1. Collaborative Graduate Program between Gambella
University and Green Research and Development
Institute, Development Studies: Specialized in
Disaster Risk Management and Food Security Studies
Course Code: DRMFS511
Cr. Hour: 3
Desalegn Y. (Dr.)
3. Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society
involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and
impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope
using its own resources.
4. Disasters are often described as a result of the combination of: the exposure to a
hazard; the conditions of vulnerability that are present; and insufficient capacity
or measures to reduce or cope with the potential negative consequences.
Disaster impacts may include loss of life, injury, disease and other negative effects
on human physical, mental and social well-being, together with damage to property,
destruction of assets, loss of services, social and economic disruption and
5. Introduction Cont’
The term disaster is coined from Latin words dis- and astro- , which means
away from the star or an event to be blamed on an unfortunate astrological
In the past, disasters were seen as “Acts of God”.
This perspective viewed disasters as a divine punishment for moral
misbehavior, rather than a consequence of human misuse of the
In other words, disasters were accepted as external inevitable
Until 1950, disaster risk was solely seen as caused by
6. Introduction cont…
• However, development in science & technology gradually
started to question these perceptions and truth of disasters
• From 1970, views which recognize the role played by
human actions in exacerbating hazards have emerged
• But until 1990s most of the approach had over emphasized
humanitarian or emergency response, which was the
dominant strategy in reducing the impact of disastrous.
This neglected the root causes and everyday social
processes that influence vulnerability and looked to see
how this could be incorporated into long-term development
7. Introduction cont….Introduction cont….
• Since 1990, the contemporary understandings has re-Since 1990, the contemporary understandings has re-
emphasized the mutual interactions between natureemphasized the mutual interactions between nature
and societyand society
• Hence, in contemporary understanding disaster isHence, in contemporary understanding disaster is
considered as a function of:considered as a function of:
thethe characteristics,characteristics, frequencyfrequency and magnitudeand magnitude of hazardsof hazards atat
a specified locationa specified location
the nature of thethe nature of the elementselements at risk (people, infrastructure,at risk (people, infrastructure,
and economic activities)and economic activities)
inherent degree ofinherent degree of vulnerabilityvulnerability of the system to the hazardof the system to the hazard
the systemthe system capacitycapacity to manage or reduce the hazards’to manage or reduce the hazards’
8. Disaster Risk Management and Reduction
• DRM can be defined as the range of activities designed to
maintain control over disasters and emergency situations
and to provide a framework for helping at-risk persons to
avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster.
• It encompass all policy, administrative decisions and
operational activities that are appropriate to the various
stages of a disaster at all levels.
• It focuses on the management of risk and reduction
of vulnerability of communities most at risk.
• Disaster risk management is a continuous and integrated
multi-sectoral and multidisciplinary process of planning
and implementation of measures aimed at:
preventing or reducing the severity of disaster risks
mitigating the consequences of disasters
emergency preparedness and
rapid and effective response to disasters and post-disaster
recovery and rehabilitation.
Disaster management involves the integration of a multitude
of activities and functions in order to safeguard lives and
property against possible hazards.
10. Contemporary Movements in DRM
•Environmentalism can be described as a social movement or as an
ideology focused on the welfare of the environment.
•Environmentalism seeks to protect and conserve the elements of
earth's ecosystem, including water, air, land, animals, and plants, along
with entire habitats such as rainforests, deserts and oceans.
•Concepts dealing with environmental issues include the:
management of natural resources
global warming etc.
11. • The effects of human development and activity have harmed and
altered the earth's natural state.
• Environmentalism works to correctcorrect the damage as well as preventas prevent
future destructionfuture destruction.
• Environmentalism advocates:
the lawful preservation
improvement of the natural environment
environmentalism is a movement amide to control pollution or protectprotect
plant and animal diversitydiversity.
It also attempt to balance relations between humans and the various
natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the
components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability.
12. • If pollution and other environmental destruction continue at
their present rates, the result will be irreversible damage toirreversible damage to
the ecological cyclesthe ecological cycles and balancesbalances in nature upon which all
There should be fundamental, and perhaps drastic, changes in human
behavior to avert an ecological crisis.
To safeguard the healthful environment that is essential to life, humans
must learn that Earth does not have infinite resources
Earth’s limited resources must be conserved and, where possible,
Furthermore, humans must devise new strategies that mesh
environmental progress with economic growth
13. • The future growth of developing nations depends upon the
development of sustainable conservation methods that
protect the environment while also meeting the basic needs of
• Environmentalism is opposed by anti- environmentalism, which
says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists
maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the
human contribution to climate change or opposing human
14. Urbanization vs DRM
Rapid urbanization has been one of the most prominent features
worldwide in the post- Industrial Revolution era.
From 739 million739 million people living in the urban areas in 1950950 in the world, in
2006 it rose to 3.2 billion2006 it rose to 3.2 billion.
It is estimated that about 65%65% of the world population will live in urban
areas by 2025by 2025.
Excessive urbanization as witnessed in different part of the world has
resulted in greatly increased vulnerability to major disasters, both natural
15. • Disasters have different ramifications when they occur in urban areas due:
High population density and vehicular concentration
Extensive human interventions in the natural processes and destruction of
the natural habitat in terms of environmental alterations like creation of
waste dumps, filling of wetlands with waste, industrial or effluent
Heavy construction load
Human interventions like construction over and against the natural
drainage systems, pollution and degradation of natural resources create or
exacerbate the impact of disasters.
16. Globalization vs DRM
• Globalization: is comprehensive term for the emergence of a globalglobal
society in which economic, political, environmental, andsociety in which economic, political, environmental, and
culturalcultural events in one part of the world quickly come to have
significance for people in other parts of the world.
• Globalization is the result of advances in communication,communication,
transportation, and information technologiestransportation, and information technologies
• Globalization reduced wastage of resources (time, money and
• It describes the growing economic, political, technological, andeconomic, political, technological, and
cultural linkagescultural linkages that connect individuals, communities, businesses,
and governments around the world
17. Globalization also involves the growth of multinational
corporations (businesses that have operations or investments in
many countries) and transnational corporations (businesses that
see themselves functioning in a global marketplace).
The international institutions e.g. International Monetary Fund
(IMF), the World Bank (WB), and the World Trade Organization
(WTO) are key institutions that helped shape the current era of
Although most people continue to live as citizens of a single
nation, they are culturally, materially, and psychologically engaged
with the lives of people in other countries as never before.
Items common to our everyday lives—such as the clothes we
wear, the food we eat, and the cars we drive—are the products of
18. The capacity of computers to process and send huge quantity of data at very low
Social media (Viver, Facebook, and phone applications e.g. text, call & video
Businesses everywhere are run from anywhere around the world 24 hours
Live events in any corner of the world can be seen anywhere in the world as they
War from thousands of kilometers by drones
Air transport, railway (bullet trains) and ship have connected the world at
International migrations have moved people and cultures around the world and
remittances are supporting families and national economies back home.
Our life styles (food we eat, the beverages we drink, the cloths we wear, the way
we wed and bury the dead, the ways we sing and dance), our buildings, our
thinking, our systems of production of goods and services, education and training
curricula, have become identical.
Multinational and transnational corporations have pervaded the entire globe
Sharing of basic knowledge, technology, investments, resources, free exchange of
goods and services, movement of capital (stocks, bonds, currencies), and sharing
of ethical values.
19. Globalization has both negative and positive aspects.
Among the negative aspects are:
the rapid spread of diseases
Increasing marginalization of certain population groups those
who do not have access to the technological/information
Among globalization’s benefits are a sharing of:
20. Sustainable Development Vs DRM
Sustainable development is defined as a process of meeting human
development goals while sustaining the ability of natural systems to
continue to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon
which the economy and society depends.
Dimensions/Pillars of sustainability:
Economic sustainability: ability of an economy to maintain a definedability of an economy to maintain a defined
level of production (quality and quantity) indefinitelylevel of production (quality and quantity) indefinitely. That is, maintaining a
particular level of GDP, including transparency and financial stability. More
appropriately, it is maintaining a minimum income level to ensure an
adequate level of standard of living indefinitely.
21. Social sustainability: maintaining a defined (locally and culturally
acceptable) level of wellbeing (Equity, Social capital, Human rights,
Justice, Labor rights, Safety, Health, and Education, etc.) indefinitely. In
addition, it pertains to community engagement and collaboration of
Environmental sustainability: designing activities to meet human
needs, at the same time preserving the life support systems. It is the use
of the resources in the environment at a rate of natural replenishment.
That is, resource use without degradation. Measured using indicators of
22. Cultural sustainability: Material culture (technology),
Social culture (social organization), Ideological culture
(values). It is a significant contributor to social cohesion
based on mediation of conflicts; enhance productivity and
environmental stewardship through indigenous knowledge,
Culture of cooperation and sharing vs. Culture of selfishness
Enoughism vs. Consumerism
Green culture vs. Grey (Polluting and depleting) culture
Peace loving culture vs. War-like culture
Healthful cultural practices vs. Unhealthy cultural practices
Love of work vs. Hate of work, etc
23. MDGs (2000 – 2015)
•MDGs were the eight international development goals for the
year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium
Summit (held on 6-8 Sept 2000 in New York) of the UN
•All 189 UN member states at that time, and at least 22
international organizations, committed to help achieve the
following Millennium Development Goals by 2015:
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
achieve universal primary education
promote gender equality and empower women
reduce child mortality
improve maternal health
combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
ensure environmental sustainability
develop a global partnership for development
24. SDGs (2016 – 2030)
•The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), officially known as
‘Transforming Our World’ is the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
•It is a set of seventeen major Goals with 169 targets between them.
•Spearheaded by the United Nations, through its 193 Member States as well
as global civil society.
26. Disasters undermine sustainable development.
disasters could cause for loss of life and injury, sometimes
with life-changing consequences.
they destroy homes, schools, health clinics, hospitals, utilities,
roads, markets and other social and economic infrastructure
as well as damaging the natural environment.
These direct, physical losses have further indirect
consequences, disrupting livelihoods, education, access to
health care and so forth, together leading to adverse
secondary impacts on social and economic aggregates such
as GDP, the balance of payments and budget deficits.
28. DRM in Ethiopia
•For many years, efforts were on post-disaster response, recovery,
and rehabilitation rather than on pre-disaster preparedness and
•Disaster management was characterized by:
o short-term relief-oriented, single hazard approach -more heavily
o Limited collaborative relationship among actors in disaster
o Minimal community involvement
o Limited emphasis to other hazards (namely, crop pests, flood,
disease epidemics, war, civil conflicts ) to which citizens are
• However, in recent years the Ethiopian disaster managementHowever, in recent years the Ethiopian disaster management
system has shown a transformationsystem has shown a transformation from one offrom one of response andresponse and
recoveryrecovery toto DRMDRM (mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response(mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response
and rehabilitationand rehabilitation))
• The policy formulated in 1993The policy formulated in 1993 underscored the importance ofunderscored the importance of
integrated actionsintegrated actions toto mitigate and/or preventmitigate and/or prevent the root causes ofthe root causes of
drought disaster to which Ethiopians have repeatedly beendrought disaster to which Ethiopians have repeatedly been
The following are some of the remarkable measures that have been takenThe following are some of the remarkable measures that have been taken since 1995since 1995
in the efforts to transform DRM approach.in the efforts to transform DRM approach.
Institutional commitment and arrangements-Institutional commitment and arrangements-
Organizational/institutional structures from national level to localOrganizational/institutional structures from national level to local
Establishment ofEstablishment of multi-sectoral technical and steering committeesmulti-sectoral technical and steering committees
including disaster management focal bodies in key sector officesincluding disaster management focal bodies in key sector offices
(ministry of agriculture, health, water resource development).(ministry of agriculture, health, water resource development).
Community participationCommunity participation to take the initiative towards community-to take the initiative towards community-
based disaster management.based disaster management.
Effort has also been made toEffort has also been made to link disaster management to the country'slink disaster management to the country's
macro development programsmacro development programs ;;
31. DRM in Ethiopia (cont.)
Efforts toEfforts to integrateintegrate relief/ assistance with developmentrelief/ assistance with development toto
enhance the coping capacities of the population throughenhance the coping capacities of the population through
the creation of assets in the affected areasthe creation of assets in the affected areas
Ethiopia's Food Security StrategyEthiopia's Food Security Strategy (FSS)(FSS) is also a criticalis also a critical
element of pre-drought disaster prevention Programselement of pre-drought disaster prevention Programs
Productive safety net programmeProductive safety net programme which targetswhich targets
communities in drought prone is a good effort incommunities in drought prone is a good effort in
addressing underlying causes of food insecurityaddressing underlying causes of food insecurity
Small-scale irrigation and water harvestingSmall-scale irrigation and water harvesting, and, and voluntaryvoluntary
resettlementresettlement showed to have benefited millions of peopleshowed to have benefited millions of people
32. Disaster Risk Reduction
The concept and practice of reducing disaster risksreducing disaster risks through
systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of
disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards,
lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management
of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for
DRR focuses on practices to reduce potential disaster risk in pre-
disaster phase, while DRM covers concepts and practices for pre-
and post-disaster phase (the entire Disaster management cycle)
33. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
• Disaster risk reduction emphasizes a new global thinking in the
management of disasters and disaster risks.
• Disaster risk reduction can be seen as:
the systematic development and
application of policies, strategies and practices to
minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society;
to avoid (prevention) or
to limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse impacts of hazards
within the broad context of sustainable development.
35. DRR Con’t…
• Disaster reduction strategies include:
disaster risk assessments combining hazard, vulnerability
strengthening of institutional capacities and operational abilities
• The assessment of the vulnerability of:
o critical facilities,
o the use of effective early warning systems
o the application of different scientific strategy and
o technical and other skilled abilities
are essential features of disaster risk reduction.
36. Why DRRWhy DRR?
incidence of disastersincidence of disasters and number of peoplenumber of people affected are increasing.
Disaster affected 2 billion people in the 1990s, triple of the number
affected in 1970s
climate change is increasing the incidence of disaster.
• Disasters are costly
The global economic loss caused by disaster increased from US $138
billion in the 1970s to US$ 628 billion in the 1990s.
• Disasters increase poverty
In Africa disasters are both causes and consequences of poverty.
In Ethiopia during the last 20 years, 78% of rural households had been
hit by harvest failure
38. Why DRR? Cont….Why DRR? Cont….
• Inappropriate disaster response aggravates the problem.Inappropriate disaster response aggravates the problem.
In some instances, emergency response had led to increasing risk level of In some instances, emergency response had led to increasing risk level of
affected population through exposure to other hazards.affected population through exposure to other hazards.
• Disasters pose a significant threat to development.Disasters pose a significant threat to development.
National governments usually reallocate development funds to meet the National governments usually reallocate development funds to meet the
cost of relief operation.cost of relief operation.
Donors spend billions of dollars in response that would have been used Donors spend billions of dollars in response that would have been used
for development.for development.
• Investment in disaster risk reduction is beneficial.Investment in disaster risk reduction is beneficial.
Experience in Asia shown that investment of Experience in Asia shown that investment of one US dollar one US dollar in DRR will in DRR will
translate into cost-saving of up to translate into cost-saving of up to ten US dollars ten US dollars in subsequent disaster in subsequent disaster
39. Paradigm Shift in Disaster Risk ManagementParadigm Shift in Disaster Risk Management
Managing hazard eventsManaging hazard events Managing disaster risksManaging disaster risks
Primary focus onPrimary focus on
Relief and ResponseRelief and Response
Primary focus onPrimary focus on reducingreducing
disaster risks & promptdisaster risks & prompt
Sustainable developmentSustainable development
Disaster Risk ManagementDisaster Risk Management
40. The Concept of HazardsThe Concept of Hazards
A potentially damaging physical
event, phenomenon or human
activity, which may cause the loss
of life or injury, property damage,
social and economic disruption or
41. Hazards ClassificationHazards Classification
• Natural Hazards: Natural processes or phenomena occurring in
the biosphere that may constitute a damaging event.
• Natural hazards can be classified according to their geological,
hydro-meteorological or biological origins.
• Natural hazards comprise phenomena such as earthquakes;
volcanic activity; landslides; tsunamis, tropical cyclones and
other severe storms; tornadoes and high winds; river floods and
coastal flooding; wildfires and associated haze; drought;
sand/dust storms; insect infestations.
42. Natural Hazards vs Disasters
• A disaster is the result of the impact of a natural or human
made hazard on a socio-economic system with a given level
of vulnerability, which prevents the affected society from
coping adequately with this impact.
• Natural hazards themselves do not necessarily lead to lead to
• It is only their interaction with people and their environment
that generates impacts, which may reach disastrous
43. Anthropogenic Hazards Cont….
• These are human induced processes or phenomena
occurring in the biosphere that may constitute a
• These hazards can be classified according to the
factors caused to happen.
• These are the consequences of human activities which may
cause loss of life or injury, damage to property, social and
economical disruption or environmental degradation. Examples
of human-made hazards include:
44. Anthropogenic Hazards Cont…
arising from industrial accidents, dangerous procedures and infrastructure
Technological hazards could lead to industrial pollution through leakage of
nuclear or toxic wastes, dam failures dam failures causing floods, industrial accidents industrial accidents
causing fires, explosions and leakages, among others.
is partly due to processes induced by human behaviorhuman behavior and activitiesactivities in a
way (sometimes combined with natural hazards) that damages the natural
resource base or adversely alters natural processes or ecosystems.
45. Origin PHENOMENA / EXAMPLES
Hydro-meteorological hazardsHydro-meteorological hazards
Natural processes or phenomena of
atmospheric, hydrological or
• Floods, debris and mudflows
• Tropical cyclones, storm surges, wind,
rain and other severe storms, blizzards, lightning
•Drought, desertification, wildfires, temperature
extremes, sand or dust storms
• Permafrost, snow avalanches
Geological hazardsGeological hazards
Natural earth processes or
phenomena that include processes
of endogenous origin or tectonic or
exogenous origin, such as mass
• Earthquakes, tsunamis
• Volcanic activity and emissions
• Mass movements, landslides, rockslides,
liquefaction, sub-marine slides
• Surface collapse, geological fault activity
Biological hazardsBiological hazards
Processes of organic origin or
those conveyed by biological
vectors, including exposure to
toxins and bioactive substances.
Outbreaks of epidemic diseases, plant
or animal contagion and extensive infestations
Classification of Natural Hazards
46. Origin Phenomena/Examples
Technological HazardsTechnological Hazards
Danger associated with technological orDanger associated with technological or
industrial accidents, infrastructure failures orindustrial accidents, infrastructure failures or
certain human activities which may cause thecertain human activities which may cause the
loss of life or injury, property damage, socialloss of life or injury, property damage, social
and economic disruption or environmentaland economic disruption or environmental
degradation, sometimes referred to asdegradation, sometimes referred to as
anthropogenic hazards.anthropogenic hazards.
• Industrial pollution, nuclearIndustrial pollution, nuclear
release and radioactivity, toxicrelease and radioactivity, toxic
waste, dam failure, transport,waste, dam failure, transport,
industrial or technologicalindustrial or technological
accidents (explosions, fires,accidents (explosions, fires,
Environmental Related HazardsEnvironmental Related Hazards
Processes induced by human behavior andProcesses induced by human behavior and
activities (sometimes combined with naturalactivities (sometimes combined with natural
hazards) that damage the natural resource basehazards) that damage the natural resource base
or adversely alter natural processes oror adversely alter natural processes or
ecosystems. Potential effects are varied andecosystems. Potential effects are varied and
may contribute to an increase in vulnerabilitymay contribute to an increase in vulnerability
and the frequency and intensity of naturaland the frequency and intensity of natural
Examples include landExamples include land
degradation, deforestation,degradation, deforestation,
desertification, wild fires, lossdesertification, wild fires, loss
of biodiversity, land, waterof biodiversity, land, water
and air pollution, climateand air pollution, climate
change, sea level rise andchange, sea level rise and
ozone depletion.ozone depletion.
Classification of Anthropogenic HazardsClassification of Anthropogenic Hazards
47. Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…
Droughts are a weather-related naturalDroughts are a weather-related natural
hazard, which can affect vast regions forhazard, which can affect vast regions for
months or years. They can have amonths or years. They can have a
significant impact on a country or region’ssignificant impact on a country or region’s
economic performance, particularly foodeconomic performance, particularly food
• Drought is condition of abnormally
dry weather within a geographic
region where some rain might
usually be expected
• Meteorological drought is brought
about when there is a prolonged
time with less than average
drought usually precedes the other
kinds of drought
• Agricultural droughts are droughts
that affect crop production or the
ecology of the range
• Hydrological drought is brought
about when the water reserves
available in sources such as aquifers,
lakes and reservoirs fall below the
50. Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…
Flooding is usually the result of heavy orFlooding is usually the result of heavy or
continuous rain that exceeds thecontinuous rain that exceeds the
absorptive capacity of the soil and theabsorptive capacity of the soil and the
flow capacity of rivers, streams andflow capacity of rivers, streams and
coastal areas.coastal areas.
Types of Flood :Types of Flood :
River flood,River flood,
Flash flood,Flash flood,
Coastal floodCoastal flood
51. Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…
The term “wildfire” is used forThe term “wildfire” is used for
uncontrolled fire that destroys forestsuncontrolled fire that destroys forests
and many other types of vegetation,and many other types of vegetation,
including animal species. Threeincluding animal species. Three
conditions need to be present for aconditions need to be present for a
wildfire to burn: fuel, oxygen and awildfire to burn: fuel, oxygen and a
heat source.heat source.
52. Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…
The most common types are soil andThe most common types are soil and
rockslides, and mud and debrisrockslides, and mud and debris
flows, which are among the mostflows, which are among the most
53. Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…Common Hazards in Ethiopia Cont…
A volcano is an opening, or rupture, inA volcano is an opening, or rupture, in
the planet’s surface or crust, whichthe planet’s surface or crust, which
allows hot, molten rock, ash and gasesallows hot, molten rock, ash and gases
to escape from deep below the surface.to escape from deep below the surface.
54. Definitions of risk:
Risk is the probabilityprobability of harmful consequences or expected losses
(deaths, injuries, properties, livelihood or environment) resulting from
interaction between hazards and vulnerable conditions.
Disaster RisksDisaster Risks
Disaster Risk EquationDisaster Risk Equation
Disaster Risk = Hazard (H) x Vulnerability (V)
Disaster Risk = f(H and V / C)
56. Disaster Risk Cont...Disaster Risk Cont...
Disaster risk is alsoDisaster risk is also
increased byincreased by vulnerabilityvulnerability……
the conditions and processesthe conditions and processes
that increase thethat increase the susceptibilitysusceptibility ofof
a household, community or areaa household, community or area
to the impacts of a hazardto the impacts of a hazard
Hence to reduce risk, either vulnerabilityvulnerability need
to be reduced or capacitycapacity should be enhanced.
57. Disaster Risk Cont...Disaster Risk Cont...
The risk can be categorized as:
o Intensive Risk (The risk of high severity, low frequency disasters) and
o Extensive Risk (The risk of low severity, high frequency disasters)
The risk can be managed by three approaches:
o Actions to avoid the risk (This would include not allowing the element that
could be at risk to be located in the area of potential hazard)
o Actions to reduce the risk (This would include taking actions that would
mitigate the risk)
o Actions to share the risk (This would entail shifting the risk-bearing
responsibility to another party)
58. The Concept and Implications of DRM and DRRThe Concept and Implications of DRM and DRR
is the systematic process of using all availableis the systematic process of using all available skills andskills and
capacitiescapacities to implementto implement policies and strategiespolicies and strategies
to reduce vulnerability and strengthen the capacities of societyto reduce vulnerability and strengthen the capacities of society
and communities to lessen the impacts of hazards.and communities to lessen the impacts of hazards.
•This comprises all forms ofThis comprises all forms of activities,activities, includingincluding structuralstructural andand
non-structuralnon-structural measures tomeasures to avoidavoid (prevent) or to(prevent) or to limitlimit
(mitigation, preparedness and response) the adverse impacts of(mitigation, preparedness and response) the adverse impacts of
hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.
59. DRM cont..DRM cont..
Disaster Risk Management is an organised action on:Disaster Risk Management is an organised action on:
Disaster eventDisaster event
Pre-disaster or ...’proactivePre-disaster or ...’proactive’
PreventionPrevention MitigationMitigation PreparednessPreparedness
Post-disaster orPost-disaster or
‘ ‘‘ ‘reactive’reactive’
60. DRM Cont…DRM Cont…
• In all of the stages, DRM includes a range of activities
that contribute to increasing capacities and reducing
immediate and long-term vulnerabilities to prevent,
or at least minimize, the damaging impact in a
61. DRR Cont…DRR Cont…
• DRR is the conceptual framework of elements considered with
the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks
throughout the society, to avoid (prevention) the adverse
impacts of hazardous events within the broad context of
62. DRR cont…
• DRR framework is composed of the following fields of actions:
Risk awareness & assessment (hazard & vulnerability/capacity)
Knowledge development (education, training, research, &
Public commitment & institutional frameworks (organizational,
policy, legislation, & community actions)
Application of measures (participation, partnership & networking,
financial instruments environmental management, land use
planning, protection of facilities, application of science &
63. Prevention is the outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards andPrevention is the outright avoidance of adverse impacts of hazards and
related disasters.related disasters.
Include all measures and activities designed to provideInclude all measures and activities designed to provide permanentpermanent
protectionprotection … or… or reduce the intensityreduce the intensity of a hazardous event to a level thatof a hazardous event to a level that
does not cause a disaster/ harmful effects on communities & facilities.does not cause a disaster/ harmful effects on communities & facilities.
E.g. Safety standards for industries, flood control measures, and land useE.g. Safety standards for industries, flood control measures, and land use
regulations that do not permit any settlement in high risk zones, seismicregulations that do not permit any settlement in high risk zones, seismic
engineering designs that ensure the survival and function of a criticalengineering designs that ensure the survival and function of a critical
building in likely earthquake.building in likely earthquake.
Poverty alleviation & assets redistributionPoverty alleviation & assets redistribution schemes such as land reform,schemes such as land reform,
provision of basic needs and services such as preventive health care,provision of basic needs and services such as preventive health care,
education, etc…education, etc…
Disaster Risk Management ApproachesDisaster Risk Management Approaches
1. Prevention1. Prevention
64. 2. Mitigation2. Mitigation
The adverse impacts of hazards often cannot be prevented fully, but their scale orThe adverse impacts of hazards often cannot be prevented fully, but their scale or
severity can be substantially lessened by various strategies and actions.severity can be substantially lessened by various strategies and actions.
Mitigation includes a range of policy, legislation, professional practices, and socialMitigation includes a range of policy, legislation, professional practices, and social
adjustment that are designed to reduce the e ects of hazards in the community.ﬀadjustment that are designed to reduce the e ects of hazards in the community.ﬀ
Measures taken well in advance of a hazard event to minimize vulnerability ofMeasures taken well in advance of a hazard event to minimize vulnerability of
communities/households to a known/expected threat.communities/households to a known/expected threat.
It is taken to minimize the destructive & disruptive effects of hazards and thusIt is taken to minimize the destructive & disruptive effects of hazards and thus
lessen the magnitude of a disaster.lessen the magnitude of a disaster.
Measures range from physical/ structural ( flood defenses, safe building design) toMeasures range from physical/ structural ( flood defenses, safe building design) to
non-structural aspects (legislation, training, organizing disaster volunteers, publicnon-structural aspects (legislation, training, organizing disaster volunteers, public
awareness, food security programs, and advocacy on development issues).awareness, food security programs, and advocacy on development issues).
65. 3. Preparedness3. Preparedness
Advance measures taken toAdvance measures taken to predict,predict, respondrespond toto andand managemanage a hazard event…a hazard event…
measures that prepare people to react appropriatelymeasures that prepare people to react appropriately before, during and afterbefore, during and after it.it.
Involves measures taken in anticipation of a disaster to ensure thatInvolves measures taken in anticipation of a disaster to ensure that appropriate &appropriate &
effectiveeffective actions are taken before, during and in the aftermath.actions are taken before, during and in the aftermath.
It attempts toIt attempts to limitlimit the impact of a disaster bythe impact of a disaster by structuring the responsestructuring the response andand affectingaffecting
a quick and orderly reactiona quick and orderly reaction to the disaster.to the disaster.
E.g The formation & capacity building of an organization to oversee and implementE.g The formation & capacity building of an organization to oversee and implement
warning systems, evacuation, rescue & relief; formulation of a disaster implementingwarning systems, evacuation, rescue & relief; formulation of a disaster implementing
plan; stockpiling of supplies for immediate mobilization; emergency communications;plan; stockpiling of supplies for immediate mobilization; emergency communications;
training of volunteers, community drills & and simulation exercises; public educationtraining of volunteers, community drills & and simulation exercises; public education
& awareness. … reforesting an unstable slope to prevent landslides& awareness. … reforesting an unstable slope to prevent landslides
66. 3.1 Early Warning Systems3.1 Early Warning Systems
• The provision of timely and effective information throughThe provision of timely and effective information through
identified institutions that allows individuals/communityidentified institutions that allows individuals/community
exposed to a hazard to take action, to avoid or reduce theirexposed to a hazard to take action, to avoid or reduce their
risk and prepare for effective response.risk and prepare for effective response.
• It includes a chain of concerns, namely:It includes a chain of concerns, namely:
understanding and mapping the hazard;understanding and mapping the hazard;
monitoring and forecasting impending events;monitoring and forecasting impending events;
processing and disseminating understandable warnings toprocessing and disseminating understandable warnings to
political authorities and the population and undertakingpolitical authorities and the population and undertaking
appropriate and timely actions in response to the warningsappropriate and timely actions in response to the warnings
67. Involves measuresInvolves measures
taken totaken to alleviatealleviate
immediate hardshipimmediate hardship andand
meet basic needs formeet basic needs for
shelter, water, sanitation,shelter, water, sanitation,
health care as well ashealth care as well as
search, rescue andsearch, rescue and
protection of thoseprotection of those
4. Relief/Response4. Relief/Response
68. Process undertaken by a
disaster-affected community to
fully restore itself to its pre-
disaster level of functioning …
which enables it to become even
E.g planting/harvest of drought
resistant crops … storm/cyclone
-proofing buildings, roads,
railways, schools and clinics
5. Recovery and Rehabilitation5. Recovery and Rehabilitation
69. • The more general term ‘disaster reduction’ or ‘disaster risk
reduction’ is often used, to mean the broad developmentbroad development and
application of policies, strategiesapplication of policies, strategies and practicespractices to minimize
vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout society, through
prevention, mitigation and preparedness.
• ‘Disaster management’ is also often used in a general sense,
covering the implementation of preparedness, mitigation,
emergency response and relief and recovery measures.
70. • Disaster: when a hazard
overwhelms the response capacity
of a unit (e.g., community)
• Conventional criteria for disaster
(CRED), a disaster must meet at
least one of the following criteria:
10 or more people reported killed
100 people reported “affected”
the official declaration of a state of
or a call for international assistance
• Crisis: abnormal situation
resulting from strong
consequences of a hazard
combined with severely
diminished coping of a large
• Emergencies are related to war
and insecurity (total breakdown
of authority) and most often
produce refugees and IDPs.
Disaster, Crisis, EmergencyDisaster, Crisis, Emergency
71. Major Characteristics of Disasters
• There is an important distinction between an event and a
disaster. Not all adverse events trigger disasters;
• There is no such thing ‘natural disaster’ but there are
• Disasters are described by socio-economic and
environmental consequences of adverse events.
72. Characteristics Cont…Characteristics Cont…
• Disasters may be sudden onset or
‘creeping’ in nature.
– Sudden/fast/abrupt onset (disasters triggered
by earthquake, volcano, tsunami, flood,
– Creeping/slow/steady onset disasters
(disasters triggered by drought, famine, AIDS
epidemic, land degradation…)
73. Characteristics Cont…Characteristics Cont…
• Disasters are not always limited to a single
hazard. Sometimes two or more completely
independent disasters occur at the same time.
• Disasters can be categorized into international,
national and local disasters based on the scalescale
of responseof response required to manage its adverse
74. Characteristics Cont…Characteristics Cont…
• Disaster is defined as:
‘a serious disruption of the functioning of society,
causing widespread human, material or
environmental losses which exceed the ability of
the affected society to cope using only its own
resources’. ISDR, 2002.
• A hazard becomes a disaster risk and then disaster
when it coincides with a vulnerable situation, when
societies or communities are unable to cope with it
with their own resources and capacities.
75. Characteristics Cont…Characteristics Cont…
Flood X PoorlyPoorly
Life & PropertyLife & Property
X VulnerabilityVulnerability Disaster=
Crops thatCrops that
depend ondepend on
= Reduce production
• Vulnerability is the degree to which someone or somethingVulnerability is the degree to which someone or something
can be affected by a particular hazard and depends on acan be affected by a particular hazard and depends on a
number of factors and processes:number of factors and processes:
physical (unstable locations, closer proximity to
hazards, fragile unprotected houses).
economic (no productive assets, limited income
earning opportunities, poor pay, single income
revenue, no savings and insurance).
social (low status in society, gender relations,
fewer decision-making possibilities, oppressive
formal and informal institutional structures, and
political, economic and social hierarchies).
• Definition of Vulnerability- Exposure to risk
and stress and the lack of ability to cope with
the consequences of risk
• It is important to distinguish between the
symptoms and the causes of vulnerability
78. Vulnerability Is Not StaticVulnerability Is Not Static
Progression of vulnerability
79. Dynamic Pressures
Processes and activities
that ‘translate’ effects of
root causes temporally
and spatially into ‘unsafe
E.g: Rapid urbanization,
violent conflict, foreign
debt and structural
Disease outbreaks, etc..
How the vulnerability of
population is expressed
in conjunction with
- Living in hazardous
-Being unable to afford
- Engaging in dangerous
processes that affect
& distribution of
The function of the
state and distribution
80. Vulnerability Triggering FactorsVulnerability Triggering Factors
• One needs to consider not just the fact that people live in flimsyOne needs to consider not just the fact that people live in flimsy
houses in hazardous locations (e.g. flood prone areas),houses in hazardous locations (e.g. flood prone areas),
• butbut whywhy they live there, which could be the product of such forcesthey live there, which could be the product of such forces
– Rapid & unplanned urbanization
– Alarming population growth
– Lack of good governance
– Displacement due to economic development
– Environmental degradation
Disasters hit poor people the hardestDisasters hit poor people the hardest
53% of affected people by disasters53% of affected people by disasters
live in developing Countrieslive in developing Countries
Over 95% of the people killed byOver 95% of the people killed by
disasters lived in middle and low-disasters lived in middle and low-
income countries,income countries,
Extensive research shows the poorExtensive research shows the poor
are more likely to occupy dangerous,are more likely to occupy dangerous,
less desirable locationsless desirable locations,,
An estimated 1 billion peopleAn estimated 1 billion people
worldwide live in slums and shantyworldwide live in slums and shanty
which are vulnerable to disasters.
Communities can all too often
increase the probability and severity
of disasters by destroying the forests,forests,
coral reefs and wetlands that mightcoral reefs and wetlands that might
have protected them.have protected them.
Rapid & unplanned
An estimated 1 billion peopleAn estimated 1 billion people worldwide
live in slums and shanty towns, which are
vulnerable to disasters.
Significant proportion of the urbanSignificant proportion of the urban
populationpopulation lives in marginal settlements or
crowded slums with inadequate access to
clean water, sanitation, schools, transport and
other public services
Increased drought will lead to
land degradation, Crop damage
and reduced yields; livestock
wildfire risks will increase, and
people dependent on agriculture
will face food and water
shortages, malnutrition and
increased disease, with many
• Legal/political issuesLegal/political issues, such as
– lack of land rights;lack of land rights;
– government macro-economic andgovernment macro-economic and
other policies; andother policies; and
– other political features, such as theother political features, such as the
failure of government and civil societyfailure of government and civil society
institutions to protect citizens.institutions to protect citizens.
• It is the combination of all the strengthsstrengths and
resourcesresources available within a community, society or
organization that can reduce the level of risk or the
effects of disaster.
• It may include:
personalpersonal or collectivecollective attributes such as leadership
87. CapacityCapacity cont…cont…
• Ability of an affected community to deal with aAbility of an affected community to deal with a
• Existing coping mechanismsExisting coping mechanisms
• Indigenous knowledgeIndigenous knowledge
• Resilience of a community: Expressed in terms of:Resilience of a community: Expressed in terms of:
– social (the family),social (the family),
– political (decision-making ability),political (decision-making ability),
– economical (wealth) andeconomical (wealth) and
– environmental (biodiversity, conservation and naturalenvironmental (biodiversity, conservation and natural
resource) aspectsresource) aspects
• Ability of a individual, household, community to resistresist, absorb,, absorb, cope withcope with and
recoverrecover from the effects of hazards and stresses in a timely and efficient way
without compromising (and potentially enhancing) long term prospects
• Their ability to avoid or absorb risks, recover from shocks and continue on a
positive development trajectory is a precondition for resilience
• This is determined the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing
itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future
protection and to improve risk reduction measures.
Determines of Resilience:Determines of Resilience:
Access to information and knowledgeinformation and knowledge (such as climate data, market prices, seeds,
government policies and rights).
Working with uncertaintyWorking with uncertainty: integrating climate change information into program design
and encouraging flexibility through the programme.
Innovation and technology developmentInnovation and technology development: intermediate technologies that work at the
local level – such as, seed selection, crescent irrigation etc.
89. Resilience Cont…Resilience Cont…
Good governance and Power sharing: promoting participatory
decision making and rights of community members
• The ability of a person or a group to anticipate,anticipate,
cope withcope with, resist,resist, and recoverrecover from the impact of a
• Resilience refers to a person’s or a community’s
ability to bounce backbounce back or recover after adversity or
hard times, and to be capable of building positively
on these adversities.
90. Cont …
• Resiliency often is related to 3 different
The magnitudemagnitude of the shock that a HH or community can
absorb and remain viable
The degree to which the HH or community is capable of selfself
organizationorganization after the exposure to the hazard to maintain
an acceptable level of functioning and structure
The degree to which a HH or community can learn from
these difficult circumstances and adapt
• In a resilient HH or community, change has the potential
to create new opportunities
• Vulnerable HH and communities have a propensity to
suffer from exposure to external shocks and stresses
because they are sensitive to such exposures
• Adaptive capacity is an aspect of resilience-it reflects
learning, flexibility and the development of generalizable
responses to a broad range of challenges
• Community resilience refers to “individual and
collective capacity to respond to adversity and
• When a community is resilient, it can “respond to
crises in ways that strengthen community bonds,
resources, and the community’s capacity to