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Solarpvsystems 160711173659

  2. INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR PV SYSTEMS • What is a solar system • How Solar Works • Components of a Solar System • Types of Solar System • Designing the System • Safety • PV Wiring • Battery Wiring • Wiring the System • Glossory • Practical
  3. WHAT IS A SOLAR PV SYSTEM? • A solar PV System is a system which captures the sun’s energy and converts it into useful energy i.e. electricity • PV: Photovoltaic
  4. HOW SOLAR WORKS • Light hits the solar panels with photons (particles of sunlight). The solar panel converts those photons into electrons; direct current. • Electrons then flow through a conductor to the various device. • The material responsible for doing this conversion is call a cell.
  5. COMPONENTS OF A PV SOLAR SYSTEM • A PV Solar system typically consists of 4 basic components. • PV Array • Batteries • Inverter • Charge Controller
  6. COMPONENTS OF A PV SOLAR SYSTEM: PV ARRAY (SOLAR PANELS) • The PV Array: Electricity is generated by solar cells. Individual solar cells are grouped together into a solar “panel” or “module”. Then, several solar modules are grouped together to form a PV array.
  7. FACTORS AFFECTING SOLAR PANELS • Temperature • Shading • Dust
  8. TYPES OF SOLAR PANELS • Single-crystal or Mono-crystalline Silicon • Polycrystalline or Multi-crystalline Silicon
  9. MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON MODULES  Most efficient commercially available module  Most expensive to
  10. POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON MODULES  Less expensive to make than single crystalline modules  Cells slightly less efficient than a single crystalline
  11. PANEL MOUNTING • Racking
  12. COMPONENTS OF A PV SOLAR SYSTEM: BATTERIES • The batteries in a solar solar PV system stores the energy produced from the pv array and delivers it o the inverter which supplies the load. • A group of batteries in a solar pv system is called a battery bank.
  13. BATTERY CARE • Battery must not be discharged more than 50% • Charge controllers must be set to correct presets depending on type of battery and battery requirements. • Battery should be kept topped up with distilled water.
  14. PRECAUTION S Never Add Acid Under-watering: electrolyte level must never be dropped below the top of the plates Over-Watering: Diluted electrolytes, Add water only when battery is fully charged Under-charging: Forms sulphate on battery plates Over-charging: corrosion of positive plates, excess water consumption
  15. BATTERY CHARGING • There are three basic charging stages Bulk Charge: delivers maximum charging current to the battery till it reaches 80%. Absorption stage: for the remaining 20% of charge Voltage remains constant and current gradually decrees until the battery is fully charged. Equalization Stage: Typical peak voltage is delivered to the battery *15 to 16volts in a 12volts system) and is held fixed for a limited period of time typically 1-2hrs(depending on manufacturer’s preset). Float Charge: Otherwise called maintenance or trickle charge is the stage where the voltage is reduced to a lower level after full charge, this extends battery life. It’s purpose is to keep the charged battery from discharging.
  17. DEEP CYCLE (SOLAR BATTERIES) • A deep cycle battery is designed to provide a steady amount of current over a long period of time. A deep cycle battery can provide a surge when needed, but nothing like the surge a car battery can. A deep cycle battery is also designed to be deeply discharged over and over again (something that would ruin a car battery very quickly). To accomplish this, a deep cycle battery uses thicker plates.
  18. LEAD ACID (CAR BATTEIRES) • A car's battery is designed to provide a very large amount of current for a short period of time. This surge of current is needed to turn the engine over during starting. Once the engine starts, the alternator provides all the power that the car needs, so a car battery may go through its entire life without ever being drained more than 20 percent of its total capacity. Used in this way, a car battery can last a number of years. To achieve a large amount of current, a car battery uses thin plates in order to increase its surface area.
  19. COMPONENTS OF A PV SOLAR SYSTEM: CHARGE CONTROLLER • A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may protect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk.
  20. COMMON FEATURES OF A CHARGE CONTROLLER Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT): Adjusts the power from the solar array to deliver maximum solar energy to the battery. • Converts excess voltage to Amperage  Shunting: This diverts excess electricity to an auxiliary or shunt load ehen batteries are full. eg dc fan, lights and other dc loads.
  21. COMPONENTS OF A PV SOLAR SYSTEM: INVERTER • Power produced by the PV array is direct current, or DC power. That power needs to be converted to alternating current, or AC power, before it can be connected to the utility grid or delivered to the AC Load. The inverter is the heart of the system and is responsible for performing this conversion safely and efficiently.
  22. TYPES OF INVERTERS • Off Grid Inverters • Grid-Tied Inverters
  23. TYPES OF SOLAR SYSTEM • Grid Tie System • Off Grid System • Hybrid System
  24. TYPES OF SOLAR SYSTEM – GRID TIED •Grid-tied systems are the most common type of solar PV system. Grid-tied systems are connected to the electrical grid, and allow residents of a building to use solar energy as well as electricity from the grid.
  25. ADVANTAGES OF THE GRID-TIED SYSTEM • Less expense due to no use of battery • Little maintenance Required • Save Money due to Net Metering
  26. COMPONENTS OF A GRID TIED SYSTEM • PV panels (multiple panels make up an array) • Inverter(s)
  27. DISADVANTAGES OF THE GRID-TIED SYSTEM • Will not produce if there is no power from Grid
  28. TYPES OF SOLAR SYSTEMS: OFF-GRID • An off-grid Solar system produces power independent of the grid. That is it is not connected to the grid. • The system supplies power both day and night from a battery bank which is charged from the solar panels,
  29. COMPONENTS OF AN OFF-GRID SYSTEM • PV panels • battery bank • charge controller (to protect the battery bank from overcharge) • inverter
  30. DISADVANTAGES OF THE OFF-GRID SYSTEM • More Costly to install • Requires more maintenance
  31. TYPES OF SOLAR SYSTEMS - HYBRID • Hybrid solar systems is a combination of grid-tied and off-grid solar systems. These systems can either be described as off- grid solar with utility backup power, or grid-tied solar with extra battery storage. • Some hybrid systems also have a back up generator tied in with the system.
  32. COMPONENTS OF A HYBRID SYSTEM • PV panels • battery bank • charge controller (to protect the battery bank from overcharge) • Inverter • required electrical safety gear (i.e. fuses, breakers, disconnects) • monitoring system to monitor energy production (optional)
  33. ADVANTAGES OF HYBRID SYSTEMS • Less expensive than off-gird solar systems i.e. without the generator.
  34. DESIGNING THE SYSTEM • Systems are designed for worst month conditions such as December where there may be less sunlight.. Also designed for worst load scenario such as a power spike from equipment. • The best way to go about designing your system is to first make your home energy efficient, i.e replacing fluorescent, incandescent and other bulbs to led bulbs, changing ac units to inverter Acs, buying energy efficient TVs and refrigerators etc… • Load requirements • Location • Roof suitability – structure, spacing, and positioning
  35. LOAD REQUIREMENTS • Finding the power consumption of your home or business determines the size of your system. • Your load requirements is determined by doing an energy audit which gives the total energy consumption of your home or business. • Example.
  36. PV LOCATION • The Location of solar panels is crucial in determining it’s reliability to aduately receive sunlight to power your system and charge it efficiently. • The solar array must be installed in an area free of shading in order for the panels to efficiently produce. • The panels must be installed facing south… True south vs magnetic south • Panel should be tilted at a angle equal to the latitude of your location. Jamaica is 18degrees latitude so panels are tilted at an 18degree angle
  37. PV MOUNTING • Panels are tilted to get maximum sunlight and for self cleaning effects • Racking
  38. ROOF SUITABILITY – STRUCTURE, SPACING, AND POSITIONING • If panels are to be installed on the roof. The roofing structure must be stable and of suitable materials. • Types of roofing materials is also crucial.
  39. SAFETY!!! • Grounding of PV System • Disconnects • Overloads • PPE: Gloves, Hard Boot, Harness and Rope. • Double checking connections • Danger of DC Voltage
  42. WIRE THE SYSTEM Conductor: Copper and Luminium Copper has greater conductivity than aluminuim Copper is used Stranded vs Solid Stranded is highly flexible, used where larger wire size is required. Solid conductor is not very flexible and hard to use especially in larger sizes.
  43. Insulation Provides conductor protection from heat, abrasion, moisture UV lights, and chemicals. WIRE THE SYSTEM
  44. GLOSSARY • Ambient Temperature – Temperature of surrounding Air • PV – Photovoltaic • DC – Direct Current – current flows in one direction • AC – Alternating Current – Current flows in both directions • Kilo Watt- • Kilo Watt Hour – • MPPT – • Peak Sun Hours – • Solar Irradiance – A measure of how much solar power you are getting at a location. Varies depending on the season of year.