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Instruments in
Operative Dentistry
Dr. Ashok Ayer
Assistant Professor
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics...
Outline:
 Hand Instruments
 Introduction
 Classification
 Materials
 Application
 Techniques
 Sharpening
 Powered ...
Introduction:
 G.V. Black
 Nomenclature & numbering of hand instruments
1. Cutting instruments/ excavators
2. Noncutting...
MATERIALS
 CARBON STEEL:
 HARDER THAN STAINLESS STEEL
 MAINTAINED BETTER SHARPNESS
 CORRODE IN MOIST CONDITIONS
Carbon...
 Stainless Steel
 Preferred materials
 Remains bright under most conditions
 Loses keen edge during use much more
quic...
 TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
 INSERTS OR BLADES TO PROVIDE MORE
DURABLE CUTTING EDGES (BRITTLE).
 THEY MAY BE SOLDERED TO STEEL
HA...
 OTHER ALLOYS OF NICKEL, COBALT, OR
CHROMIUM ARE USED IN THE
MANUFACTURE OF HAND INSTRUMENTS.
 THEY ARE RESTRICTED TO IN...
Hardening and Tempering Heat
Treatments
Heat treatment Furnace
The hardening heat treatment hardens the
alloy, but it also...
Classification of Instruments:- by
Sturdevant HAND
INSTRUMENT
cutting
excavators
ordinary
hatchets
hoes
Angle
formers
spoo...
 ORDER
 PURPOSE OF THE INSTRUMENT
 E.G. EXCAVATOR, SCALER
 SUB-ORDER
 MANNER OF USE
 E.G. PUSH, PULL
 CLASS
 FORM ...
Classification of Instruments:- by Charbeneau
 Cutting instruments
Hand- hoes, chiesel etc
Rotary- burs, discs etc
 Cond...
CLASSIFICATION BY MARZOUK
EXPLORING
INSTRUMENTS
REMOVAL OF
TOOTH STRUCTURE
RESTORATION
OF TEETH
To dry
To illuminate
Retra...
Design
Blade
 Working part of the instrument
 Usually in the form of a bevel (acute angle) that
cuts into the tooth structure.
...
Shank
 Connect the handle to the working end of the instrument.
 Normally smooth, round and tapered.
 Mon-angle, bin-an...
 Balance allows for the concentration of force onto
the blade without causing rotation of the
instrument.
 Instruments w...
Handle/ Shaft
 Serrated for better gripping and control of the
instrument.
a. Standard Stainless steel handle: Diameter 6...
 Handles are in conjunction with the shank
or it may be separable.
 Separate type is known as cone-socket
handle and all...
cone-socket handle (mirror)
mirror
Numeric formulas
 Describing the dimensions and angle of the working end.
 Three number formula
 Four number formula:
...
Instrument shank and
blade design
85
Bevels
 Most hand cutting instruments have on the end of the
blade a single bevel that forms the primary cutting edge.
 ...
 Bibeveled instrument have two bevels that form
the cutting edge;
 e.g. hatched excavator
 Single beveled instrument such as spoon
excavator and gingival margin trimmer are
used with lateral cutting movement.
 Enamel hatchet also as a single beveled instrument
used with direct cutting motion, a planning or
lateral cutting design...
The cutting edge is perpendicular to
the axis of the handle
e.g. binangle chisel.
Instrument with slight blade curvature
e...
Hand cutting
instrument
Excavators Chisels
Removal of caries and
refinement of the
internal parts of the
preparation.
Used...
Excavators
1. Ordinary Hatchets
2. Hoes
3. Angle formers
4. Spoons
Ordinary Hatchets
 It has the cutting edge of the blade directed
 In the same plane as that of the long axis of the hand...
 Used primarily on anterior teeth for
 Preparing retentive areas and
 Sharpening internal line angles, particularly in
...
Hoe excavators
 Primary cutting edge of the blade perpendicular
to the axis of the handle
 Planing tooth preparation wal...
 Hoes with longer and heavier blades, with the
shanks contra-angled.
 For use on enamel or posterior teeth.
 The blade angle of the hoe: > 12.5 centigrades
 The blade angle of chisel: ≤ 12.5 centigrades
Angle former
 It is mon-angled and has the primary cutting edge
at an angle (other than 90 degrees) to the blade.
 It is...
 Used primarily for sharpening line and point angles
and creating retentive features in dentin in
preparation for gold re...
Spoon excavators
 Its blades are slightly curved, the shanks may be bin-angled
or triple-angled to facilitate accessibili...
Left cutting and right cutting
Used mainly for removal of caries and refinement of
internal opening in a cavity preparation
bin-
angled
spoon
triple-
angled
spoon
Cleoid spoon
Discoid spoon
Discoid is disc shaped, with cutting edge around the blade
Chisels:
 Straight, Monoangle, Biangle, Wedelstaedt chisels
 Enamel Hatchets
 Gingival Marginal Trimmers
Straight Chisel
 The straight chisel has a straight shank and blade,
with the bevel on only one side.
 Its primary edge ...
 The shank and blade of the chisel also may be
slightly curved (Wedelstaedt design)
11½-15-3
Biangled chisel
 Force used with chisels : straight thrust
 The bin-angle and Wedelstaedt chisels:
 Primary cutting edges in a plane pe...
 The blade with a distal bevel is designed to plane a
wall that faces the blade's inside surface
 The blade with a mesia...
Enamel Hatchet
 It is a chisel similar in design to the ordinary hatchet
excavator except that the blade is larger, heavi...
Gingival margin trimmer
 Blade is curved
 Bevel for cutting edge: outside of the curve
 Face of instrument: inside of t...
12½-100-7-1412½-75-7-14
Mesial Distal
 Cutting edge angle: 100 and 75 :
Inlay & Onlay preparations.
 Cutting edge angle: 90 and 85 :
Amalgam preparations.
Uses:
 Beveling of the gingival margins of proximo-
occlusal preparations.
 Beveling of the axio-pulpal line angle
 Per...
Usage of hand cutting instruments
 Horizontal strokes:
 Long axis of blade directed between 45 & 90
degree to the surfac...
 The cutting edge of the hand instrument should
always be kept sharp as
 Dull instruments may cause:
1. Loss of control....
 Stationary sharpening stone e.g. Arkansas
stone, silicon carbide.
Mechanical sharpener; moves at low speed while
the instrument is held at the opposite angle and
supported by a rest i.e. e...
Principles of Sharpening
 Sharpen instruments only after they have been cleaned
& sterilized
 Establish the proper bevel...
Non cutting Instruments
 Diagnostic instruments
 Mirror
 Probe or explorer
 Twizzer
 Plastic instruments
 Amalgam in...
MOUTH MIRROR
Most common sizes used are the No. 4 (⅞ inch diameter)
and No. 5. (15/16 inch diameter)
No. 2 (5/8 inch dia...
Uses for the mouth mirror. A, Indirect vision. B, Light reflection.
C, Retraction. D, Tissue protection.
A
D
C
B
Explorers
 To feel tooth surface for irregularities
 To determine the hardness of exposed dentin
1. Shepherd’s hook: No....
Tweezer/ cotton forceps:
 Cotton forceps are used for picking up small items,
cotton pellets
Plastic filling Instruments
 To carry and shape tooth colored restorative material:
Composite resin and glass ionomer
 F...
A: ash49 B:ash6 C:dycal applicator D:cement spatula.
Amalgam Carriers
 An instrument with a hollow cylinder that is filled
with amalgam.
 Sizes:
 Mini: 1.5 mm diameter
 Re...
Amalgam Condensers
Various Amalgam condensers
Carvers
 Hand instruments with a blade or nib used to contour the
surface of filling material in their plastic state, wax...
Burnishers
 Burnishing of the amalgam on the margins of the cavity,
 Shaping metal matrix band to have more desirable co...
Burnishers
Disposable brush
 Used with etching and bonding procedures associated
with composite resins.
Accessory Instruments
 Scissors
 Used for cutting dental dam material, retraction cord,
and stainless steel crowns.
 Cr...
 Howe Pliers
 Also referred to as 110 pliers. Useful for holding items, for
carrying cotton products to and from the ora...
Preset restorative tray
There are four grasps used with the hand
instruments:
Modified pen.
Inverted pen.
Palm and thumb.
Modified palm and thumb.
M o d i f i e d p e n g r a s p
pen grasp Modified pen grasp
Inverted pen grasp
 If the hand is rotated so that the palm faces more toward
the operator.
 Used in the lingual and lab...
Palm and thumb grasp
 The handle of the instrument is placed on the palm of the
hand and grasped by all the fingers while...
Palm and thumb grasp
 The same as in palm and thumb grasp but the
thumb is rested on the tooth being prepared.
 Used in ...
Powered cutting equipments
CHARACTERISTICS:
SPEED
 SURFACE FEET PER UNIT TIME OF CONTACT THAT THE TOOL
HAS WITH THE WORK TO BE CUT OR REVOLUTIONS PE...
 According to Charbenau:
1. Conventional or low speed: below 10,000 RPM
2. Increased or high speed: 10,000-1,50,000 RPM
3...
Pressure:
 P=F/A
 Low speed: 2-5 pounds of force
 High speed: 1 pound of force
 Ultra high speed: 1-4 ounces of force
...
 Brown et al: Temperature of dentin at a distance of
0.5 mm from a high speed bur cutting dry to be
245˚F (118˚C).
 Even...
Greater flow of water coolant is required to prevent
clogging when diamonds are used under increased
pressure.
42 psi is...
VIBRATION:
 EQUIPMENT USED & THE SPEED OF ROTATION
 EXCESSIVE VIBRATION: ANNOYANCE TO THE PATIENT,
OPERATOR FATIGUE AND ...
Friction:
 Occurs in the moving parts of the hand piece especially the
turbine.
 Friction is reduced by equipping the ha...
Handpieces:
Two basic types of handpieces, the straight handpiece
and contra angle handpiece.
The straight is used more ...
Penetration through enamel and extension of the
cavities outline are more efficient at high speed.
Small diameter burs s...
Design:
This model is the choice for limited access or
when treating children.
Rear-facing exhaust vents direct air flow a...
Commonly used couplings
Zero Suck Back Technology
Prevents the intake of aerosol and other
particles when it is stopped.
Drive air flows into an A...
Low-Speed Handpiece
 Design
Straight in appearance.
Standard length and “short.”
Speed ranges from 10,000 to 30,000 ro...
 Uses of the low-speed handpiece
 Intraoral
 Removal of soft decay and fine finishing of a
cavity preparation.
 Finish...
Low-Speed Attachments
Straight attachment receives a long-shank laboratory
bur, the contra-angle attachment, and the prop...
 Prophylaxis Angle
Used during polishing procedures to hold the
prophy cup and bristle brush.
Two types
 Plastic dispo...
High-Speed Handpiece
Cellular Glass Optics
 Uses of the high-speed handpiece
Removes decay.
Removes an old or faulty restoration.
Reduces the crown portion of th...
Ultrasonic Handpiece
 Design
Attached to the dental unit.
Powered by electricity.
Attachments are similar in appearanc...
 Uses of the ultrasonic handpiece
Removes calculus.
Removes stain.
Removes bonding materials from a tooth surface
afte...
Laser Handpiece
 Design
Uses a laser light beam instead of rotary
instruments.
The laser is conducted through a fiber-o...
 Uses:
 Cauterizes soft tissue.
 Vaporizes decayed tooth structure.
 Advantages:
 Usually painless.
 Patient usually...
AIR-ABRASION HANDPIECE
 Design
 Small version of a sandblaster.
 Compressed air at pressure of 7 to 11 atm (40
to 140 p...
Uses:
 Prepares teeth for sealants.
 Removes external stains.
 Class I through class VI preparations.
 Endodontic acce...
Disadvantages:
More effective on hard normal dentine than soft
dentine affected dentine
When using composite, the air ab...
Possible iatrogenic damage especially on the
cementum and root dentine.
Can induce asthma –> thus needs high volume suct...
Laboratory Handpiece
 Design
 Operates at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.
 Uses laboratory burs.
 Provides greater torque tha...
Rotary instruments
Cutting Abrasive
Carbide burs
Made from
1- tungsten carbide
2- steel carbide
1- Diamond burs
2- Discs
3...
 According to composition:
1. Steel burs
2. Tungsten Carbide burs
 According to mode of attachment to handpiece
1. Latch...
Rotary instruments consist of three parts :
1- shank
2- neck (shaft)
3- head
head shaft Shank
Shank design
Long shank – used for straight
hand piece (low speed)
Short latch shank – used for contra-angle (low speed)
F...
Dental Burs
A group of instruments that can turn on an axis with different
speed of rotation to perform different types o...
Carbide burs
 Burs possess blades that shear (cut) tooth
structure.
 They are used for making precise
intracoronal prepa...
Shapes:
 Round Bur:
 Initial entry into the tooth
 Extension of the preparation
 Retentive features and caries removal...
Basic bur head shapes
Regular –cut
Fine Cut
Coarse-cut
 Its used for highly smoothing of prepared surfaces of tooth
 Because of its blades in a diagonal to the instrument shaf...
Plain fissure bur
Its tapered and cylinder shape its used for placing
groove and boxes and they also used for finishing o...
Bur numbering systems
 In the united states the burs have been traditionally
described in term of arbitrary i.e. numerica...
Iso system(international standard organization)
FDI (Federation dentaire internationale)
 Usually tend to use head shape ...
Shapes & diameters of regular carbide burs used for tooth preparation
 Round
Bur size: 1/16 1/8 ¼ ½ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11
...
 Tapered fissure, rounded end
Bur size: 1169 1170 1171
Diameter (mm): .90 1.0 1.2
 Pear:
Bur size: 329 330 331 332
Diame...
 Bur head design:
 The number of blades on a bur is always even
 Number of blades on an excavating bur may vary from 6 ...
Concentricity:
 Measurement of the symmetry of the bur head.
 Runout:
 Test measuring the accuracy with which all blad...
Bur blade design
 Rake angle:
 Angle that the face of the bur tooth makes with the
radial line.
 Radial rake angle: radial line & the to...
 Edge angle:
 In the range of 90˚ to provide strength to the blade &
longevity of cutting efficiency of the bur.
 Land:...
 Clearance angle:
 Angle between the back of the blade and the tooth surface.
 If a land is present on the bur:
1. Prim...
Abrasive instruments
Head consists of small angular particles of hard substance
embedded in a soft binder (ceramic, metal...
These are made from diamond chips bonded to blanks
(heads). Diamonds used for grinding enamel and
dentin surfaces
Diamond...
Diamond particle size:
1) Coarse: 125~150 um
2) Medium: 88~125 um
3) Fine: 60~74 um
4) Very fine:38~44 um
Diamond instrume...
 Color coding:
Coarse: 120-150µ
Standard: 106-125µ
Fine: 53-63µ
Extra- fine: 20-30µ
TF: Taper flat end; TR: Taper round e...
Discs, Mandrel, Stones, and Wheels
Moulded abrasive instrument –
 Manufactured by pressing a uniform mixture of abrasive
and matrix around roughened end of...
SmartPrep Instruments
SmartPrep Instruments (Smart Bur, Polymer Bur)
 Medical polymer that has the ability to remove deca...
Advantages:
 Conservative
 Minimal to none disease transfer (because its single
use only).
 No need for Local Anesthesi...
Disadvantages:
Single-patient-use = Expensive.
Technique sensitive ( too much pressure and you will cut
the healthy dent...
Cutting Mechanisms
 Bladed Cutting:
 Brittle fracture: crack production, by tensile loading.
 High speed cutting, espec...
CUTTING RECOMMENDATIONS
 Use of contra-angled handpiece, air-water spray
for cooling, high operating speed (above 200,000...
CHEMO-MECHANICAL CARIES REMOVAL
Carisolv (Chemo‐mechanical caries removal )
Composition:
 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0....
Advantages:
 Less anesthesia is used
 Useful for children, dental‐phobic patients.
 Useful for removing root or coronal...
Ozone treatment
 Ozone gas has a high oxidation potential and is
effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa...
 Disruption of the protected ecological niche of the micro-
flora allows remineralisation from the saliva.
 Intracanal i...
O3 delivered from the HealOzone unit:
(2100 ppm O3, 615 ml/min) through a hand
piece with a silicone cup that sealed the
t...
HAZARDS WITH CUTTING
INSTRUMENTS
PULPAL PRECAUTIONS:
 MECHANICAL VIBRATION, HEAT, DESICCATION, LOSS OF
DENTINAL TUBULE FL...
The remaining tissue is effective in protecting the pulp
in proportion to the square of its thickness.
 Steel burs produ...
When used without coolants, diamond instruments
generate more damaging heat than carbide burs.
Air alone as coolant: muc...
Soft tissue precautions:
 Lips, tongue and cheeks of the patient.
 Good access and visibility.
 Isolation of the operat...
Eye Precautions
 Airborne particles, old restorations, tooth structure,
bacteria, debris.
 Strong high volume evacuation...
Inhalation Precautions
 Amalgams or composites produce submicron particles and
vapor.
 Alveolar irritation and tissue re...
Conclusion:
The removal and shaping of the tooth structure are
essential aspects of restorative dentistry. Modern high
spe...
References:
1. Sturdevant’s Art & Science of Operative Dentistry :4th edition
2. Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry; Jame...
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics
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Operative Instruments in Endodontics including hand and power driven instruments. Recent advances in instruments in conservative dentistry and endodontics.

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Operative instruments in Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics

  1. 1. Instruments in Operative Dentistry Dr. Ashok Ayer Assistant Professor Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics College of Dental Surgery B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
  2. 2. Outline:  Hand Instruments  Introduction  Classification  Materials  Application  Techniques  Sharpening  Powered cutting equipments  Rotary cutting instruments  Cutting Mechanism  Hazards
  3. 3. Introduction:  G.V. Black  Nomenclature & numbering of hand instruments 1. Cutting instruments/ excavators 2. Noncutting Designs of some early hand instruments  1728 – Pierre Fauchard invented the bow drill  1891 – Edward C Acheson –produced carborundum tools  1935 – W H Drendes - Diamond cutting instruments
  4. 4. MATERIALS  CARBON STEEL:  HARDER THAN STAINLESS STEEL  MAINTAINED BETTER SHARPNESS  CORRODE IN MOIST CONDITIONS Carbon steel
  5. 5.  Stainless Steel  Preferred materials  Remains bright under most conditions  Loses keen edge during use much more quickly  Chromium: corrosion resistance  Carbon: hardness Stainless Steel
  6. 6.  TUNGSTEN CARBIDE  INSERTS OR BLADES TO PROVIDE MORE DURABLE CUTTING EDGES (BRITTLE).  THEY MAY BE SOLDERED TO STEEL HANDLES  SOME INSTRUMENTS ARE MADE WITH CARBIDE TO PROVIDE MORE DURABLE
  7. 7.  OTHER ALLOYS OF NICKEL, COBALT, OR CHROMIUM ARE USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF HAND INSTRUMENTS.  THEY ARE RESTRICTED TO INSTRUMENTS OTHER THAN THOSE FOR CUTTING TOOTH STRUCTURE
  8. 8. Hardening and Tempering Heat Treatments Heat treatment Furnace The hardening heat treatment hardens the alloy, but it also makes it brittle, especially when the carbon content is high. Tempering heat treatment relieves strains and increases toughness.
  9. 9. Classification of Instruments:- by Sturdevant HAND INSTRUMENT cutting excavators ordinary hatchets hoes Angle formers spoons chisels straight curved bin-angle Enamel hatchet Gingival margin trimmers others files scalers carvers Non cutting Amalgam condenser mirrors explorers, probes others
  10. 10.  ORDER  PURPOSE OF THE INSTRUMENT  E.G. EXCAVATOR, SCALER  SUB-ORDER  MANNER OF USE  E.G. PUSH, PULL  CLASS  FORM OF BLADE  E.G. HATCHET, CHISEL  ANGLE  NUMBER OF ANGLES IN THE SHANK: MONOANGLE, BIANGLE, TRIPLE-ANGLE, QUADRANGLE  E.G. BIANGLED HATCHET EXCAVATOR, According to G. V. Black
  11. 11. Classification of Instruments:- by Charbeneau  Cutting instruments Hand- hoes, chiesel etc Rotary- burs, discs etc  Condensing instruments Pluggers  Plastic instruments Carvers, Burnishers  Finishing and polishing instruments Discs, Strips  Isolation instruments Cotton roll, Rubber dam  Miscellaneous- Mirrors, Explorers
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION BY MARZOUK EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS REMOVAL OF TOOTH STRUCTURE RESTORATION OF TEETH To dry To illuminate Retraction Probes Separators Mixing Plastic Condensing Burnishing Carvers Files Knives Finishing & polishing Hand cutting Rotary cutting
  13. 13. Design
  14. 14. Blade  Working part of the instrument  Usually in the form of a bevel (acute angle) that cuts into the tooth structure.  On non cutting instruments e.g. condensers the part corresponding to the blade is called the nib or face.
  15. 15. Shank  Connect the handle to the working end of the instrument.  Normally smooth, round and tapered.  Mon-angle, bin-angle, triple angle  Balance is accomplished by designing the angle of the shank so that the cutting edge of the blade must not be off axis by more than 1-2 mm (Sturdevant’s)/2-3 mm (Summitt)
  16. 16.  Balance allows for the concentration of force onto the blade without causing rotation of the instrument.  Instruments with long blades may required two or three angles in the shank to bring the cutting edge near to the long axis of the handle  Such shanks are termed contra angled.
  17. 17. Handle/ Shaft  Serrated for better gripping and control of the instrument. a. Standard Stainless steel handle: Diameter 6.4 mm approx. b. Padded handles: Diameter 8mm approx. c. Larger diameter handles: 9.5 mm  More ergonomic  Less likely to develop carpal tunnel syndrome  Occupy more space in instrument tray
  18. 18.  Handles are in conjunction with the shank or it may be separable.  Separate type is known as cone-socket handle and allows for replacement of several working ends e.g. mirrors and condensers.
  19. 19. cone-socket handle (mirror) mirror
  20. 20. Numeric formulas  Describing the dimensions and angle of the working end.  Three number formula  Four number formula:  Cutting edge is not perpendicular to the long axis of the blade.  Gingival marginal trimmer  Angle former
  21. 21. Instrument shank and blade design 85
  22. 22. Bevels  Most hand cutting instruments have on the end of the blade a single bevel that forms the primary cutting edge.  Additional two secondary cutting edges that extend from the primary cutting edge for the length of the blade.  Allows cutting in 3 directions; facial and lingual walls of the proximal cavity
  23. 23.  Bibeveled instrument have two bevels that form the cutting edge;  e.g. hatched excavator
  24. 24.  Single beveled instrument such as spoon excavator and gingival margin trimmer are used with lateral cutting movement.
  25. 25.  Enamel hatchet also as a single beveled instrument used with direct cutting motion, a planning or lateral cutting designated for right (R) and left (L) to the instrument formula.
  26. 26. The cutting edge is perpendicular to the axis of the handle e.g. binangle chisel. Instrument with slight blade curvature e.g.Wedelstaedt chisel.
  27. 27. Hand cutting instrument Excavators Chisels Removal of caries and refinement of the internal parts of the preparation. Used primarily for cutting enamel.
  28. 28. Excavators 1. Ordinary Hatchets 2. Hoes 3. Angle formers 4. Spoons
  29. 29. Ordinary Hatchets  It has the cutting edge of the blade directed  In the same plane as that of the long axis of the handle and  Is bibeveled.
  30. 30.  Used primarily on anterior teeth for  Preparing retentive areas and  Sharpening internal line angles, particularly in preparations for direct gold restorations .
  31. 31. Hoe excavators  Primary cutting edge of the blade perpendicular to the axis of the handle  Planing tooth preparation walls and forming line angles.  It is commonly used in Classes III and V preparations for direct gold restorations.
  32. 32.  Hoes with longer and heavier blades, with the shanks contra-angled.  For use on enamel or posterior teeth.
  33. 33.  The blade angle of the hoe: > 12.5 centigrades  The blade angle of chisel: ≤ 12.5 centigrades
  34. 34. Angle former  It is mon-angled and has the primary cutting edge at an angle (other than 90 degrees) to the blade.  It is available in pairs (right and left )
  35. 35.  Used primarily for sharpening line and point angles and creating retentive features in dentin in preparation for gold restorations  Also may be used in placing a bevel on enamel margins
  36. 36. Spoon excavators  Its blades are slightly curved, the shanks may be bin-angled or triple-angled to facilitate accessibility. Spoon excavators discoid cleoid The cutting edges are circular The cutting edges are claw like.
  37. 37. Left cutting and right cutting Used mainly for removal of caries and refinement of internal opening in a cavity preparation
  38. 38. bin- angled spoon triple- angled spoon
  39. 39. Cleoid spoon
  40. 40. Discoid spoon Discoid is disc shaped, with cutting edge around the blade
  41. 41. Chisels:  Straight, Monoangle, Biangle, Wedelstaedt chisels  Enamel Hatchets  Gingival Marginal Trimmers
  42. 42. Straight Chisel  The straight chisel has a straight shank and blade, with the bevel on only one side.  Its primary edge is perpendicular to the axis of the handle. (12-7-0)
  43. 43.  The shank and blade of the chisel also may be slightly curved (Wedelstaedt design) 11½-15-3 Biangled chisel
  44. 44.  Force used with chisels : straight thrust  The bin-angle and Wedelstaedt chisels:  Primary cutting edges in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the handle.  Distal bevel or a mesial (reverse) bevel. Used for cleaving undermined enamel and for shaping walls. Instrument with three cutting motion: vertical, right and left.
  45. 45.  The blade with a distal bevel is designed to plane a wall that faces the blade's inside surface  The blade with a mesial bevel is designed to plane a wall that faces the blade's outside surface
  46. 46. Enamel Hatchet  It is a chisel similar in design to the ordinary hatchet excavator except that the blade is larger, heavier, and is beveled on only one side  Cutting enamel  Right or Left cutting ends of the double- ended hatchet. 10-7-14
  47. 47. Gingival margin trimmer  Blade is curved  Bevel for cutting edge: outside of the curve  Face of instrument: inside of the curve
  48. 48. 12½-100-7-1412½-75-7-14 Mesial Distal
  49. 49.  Cutting edge angle: 100 and 75 : Inlay & Onlay preparations.  Cutting edge angle: 90 and 85 : Amalgam preparations.
  50. 50. Uses:  Beveling of the gingival margins of proximo- occlusal preparations.  Beveling of the axio-pulpal line angle  Performing a gingival lock (reverse bevel), placed on the gingival seat
  51. 51. Usage of hand cutting instruments  Horizontal strokes:  Long axis of blade directed between 45 & 90 degree to the surface being planed or scraped  Vertical or chopping strokes:  Pulling stroke  Hoe: beveled end or distal bevel  Pushing stroke  Hoe: contrabeveled end or mesial bevel.
  52. 52.  The cutting edge of the hand instrument should always be kept sharp as  Dull instruments may cause: 1. Loss of control. 2. More pain. 3. Prolonged time for the operative procedure. 4. Reduce the quality and precision of tooth preparation.
  53. 53.  Stationary sharpening stone e.g. Arkansas stone, silicon carbide.
  54. 54. Mechanical sharpener; moves at low speed while the instrument is held at the opposite angle and supported by a rest i.e. easier and less time consuming. E.g. Rx Honing Machine Mechanical sharpener
  55. 55. Principles of Sharpening  Sharpen instruments only after they have been cleaned & sterilized  Establish the proper bevel angle (usually 45 degree) and the desired angle of the cutting edge to the blade.  Use light stroke pressure  Use a rest or guide whenever possible.  Remove as little metal as possible
  56. 56. Non cutting Instruments  Diagnostic instruments  Mirror  Probe or explorer  Twizzer  Plastic instruments  Amalgam instruments  Condensers  Burnisher  Carver  Amalgam carrier
  57. 57. MOUTH MIRROR Most common sizes used are the No. 4 (⅞ inch diameter) and No. 5. (15/16 inch diameter) No. 2 (5/8 inch diameter): when working on posterior teeth with a rubber dam. For clarity, reflective surface on the external surface of the glass: Front surface mirror.
  58. 58. Uses for the mouth mirror. A, Indirect vision. B, Light reflection. C, Retraction. D, Tissue protection. A D C B
  59. 59. Explorers  To feel tooth surface for irregularities  To determine the hardness of exposed dentin 1. Shepherd’s hook: No. 23 2. Cowhorn explorer: No. 2 3. No. 17: back action
  60. 60. Tweezer/ cotton forceps:  Cotton forceps are used for picking up small items, cotton pellets
  61. 61. Plastic filling Instruments  To carry and shape tooth colored restorative material: Composite resin and glass ionomer  For placing of base and lining material  Hard plastic or metal.  Composite placement instrument  Designed specifically for the placement of composite restorative materials.  Anodized aluminum  Teflon  Titanium nitride layer on instruments
  62. 62. A: ash49 B:ash6 C:dycal applicator D:cement spatula.
  63. 63. Amalgam Carriers  An instrument with a hollow cylinder that is filled with amalgam.  Sizes:  Mini: 1.5 mm diameter  Regular: 2.0 mm  Large: 2.5 mm  Jumbo: 3.0-3.5 mm
  64. 64. Amalgam Condensers Various Amalgam condensers
  65. 65. Carvers  Hand instruments with a blade or nib used to contour the surface of filling material in their plastic state, waxes, models and patterns.  Hollenback carver (knifed edged- elongated- bibevelled)  Diamond (Frahm’s) carver : Bibevelled cutedge.  Ward’s ‘C’ carver  Discoid Cleoid  Interproximal carver
  66. 66. Burnishers  Burnishing of the amalgam on the margins of the cavity,  Shaping metal matrix band to have more desirable contours for restoration.  To bend cast gold restoration (inlay or onlay) near the margin of the prepared cavity to narrow the gap between gold and the tooth.
  67. 67. Burnishers
  68. 68. Disposable brush  Used with etching and bonding procedures associated with composite resins.
  69. 69. Accessory Instruments  Scissors  Used for cutting dental dam material, retraction cord, and stainless steel crowns.  Crown and bridge scissors  Dappen Dish  Hold certain liquid dental materials during a procedure.
  70. 70.  Howe Pliers  Also referred to as 110 pliers. Useful for holding items, for carrying cotton products to and from the oral cavity, removing the matrix band, and placing and removing the wedge.  Guards  Interproximal wedges to protect soft tissues from contact with sharp rotary cutting instruments.
  71. 71. Preset restorative tray
  72. 72. There are four grasps used with the hand instruments: Modified pen. Inverted pen. Palm and thumb. Modified palm and thumb.
  73. 73. M o d i f i e d p e n g r a s p pen grasp Modified pen grasp
  74. 74. Inverted pen grasp  If the hand is rotated so that the palm faces more toward the operator.  Used in the lingual and labial surfaces of anterior teeth. inverted pen grasp
  75. 75. Palm and thumb grasp  The handle of the instrument is placed on the palm of the hand and grasped by all the fingers while the thumb is free of the instrument and rest on the nearby tooth of the same arch.  Preparing incisal retention in a class III preparation on a maxillary incisor.
  76. 76. Palm and thumb grasp  The same as in palm and thumb grasp but the thumb is rested on the tooth being prepared.  Used in the upper arch.
  77. 77. Powered cutting equipments
  78. 78. CHARACTERISTICS: SPEED  SURFACE FEET PER UNIT TIME OF CONTACT THAT THE TOOL HAS WITH THE WORK TO BE CUT OR REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE  ACCORDING TO MARZOUK: 1. ULTRA LOW SPEED: 300-3000 RPM 2. LOW SPEED: 3000-6000 RPM 3. MEDIUM HIGH SPEED 20,000-45,000 RPM 4. HIGH SPEED 45,000-1,00,000 RPM 5. ULTRA HIGH SPEED > 1,00,000 RPM
  79. 79.  According to Charbenau: 1. Conventional or low speed: below 10,000 RPM 2. Increased or high speed: 10,000-1,50,000 RPM 3. Ultraspeed: above 1,50,000 RPM  According to Sturdevant: 1. Low or slow speeds: below 12,000 RPM 2. Medium/Intermediate speeds: 12,000 to 2,00,000 RPM 3. High/ Ultrahigh speeds: above 2,00,000 RPM
  80. 80. Pressure:  P=F/A  Low speed: 2-5 pounds of force  High speed: 1 pound of force  Ultra high speed: 1-4 ounces of force Heat Production  Directly proportional to the Pressure, RPM, and area of tooth in contact  113˚ F : Pulpitis & pulp necrosis.  130˚ F : Permanent damage of pulps.
  81. 81.  Brown et al: Temperature of dentin at a distance of 0.5 mm from a high speed bur cutting dry to be 245˚F (118˚C).  Even in non vital teeth, dry cutting at high speed should be avoided, since the thermal stresses will cause microfractures in the enamel. This could contribute to marginal failure of the restoration.  Higher water velocity. Clean head system
  82. 82. Greater flow of water coolant is required to prevent clogging when diamonds are used under increased pressure. 42 psi is the optimal air pressure to achieve peak performance Optic Drive air Spray water Exhaust air Spray air Optic Drive air Spray water Exhaust air Spray air 6-pin 5-hole
  83. 83. VIBRATION:  EQUIPMENT USED & THE SPEED OF ROTATION  EXCESSIVE VIBRATION: ANNOYANCE TO THE PATIENT, OPERATOR FATIGUE AND RAPID WEAR OF INSTRUMENTS. TORQUE:  ABILITY OF THE HAND PIECE TO WITHSTAND LATERAL PRESSURE ON THE REVOLVING TOOL WITHOUT DECREASING ITS SPEED OR REDUCING ITS CUTTING EFFICIENCY.
  84. 84. Friction:  Occurs in the moving parts of the hand piece especially the turbine.  Friction is reduced by equipping the hand piece with ball bearings, needle bearings, glass and resin bearings.  Ceramic Ball Bearings:  40% lighter and 3 times harder than conventional bearings, they offer an extended turbine life, reduced operation noise, and less vibration.
  85. 85. Handpieces: Two basic types of handpieces, the straight handpiece and contra angle handpiece. The straight is used more frequently for laboratory work, while contra angle used in the oral cavity. High speed techniques are generally preferred for cutting enamel and dentin.
  86. 86. Penetration through enamel and extension of the cavities outline are more efficient at high speed. Small diameter burs should be used in the high speed handpiece.  High speed generates considerable heat during cutting, even with small diameter burs and should be used with water coolant and high efficiency evacuation
  87. 87. Design: This model is the choice for limited access or when treating children. Rear-facing exhaust vents direct air flow away from the surgical site for patient protection
  88. 88. Commonly used couplings
  89. 89. Zero Suck Back Technology Prevents the intake of aerosol and other particles when it is stopped. Drive air flows into an Anti Suck Back Diffuser (ASBD) within the capsule. Air in the ASBD is pressurized through centrifugal force created by the impeller rotation. Through the centrifugal force and rotation of the impeller, air continues to flow into the ASBD and remains pressurized even after drive air is stopped. The pressurized air in the ASBD is released to the outside at the bottom of the head
  90. 90. Low-Speed Handpiece  Design Straight in appearance. Standard length and “short.” Speed ranges from 10,000 to 30,000 rotations per minute (rpm). Operates the rotary instrument in either a forward or backward movement.
  91. 91.  Uses of the low-speed handpiece  Intraoral  Removal of soft decay and fine finishing of a cavity preparation.  Finishing and polishing of restorations.  Coronal polishing and removal of stains.  Extraoral  Trimming and contouring temporary crowns.  Trimming and relining of removable partials and dentures.  Trimming and contouring of orthodontic appliances.
  92. 92. Low-Speed Attachments Straight attachment receives a long-shank laboratory bur, the contra-angle attachment, and the prophy angle attachment. Contra-angle attachment receives latch type rotary instruments and mandrel.
  93. 93.  Prophylaxis Angle Used during polishing procedures to hold the prophy cup and bristle brush. Two types  Plastic disposable “prophy” angle  Metal “prophy” angle
  94. 94. High-Speed Handpiece Cellular Glass Optics
  95. 95.  Uses of the high-speed handpiece Removes decay. Removes an old or faulty restoration. Reduces the crown portion of the tooth for the preparation of a crown or bridge. Prepares the outline and retention grooves for a new restoration. Finishes or polishes a restoration. Sections a tooth during a surgery.
  96. 96. Ultrasonic Handpiece  Design Attached to the dental unit. Powered by electricity. Attachments are similar in appearance to scaling instruments. Delivers a pulsating spray of water.
  97. 97.  Uses of the ultrasonic handpiece Removes calculus. Removes stain. Removes bonding materials from a tooth surface after orthodontic appliances are removed. Removes cement after orthodontic bands are removed.
  98. 98. Laser Handpiece  Design Uses a laser light beam instead of rotary instruments. The laser is conducted through a fiber-optic cable. Resembles a standard handpiece. Maintains a water-coolant system. Maintains an air-coolant system
  99. 99.  Uses:  Cauterizes soft tissue.  Vaporizes decayed tooth structure.  Advantages:  Usually painless.  Patient usually does not require anesthesia.  Proceed with procedure faster.  Disadvantage:  Cannot be used on teeth with existing restorations.
  100. 100. AIR-ABRASION HANDPIECE  Design  Small version of a sandblaster.  Compressed air at pressure of 7 to 11 atm (40 to 140 psi)  Produces a high-pressure delivery of aluminum oxide particles (of 20 to 50 pm) through a small probe.
  101. 101. Uses:  Prepares teeth for sealants.  Removes external stains.  Class I through class VI preparations.  Endodontic access.  Crown margins.  Prepares a tooth surface for the cementation of a cast restoration, such as a crown or veneer.
  102. 102. Disadvantages: More effective on hard normal dentine than soft dentine affected dentine When using composite, the air abrasion doesn’t provide the micromechanical roughness needs for retention thus needs acid-etchant. Loss of tactile sensation.
  103. 103. Possible iatrogenic damage especially on the cementum and root dentine. Can induce asthma –> thus needs high volume suction Can’t remove amalgam restoration. Can’t perform massive reduction for crown.
  104. 104. Laboratory Handpiece  Design  Operates at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.  Uses laboratory burs.  Provides greater torque than handpieces used intraorally.
  105. 105. Rotary instruments Cutting Abrasive Carbide burs Made from 1- tungsten carbide 2- steel carbide 1- Diamond burs 2- Discs 3- Stones 4- Rubber wheels
  106. 106.  According to composition: 1. Steel burs 2. Tungsten Carbide burs  According to mode of attachment to handpiece 1. Latch type 2. Friction grip type  According to handpiece they are designed for; 1. Clockwise 2. Anticlockwise
  107. 107. Rotary instruments consist of three parts : 1- shank 2- neck (shaft) 3- head head shaft Shank
  108. 108. Shank design Long shank – used for straight hand piece (low speed) Short latch shank – used for contra-angle (low speed) Friction grip shank - used for high speed hand piece
  109. 109. Dental Burs A group of instruments that can turn on an axis with different speed of rotation to perform different types of work. The characteristics of this work are either cutting , abrasive, finishing or polishing. Steel burs cut human dentin at low speeds, but dulls rapidly at higher speeds or when cutting enamel Steel necks bends easily causing vibration
  110. 110. Carbide burs  Burs possess blades that shear (cut) tooth structure.  They are used for making precise intracoronal preparation features such as placing groove, and boxes.  Used for smoothing surface in enamel and dentin  They are not used for bulk reduction because to producing undulations on the tooth surface
  111. 111. Shapes:  Round Bur:  Initial entry into the tooth  Extension of the preparation  Retentive features and caries removal  Inverted cone bur  Undercuts in the tooth preparation  Pear shaped bur  Tooth preparation for amalgam, gold foil.  Straight fissure bur  Tooth preparation for amalgam  Tapered fissure bur  Tooth preparation for indirect restorations.
  112. 112. Basic bur head shapes
  113. 113. Regular –cut Fine Cut Coarse-cut
  114. 114.  Its used for highly smoothing of prepared surfaces of tooth  Because of its blades in a diagonal to the instrument shaft  Its have a torpedo shape Twelve-fluted carbide bur
  115. 115. Plain fissure bur Its tapered and cylinder shape its used for placing groove and boxes and they also used for finishing of preparation. Groove seating
  116. 116. Bur numbering systems  In the united states the burs have been traditionally described in term of arbitrary i.e. numerical code eg, 2 =1 mm diameter round bur, 34 = 0.8mm inverted, 57 = 1mm diameter straight fissure  Number 500 is added to indicate cross cutting  Number 900 is added to indicate end-cutting only  So no. 57 ,557 and 957 are all had the same head size
  117. 117. Iso system(international standard organization) FDI (Federation dentaire internationale)  Usually tend to use head shape name and size (in tenth of a millimeter)  Eg. Round 010 = 1mm diameter  Straight fissure plain 010 = 1mm diameter  Inverted cone 008=0.8mm diameter
  118. 118. Shapes & diameters of regular carbide burs used for tooth preparation  Round Bur size: 1/16 1/8 ¼ ½ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 Diameter: 0.30 0.40 .50 .60 .80 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.5 3.1  Inverted cone Bur size: 33½ 34 35 36 37 39 40 Diameter (mm): .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.8 2.1  Straight Fissure: Bur size: 55½ 56 57 58 59 60 Diameter (mm): .60 .80 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Straight fissure, round end: Bur size: 1156 1157 1158 Diameter (mm): .80 1.0 1.2 Tapered fissure: Bur size: 168 169 170 171 Diameter (mm): .80 .90 1.0 1.2
  119. 119.  Tapered fissure, rounded end Bur size: 1169 1170 1171 Diameter (mm): .90 1.0 1.2  Pear: Bur size: 329 330 331 332 Diameter (mm): .60 .80 1.0 1.2  Long inverted cone, rounded corners (amalgam preparation) Bur size: 245 246 Diameter (mm): .80 1.2  End-cutting: Bur size: 956 957 Diameter (mm): .80 1.0
  120. 120.  Bur head design:  The number of blades on a bur is always even  Number of blades on an excavating bur may vary from 6 to 8 t0 10.  Finishing bur: 12 to 40 blades
  121. 121. Concentricity:  Measurement of the symmetry of the bur head.  Runout:  Test measuring the accuracy with which all blade tips pass through a single point when the instrument is rotated.  Average value of clinically acceptable run-out is about 0.023 mm  Is the primary cause of vibration
  122. 122. Bur blade design
  123. 123.  Rake angle:  Angle that the face of the bur tooth makes with the radial line.  Radial rake angle: radial line & the tooth face coincide. Negative rake angle: blade face is leading the radial line  Increases the life expectancy of the bur & provides for the most effective performance in low and high speed ranges. Positive rake angle:  Produce acute edge angle
  124. 124.  Edge angle:  In the range of 90˚ to provide strength to the blade & longevity of cutting efficiency of the bur.  Land: plane surface immediately following the cutting edge.  Flute/ Chip space:  Space between successive bur teeth or the blades of the bur.  Provides an exit for removal of the fractured matter and creates a clearance angle.
  125. 125.  Clearance angle:  Angle between the back of the blade and the tooth surface.  If a land is present on the bur: 1. Primary clearance angle: the angle the land will make with work. 2. Secondary clearance angle: the angle between the back of the bur tooth and work. 3. Radial clearance angle: is formed when the back surface of the bur tooth is curved.  Provides clearance between the work & the cutting edge to prevent the tooth back from rubbing on the work.
  126. 126. Abrasive instruments Head consists of small angular particles of hard substance embedded in a soft binder (ceramic, metal, shellac, rubber).  Diamond abrasives  Other abrasives –Silicon carbide (carborundum), aluminium oxide, garnet, quartz, pumice, cuttlebone.  Deposited by Electroplating, sintering or microbrazing.
  127. 127. These are made from diamond chips bonded to blanks (heads). Diamonds used for grinding enamel and dentin surfaces Diamond burs may divided according to : 1- coarseness ( medium grit - fine grit ) 2- shape Diamond stones Medium grit Fine grit
  128. 128. Diamond particle size: 1) Coarse: 125~150 um 2) Medium: 88~125 um 3) Fine: 60~74 um 4) Very fine:38~44 um Diamond instruments consists of three parts:  A metal blank,  The powdered diamond abrasive  A metallic bonding material that holds the diamond powder onto the blank
  129. 129.  Color coding: Coarse: 120-150µ Standard: 106-125µ Fine: 53-63µ Extra- fine: 20-30µ TF: Taper flat end; TR: Taper round end; TC: Taper conical end; FO: Flame Ogival end; SF: Straight flat end; SO: Straight Ogival end; BR: Ball round; WR: wheel round edge; Green Blue Red Yellow
  130. 130. Discs, Mandrel, Stones, and Wheels
  131. 131. Moulded abrasive instrument –  Manufactured by pressing a uniform mixture of abrasive and matrix around roughened end of shank,  Points and stones; finishing & polishing Coated abrasive instrument –  Disks that have a thin layer of abrasive cemented to a flexible backing.  surface contouring, finishing
  132. 132. SmartPrep Instruments SmartPrep Instruments (Smart Bur, Polymer Bur)  Medical polymer that has the ability to remove decayed dentine while keeping the healthy dentin.  Its hardness is less than healthy dentine while harder than the carious dentin.  Ability to self-limit(selectively) It will only cut what is carious and if it’s in contact with healthy dentin the bur will only wear away (when extensive force isn’t used).
  133. 133. Advantages:  Conservative  Minimal to none disease transfer (because its single use only).  No need for Local Anesthesia.  For Students to start with first clinical cases.
  134. 134. Disadvantages: Single-patient-use = Expensive. Technique sensitive ( too much pressure and you will cut the healthy dentine) The bur breaks down when it touches enamel.  It can sometimes leave large amounts of decayed tissue (use caries dye to locate the left amount.  Access should be done by a different type of bur that can penetrate the enamel.
  135. 135. Cutting Mechanisms  Bladed Cutting:  Brittle fracture: crack production, by tensile loading.  High speed cutting, especially of enamel  Ductile fracture: plastic deformation, by shear.  Low speed cutting.  Abrasive Cutting:  Diamonds are most efficient when used to cut brittle materials, are superior to burs for removal of the dental enamel.  Burs are generally preferred for cutting ductile materials such as dentin.
  136. 136. CUTTING RECOMMENDATIONS  Use of contra-angled handpiece, air-water spray for cooling, high operating speed (above 200,000 rpm), light pressure. Carbide burs are better for end- cutting, produce lower heat, and have more blade edges per diameter for cutting.  Diamonds are more effective than burs for both intracoronal & extracoronal tooth preparations,
  137. 137. CHEMO-MECHANICAL CARIES REMOVAL Carisolv (Chemo‐mechanical caries removal ) Composition:  0.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.1 M amino acids “Glutamine, leucine and lycine” This is a technique used to remove caries and decay with minimal invasive techniques.  Hypochlorite: dissolves the decayed dentine  Amino acid: buffering solution to prevent damage to the healthy tissue. [The amino acid and hypochlorite will react with the denatured Collagen Tissue of dentine (Infected dentine) making soft and easily removed with hand instruments.]
  138. 138. Advantages:  Less anesthesia is used  Useful for children, dental‐phobic patients.  Useful for removing root or coronal caries in easily accessible areas.  Removes the smear layer and doesn’t affect the bond strength of the adhesive materials.  No histological effect on the pulp even with direct contact.
  139. 139. Ozone treatment  Ozone gas has a high oxidation potential and is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.  Capacity to stimulate blood circulation, platelets, and immune response.  Ozone is used in dentistry in gaseous, ozonated water and as ozonated oils  Ozone has been proven to halt root caries and also reverse lesions (pit and fissure carious lesions) by allowing the natural remineralisation process to proceed.  Remineralised lesions are known to be more resistant to further dissolution than sound tooth surfaces.
  140. 140.  Disruption of the protected ecological niche of the micro- flora allows remineralisation from the saliva.  Intracanal irrigants in endodontic treatment.  Treatment of alveolitis, avascular osteonecrosis of the jaw, and herpes virus infection.  Inhibits plaque formation: periodontal surgical and maintenance phase.  Used in dental unit water line to disinfect water.  Advantage of ozone therapy is it is an atraumatic, biologically based treatment.
  141. 141. O3 delivered from the HealOzone unit: (2100 ppm O3, 615 ml/min) through a hand piece with a silicone cup that sealed the tooth. Once sealed, the device automatically delivered the O3 for the treatment group for 10 seconds followed by 10 seconds vacuum. Recall: After one and three months. Prophylaxis of teeth Re-examination using the DIAGNOdent® and ECM readings. Ozone treatment repeat on each of these two recall visits.
  142. 142. HAZARDS WITH CUTTING INSTRUMENTS PULPAL PRECAUTIONS:  MECHANICAL VIBRATION, HEAT, DESICCATION, LOSS OF DENTINAL TUBULE FLUID, AND OR TRANSECTION OF ODONTOBLASTIC PROCESSES.  PULPAL SEQUELAE (RECOVERY OR NECROSIS) TAKE FROM 2 WEEKS TO 6 MONTHS OR LONGER, DEPENDING UPON EXTENT AND DEGREE OF TRAUMA.
  143. 143. The remaining tissue is effective in protecting the pulp in proportion to the square of its thickness.  Steel burs produce more heat than carbide burs because of inefficient cutting. Dull instruments will plug debris, do not cut efficiently and result in heat production.
  144. 144. When used without coolants, diamond instruments generate more damaging heat than carbide burs. Air alone as coolant: much lower heat capacity than water, desiccates dentin, damage odontoblasts.
  145. 145. Soft tissue precautions:  Lips, tongue and cheeks of the patient.  Good access and visibility.  Isolation of the operating site: rubber dam, retraction type saliva ejector tip.  Wait for the instrument to stop or extremely careful while removing the handpiece from the mouth.  Large disc  Sudden reflex by the patients.  Hand excavators: soft caries removal in the deep preparation may lead to mechanical pulp exposure: round bur at low speed.
  146. 146. Eye Precautions  Airborne particles, old restorations, tooth structure, bacteria, debris.  Strong high volume evacuation. Ear Precautions:  Loud noise: mental and physical distress, increase accident proneness, reduce overall eficiency.  Noise level in excess of 75 db, 1000 to 8000 cps(frequency) may cause hearing damage.
  147. 147. Inhalation Precautions  Amalgams or composites produce submicron particles and vapor.  Alveolar irritation and tissue reactions.  During cutting or polishing: thermal decomposition of polymeric restorative materials (sealants, acrylic resins, composites) : Monomers.  Mask : do not filter either mercury or monomer vapors
  148. 148. Conclusion: The removal and shaping of the tooth structure are essential aspects of restorative dentistry. Modern high speed instruments has eliminated the need of many hand instruments, but hand cutting instruments are still important for finishing many tooth preparations and thus they remain as an essential part of the armamentarium for quality restorative dentistry.
  149. 149. References: 1. Sturdevant’s Art & Science of Operative Dentistry :4th edition 2. Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry; James B. Summitt; 3rd edition. 3. Operative Dentistry of Modern Theory and Practice: M K Marzouk 4. Black GV. A work on Operative Dentistry. Chicago: Medico-Dental Publishing, 1908 5. Dental Hand Instruments, 2003: Elsevier Science (USA). ISBN 0- 7216-9770-4 6. Fundamentals of Tooth Preparation: Shillingburg 7. Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry / Jul-Dec 2011 / Vol-1 / Issue-2

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