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Notes: Life:Birth: 170 A.D. ; Death: 228 A.D.Nationality: Roman JuristComplete Name: GnaeusDomitiusAnniusUlpianus, anglicized as Ulpian Biography:His date of birth and death are not confirmed.Period of Literary works: Between 211 A.D. 222 A.D.He became a member of the Council of Septimius Severus.Elagabalus banished him But when Alexander succeeded to the thrown (222 A.D.) he was reinstated in his postSubsequently he became the Chief Advisor of the EmperorHe curtailed the privileges granted to Praetorian Guard, which provoked them against him and they became his enemiesHe was murdered in the palace during a riot between the soldiers and mob.Works:Ad Sabinum: A commentary on Jus Civile (in over 50 books)Ad Edictum: A commentary on Edict (Statute, act etc) (in 83 books)Opinions, responses and other issuesHis Quotes: Princepslegibussolutusest: "The sovereing is not bound by the laws.“Quod principiplacuitlegishabetvigorem: "What pleases the prince has the force of law.“Iustitiaestconstans et perpetuavoluntasiussuumcuiquetribuendi:"Justice is the constant and perpetual will to render to every man his due."Honestevivere, alterum non laedere, suumcuiquetribuere: "To live honorably, to harm no one, to give to each his own.""The strong will resist and the weak will say anything to end the pain." [In reference to torture]
Notes:John Austin:Birth: 3 March 1790; Death: 1 December, 1859British JuristInfluenced by Jeremy Bentham; Influenced: Joseph Raz, H.L.A. HartMarried Sara Taylor – who became an authorBrief Biography: Served the British Army in Sicily and Malta but left the army and start studying law. He joined Bar in 1818 but soon after became professor in jurisprudence (1826-1832) in University of London (now University College of London). Then he served on several Royal Commissions. 6. Important Works:“Province of Jurisprudence Determined”“Lectures on Jurisprudence”Analysis:Influenced by Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian Theory and Positivist Theory.Hence was naturally a positivistHe practically witnessed the harmful effects of WarAs he was an armed commissioned officer, hence his theory of Command. According to him “law is the command of uncommanded commander – the sovereign – backed by a threat – the sanction.”
Notes: Life: Birth: July 17, 1835 (Brighton); Death: May 24, 1926 (Oxford)Nationality: British JuristBiography: Schooling: Brighton CollegeHigher Studies in Law: OxfordJoined Bar in 18631874 – succeeded William Blackstone as Vinerian ReaderHe also became fellow of the British AcademyWorks:Elements of Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence ch.01 introduction
Prudentia1 - 3Literal Meaning:JurisJurisprudenceDerived fromTwo Latin Words• Law• Wisdom,• Knowledge• Philosophy, OR• ScienceWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
Jurisprudence1 - 4Literal Meaning:meansWhat is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionHenceWisdom ofLawKnowledgeof LawPhilosophyof LawO RO RO RScience of Law
5What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionKey Terms in Understanding Definition ofJurisprudence:
1 - 6Science Knowledge gained through asystematic study, is called scienceSystematic Study means, a Studyconsisted of;DeductionExperimentHypothesisObservationWhat is JurisprudenceAn Introduction
1 - 7Philosophy Derived from two Latin wordsPHILOSOPHYPhiloMeans „love‟SophyMeansWisdom orknowledgeKnowledgegained throughthe application ofmindExamining thebasic conceptssuch as „truth‟,„existence‟ „soul‟,„hereinafter life‟etc.What is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
1 - 8Law A set of rules and regulations thatregulates human behaviour in societies It determines human conduct andregulates it. The subject-matter of Jurisprudence isLaw There are different types of Law andthe jurists are debating as to whichtype is the true subject-matter ofJurisprudenceWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
1 - 9What is Jurisprudence?An Introduction This Typology of Law isbased on the fact thatfrom where Law comesor what is the ultimatesource of its recognition(nature). Hence, it is a broadtypology of lawTYPOLOGY OFLAW
1 - 10Natural Law. Norms. Reason basedGod-made LawTypes ofLawMan-made LawPhysical Law. Chemistry. Physics etcDivine Law. Religious Law. ScripturesPositive LawMoral/Ethical LawAbstract Law. Fundamental Principles. General NotionsLaw as itOUGHT to bePhilosophicalLawLaw as it isAnalytical LawLaw of NatureConcrete Law. Real Law/ Applicable Law. Statutes, Acts, DecisionsWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
11Definition of Jurisprudence There is no uniform definition of JurisprudenceReason:The subject-matter of Jurisprudenceis LawBut there is no uniform definition oflaw.What is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
1 - 12Definition By Eminent Jurists:Ulpian:Classical Concept“The observation of things human and divine, theknowledge of just and unjust.”A celebrated Roman JuristCriticism: Being meta-physical in nature its value cannot beevaluated.The first formal definition of jurisprudence.In the contemporaneous socio-political setups he had giventhe best definition.What is Jurisprudence?An Introduction(170 AD - 228 AD)
1 - 13John Austin:“Jurisprudence is the Philosophy ofPositive Law.”Criticism: The terms „Philosophy‟ and „Positive Law‟ aremisleadingHe lived in circumstances when Europe was witnessingchanges especially in Politics.He separated the meta-physical controversy from legalenterpriseDefinition By Eminent Jurists:Classical ConceptWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction(1790 AD - 1859 AD)
1 - 14Thomas Erskine Holland:“Jurisprudence is the formal science ofPositive Law.”The criticism on the term „Philosophy‟ of Austin definition ledHolland to present this definitionIt substituted „Philosophy‟ in Austin definition by „FormalScience‟.Definition By Eminent Jurists:Classical ConceptWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction„Formal‟ means fundamental legal principles(1835 AD - 1926 AD)
1 - 15Salmond:“The science of the first principlesof civil law.”Science: A systematic intellectual inquiryCivil law: The whole corpus of law applicable in a StateBy term „Law‟ Salmond means „Positive Law‟„First Principles‟: Fundamental principlesDefinition By Eminent Jurists:Classical ConceptWhat is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionLaw: As Administered by Courts(1862 AD - 1924 AD)
1 - 16Keeton:“Jurisprudence is the study of the systematicarrangement of the general principles of law.”Definition By Eminent Jurists:Classical ConceptWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
1 - 17Gray:“The science of law, the statement and systematicarrangement of the rules followed by the Courts and theprinciples involved in those rules.”Definition By Eminent Jurists:Classical ConceptWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction
1 - 18Dean Roscoe pound“The science of social engineering”Definition By Eminent Jurists:Modern ConceptionWhat is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionAn idea of giving the most complete security and effect to thewhole scheme of human demands and desire which arepressing for recognition, with the least sacrifice, least frictionand least waste.
1 - 19Classification of JurisprudenceWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction Jurisprudence was classified by:JeremyBenthamJohnAustinSalmond
1 - 20What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionClassification of JurisprudenceBenthamCensorialJurisprudenceExpositorialJurisprudenceAustinGeneralJurisprudenceParticularJurisprudenceSalmondAnalyticalJurisprudenceHistoricalJurisprudenceEthicalJurisprudencePhilosophical
1 - 21What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionClassification of JurisprudenceCensorialJurisprudenceExpositorialJurisprudenceStudy of Law „asit ought to be‟Study of Law „asit is‟Bentham’sClassification
1 - 22What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionClassification of JurisprudenceGeneralJurisprudenceParticularJurisprudenceStudy of EthicalLaw(Law „as it ought to be)The study ofPositive Law(Law „as it is)Austin’sClassification
1 - 23What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionClassification of JurisprudenceAnalyticalJurisprudenceStudy ofPositive Law(Law „as it is)The study ofEthical Law(Law „as it ought to be)SalmondClassificationHistoricalJurisprudencePhilosophicalJurisprudenceThe study ofHistoricalDevelopment of Law
1 - 24Scope of Jurisprudence According to the most celebratedview:What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionJurisprudence studies LawStudy is analytical/scientificLaw is man-made/positiveIt is not discussing the content butthe essence of lawBut recently again the jurists like Roscoe Pound and JuliusStone seem to enhance the scope of Jurisprudence
1 - 25Significance or Utility of JurisprudenceWhat is Jurisprudence?An Introduction Being an abstract and theoreticalscience, jurisprudence has a little practical valuePractical value: Master of a Legal SystemThe eye of LawThe key to legal understandingSharpens argumentative capacityEducational value
1 - 26What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionPsychologyEconomicsPoliticsSocialScienceHistoryEthicsSociologyJurisprudenceRelation of Jurisprudence with otherSocial Science
1 - 27What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Studies Law– Law is the set ofrules regulatingthe conduct ofhuman beingsliving in a societyPolitics– Study of theGovernment– Government meansthe institution toadminister theaffairs of the societyBoth arecontemplatingon the societyRelation
1 - 28What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Law is regulatingthe externalconduct of humanbeingsPsychology– Study of internalconduct of humanbeings– In other words itanalyses the mentalstate of a person ata given movementRelationBoth arecontemplatingthe mentalstate of humanbeings– But external conductis depending oninternal conduct (e.g.intention, malice etc.)
1 - 29What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Studies Law– Deals with framedrulesEconomics– Study of wealth– Concentration ofwealth in a societybrings prosperity forits membersRelationBoth arecontemplatingon the socialand economicwell-being ofpeople– All legal conceptsare social oriented– Not possiblewithout havingsound legal system
1 - 30What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Studies Law– Legal Conceptshas arisen in aparticular periodand thendeveloped throughagesHistory– Study of the pastevents– Provides historicalbackground behindlegal conceptsRelationBothcontemplateshistory fromdifferentperspectivesHistoricalJurisprudence
1 - 31What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Studies Law– All legal conceptsare social orientedSociology– Study of society– Looks into thesocial significanceof law in societyRelationBothcontemplateson socialstructure fromdifferent anglesSociologicalJurisprudence
1 - 32What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Studies Law– Law aims atupgrading thesocial conditionsSocial Work– The study as towelfare of thesociety– Through counselingservices, healthclinics, recreationhalls etc.RelationBothcontemplateson up gradationof socialconditions ofthe community
1 - 33What is Jurisprudence?An IntroductionRelation of Jurisprudencewith other Social ScienceJurisprudence– Studies Law– Law aims at thepositive behaviourof human beingsEthics– Science of humanconduct– What should behuman behaviourand an ideal humanbehaviourRelationBothcontemplateson humanconduct fromdifferent anglesEthicalJurisprudence– „Is‟ conduct– „Ought‟ conduct