supplies and Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M for ships in storms or emergency good anchorage and safe and easy access from the sea. from the high seas Safe and convenient anchorage against the sea. obtaining supplies and repairs. Harbours Contd.. 31 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  32. 32. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Harbours Of Refuge 32 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  33. 33. COMMERCIAL HARBOURS › may be a part of bigger complex harbor or Independent unit or single commodity harbor. › Terminal as oil terminal, coal port. Requirements i. Specious accommodations ii. Storage sheds for cargo. iii.Ample space for transportation, loading and unloading cargo. iv.Good and quick repair facilities v. More sheltered conditions. Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M COMMERCIAL HARBOURS of bigger complex harbor or or single commodity harbor. Terminal as oil terminal, coal port. Specious accommodations for mercantile marine. for cargo. for transportation, loading and repair facilities. conditions. Harbours Contd.. 33 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  34. 34. Commercial Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 34 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  35. 35. Commercial Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 35 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  36. 36. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Commercial Harbours 36 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  37. 37. FISHERY HARBOUR › Provided for fishing crafts and trawlers Requirements i. Constantly open for departure and arrival of fishing ships. ii. Loading and unloading facilities facilities for the perishable fish catch. iii.Refrigerated stores with ample preserving the catch. Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M for fishing crafts and trawlers. for departure and arrival of fishing Loading and unloading facilities & quick dispatch for the perishable fish catch. with ample storing space for Harbours Contd.. 37 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  38. 38. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Fishery Harbour 38 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  39. 39. MILLITARY HARBOR: › This harbor is meant for crafts and serves as a supply deport. › The layout of this type of harbor is greatly influenced by its location. Requirements i. Should accommodate the navel vessels. ii. They serve as supply depots also. Bombay and Cochin harbours Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M This harbor is meant for accommodating naval and serves as a supply deport. The layout of this type of harbor is greatly influenced by its location. the navel vessels. They serve as supply depots also. harbours have navel bases. Harbours Contd.. 39 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  40. 40. Millitary Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 40 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  41. 41. Millitary Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 41 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  42. 42. MARINA HARBOURS Definition Marina is a harbour providing facilities showers, telephones etc. for small boat owners temporary or permanent berths Classification (a) Large marinas -have 200 or more berths. (b) Small marinas -have less than 100 berths. Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M providing facilities of fuel, food, . for small boat owners having temporary or permanent berths. have 200 or more berths. have less than 100 berths. Harbours Contd.. 42 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  43. 43. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 43 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  44. 44. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Marina Harbours 44 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  45. 45. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Marina Harbours 45 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  46. 46. 3.Classification based on the a) Canal harbour - harbour navigations. b) Lake Harbour - harbour lake. c) River Harbour or Estuary constructed along the banks of river. d) Sea or Ocean Harbour of sea or an ocean. Classification of Harbours Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 3.Classification based on the location harbour located along canals for sea harbour constructed along the shore of or Estuary Harbour - harbour constructed along the banks of river. Harbour - harbour located on the coast Harbours Contd.. 46 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  47. 47. ACCESSIBILITY  Depends on location of harbours  The harbour entrance should be located for quick and easy navigation  The harbour entrance should be to expose the harbour to the effect of stormy sea .  Maximum dimension up to Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M ACCESSIBILITY of harbours should be designed and quick and easy navigation by ships should be narrow enough not to expose the harbour to the effect of stormy sea . dimension up to 180m 47 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  48. 48. SIZE OF A HARBOUR Size depends upon  No. and size of ships likely to use the harbour at one time. length: 275m to 300m, width: 30m  There should be sufficient without collision Size determined by  Accommodation required  Convenience for maneuvering and navigation  Adaptability to natural featuresAsnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M SIZE OF A HARBOUR likely to use the harbour at one time. length: 275m to 300m, There should be sufficient area for maneuvering them for maneuvering and navigation to natural features 48 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  49. 49. SITE SELECTION Following factors play a great role in the choice of site of a  Availability of cheap land &  Natural protection from waves & winds  Transport & communication  Industrial development of the locality  Sea-bed, subsoil and foundation conditions  Traffic potentiality of harbour  Availability of electrical energy & freshwater  Favourable marine conditions.  Defence and strategic aspects. Etc Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M SITE SELECTION play a great role in the choice of site of a harbour. cheap land & contruction material. from waves & winds Transport & communication facilities of the locality subsoil and foundation conditions harbour. Availability of electrical energy & freshwater. conditions. and strategic aspects. Etc 49 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  50. 50. SHAPE OF HARBOUR Principles  Pierheads – one should project other - to protect from sea waves  Pier heads - width should  General approach - series of straight length reentrant angles are allowed Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M SHAPE OF HARBOUR one should project a little beyond the to protect from sea waves width should widen very rapidly series of straight length - no reentrant angles are allowed 50 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  51. 51. HARBOUR DEPTH  Determined by D = D1 + H/3 + D2 Where,D1 = draft for largest ship to be D2 = allowance for squat of moving ship H = height of storm waves  Harbour and approach channel should have depth to allow navigation even at low water when ships are fully loaded.  No obstructions  Max. harbour depth = loaded draft + 1.2mwhen bottom is soft Max harbour depth = loaded draft + 1.8mwhen bottom is rock Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M HARBOUR DEPTH D = D1 + H/3 + D2 = draft for largest ship to be accomodated = allowance for squat of moving ship H = height of storm waves and approach channel should have sufficient to allow navigation even at low water when ships depth = loaded draft + 1.2mwhen bottom is soft depth = loaded draft + 1.8mwhen bottom is rock 51 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  52. 52. MARINE SURVEYS  Collect sufficient information about the area before finalising the layout of the harbour and design of its various components Two surveys  Hydrographic survey  Topographic survey Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M MARINE SURVEYS Collect sufficient information about the area before finalising the layout of the harbour and design of its 52 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  53. 53. HARBOUR PLANNING It should be carried out after collecting necessary information of the existing features at the proposed site. Following important facts  A thorough survey of the neighborhood including the foreshore & depths of water is necessary  Nature of a harbour weather sheltered or not, should be studied Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M HARBOUR PLANNING It should be carried out after collecting necessary information of the existing features at the proposed important facts should be studied. of the neighborhood including the foreshore & depths of water is necessary weather sheltered or not, 53 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  54. 54.  The existence of sea insects & various animals residing at site should be noted.  Borings and soundings should be carried out.  Problem of silting or erosion carefully studied.  Natural phenomena’s concerning planning of a harbour like Storms,Rainfall,Range of tides,Maximum & minimum temperatures,Direction & intensity of wind etc. should be studied. Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M sea insects & various animals residing at site should be noted. should be carried out. silting or erosion of coastline should be concerning planning of a harbour like Storms,Rainfall,Range of tides,Maximum & minimum temperatures,Direction & intensity of wind etc. should be studied. Harbour Planning contd… 54 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  55. 55. FEATURES OF A HARBOR  Entrance Channels  Berthing & Turning Basin  Break Water  Pier Head  Quays & Wharves Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M FEATURES OF A HARBOR  Jetties& piers  Docks  Slipways  Other go downs, shed, buoys, lights, fire protection towers… 55 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  56. 56. ENTRANCE CHANNEL › When sea around the harbour required for the largest ship visiting the separate approach demarcated and dredged for required depth is necessary. › Entrance:- path through which ship can enter the harbour safely. › Depth and width are kept more at entrance. › Width depends upon density of traffic and no: of entrances. Features of a Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M harbour has depth less than draft required for the largest ship visiting the harbour a separate approach demarcated and dredged for required depth is necessary. path through which ship can enter the are kept more at entrance. Width depends upon density of traffic and no: of Harbour Contd… 56 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  57. 57. Entrance & Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Entrance & Entrance Channel 57 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  58. 58. Entrance & Entrance Channel Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Entrance Channel 58 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  59. 59. BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS: › Berthing basins are used for the parking of ships. › While turning for the turning of ships. Features of a Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M BERTHING AND TURNING BASINS: Berthing basins are used for the parking of While turning for the turning of ships. Harbour Contd… 59 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  60. 60. Berthing and Turning Basins: Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 60 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  61. 61. BREAK WATER: It is the protective barrier constructed to enclose harbours and to keep the undisturbed by the effect of heavy and strong seas. ›The structure constructed to protect storm waves ›They are generally stone masonry Features of a Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M It is the protective barrier constructed to and to keep the harbour waters undisturbed by the effect of heavy and strong seas. The structure constructed to protect harbour from They are generally stone masonry Harbour Contd… 61 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  62. 62. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Break Water: 62 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  63. 63. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Break Water: 63 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  64. 64. PIER HEAD: › The structure provided at the tip of break water › Serves the purpose of entrance mark. › Such as light house Features of a Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M The structure provided at the tip of break water Serves the purpose of entrance mark. Harbour Contd… 64 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  65. 65. PierHead Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 65 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  66. 66. WHARVES › Platforms or loading places come close enough to the shore they are called wharves. › wharves constructed parallel to the shore or break water are called quays. › wharves those project into the ships fair way or basin at right angles or oblique from shore are called › Function is to permit berthing of vessel along side for cargo working Features of a Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Platforms or loading places necessary for ships to come close enough to the shore they are called wharves constructed parallel to the shore or break wharves those project into the ships fair way or basin at right angles or oblique from shore are called piers. Function is to permit berthing of vessel along side for Harbour Contd… 66 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  67. 67. Quays. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 67 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  68. 68. Piers. Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M 68 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  69. 69. JETTIES: › Piled projections from shore to berth vessels. › Used for loading and unloading of cargo › Made usually from shore towards sea water to prevent silting and dredging to allow free flow of tidal currents. › divert the current away from the river bank › scouring action is prevented Features of a Harbour Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Piled projections from shore to berth vessels. Used for loading and unloading of cargo Made usually from shore towards sea water to prevent silting and dredging to allow free flow of divert the current away from the river bank scouring action is prevented Harbour Contd… 69 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  70. 70. Jetties Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M Jetties: 70 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  71. 71. › Depth of water is found insufficient for different ships. › The size of harbour is found insufficient to accommodate the increased traffic. › The quay and landing area narrow and there is no enough room for the cargo to be stored. › Obstruction These defects can easily be avoided at the time of planning and designing. DEFECTS IN HARBOUR Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M is found insufficient for different ships. is found insufficient to accommodate the increased traffic. quay and landing area between the berths is very narrow and there is no enough room for the cargo to These defects can easily be avoided at the time of DEFECTS IN HARBOUR 71 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  72. 72. › The depth of a harbour should be sufficient for every type of visiting ships. › The bottom of harbor should provide secured anchorage to hold the ships against high winds. › To prevent destructive wave action provided. › The entrance of a harbor should be provide the easy passage of ships. REQUIREMENTS HARBOUR: Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M should be sufficient for every type of visiting ships. The bottom of harbor should provide secured to hold the ships against high winds. To prevent destructive wave action break water are of a harbor should be wide enough to provide the easy passage of ships. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD HARBOUR: 72 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit
  73. 73. THANK YOU Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M THANK YOU 73 Asnidha.V ,Asst. Prof. , CE Dept,M-Dit

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