2. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
• The structural system of a high-rise building is designed to
cope with vertical gravity loads as well as lateral loads caused
by wind or seismic activity.
• The structural system consists only of the members designed
to carry the loads, all other members are referred to as non-
1. Dead load
2. Wind load and other lateral loads
3. Earthquake load
4. Geometry of the plan of the building
5. Local soil condition
6. Position and orientation of column
7. Beam column joints
8. Materials quality
4. LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE
• A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that
is an active structural element of a building, that
is, it bears theweight of the elements above said
wall, resting upon it by conducting its weight to a
5. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOAD BEARING
• Load bearing structure has brick foundation, beams & columns.
• Brick foundation needs larger foundation area w.r.t. RCC framed
structure, because load bearing capacity of brick is much less than that
• It has thick brick wall thicker walls give more weather resistance, noise
• It is good & cheap for less than 2 floored construction because bricks are
• It is good against fire resistance as rebars in RCC may fail by melting in
fire. This is why World Trade Center's tower fell.
• Load bearing structure is bad at earthquake resistance as shock waves
produce irregular tension & compression in columns; tension is beared
greatly by steel of RCC which is absent in load bearing structure.
6. FRAMED STRUCTURE
• A framed structure is a network of beams and
columns joined up to form the skeleton framework
of the building. The structural frame carries the total
load of the building and transfers it to the
7. ADVANTAGES OF FRAMED STRUCTURE
1- Low Cost (Than Steel Structures)
2- Good Safety (Compared to its Price)
3- High Compressive Strength (Best choice for lower
4- Material Availability (Than Steel Structures)
5- Wide Worker Availability & Easy
6- Easy Maintenance & Lower Maintenance Cost
7- Better resistance against fire
8. SHELL STRUCTURE
• A shell is a type of structural element which is characterized by
its geometry, being a three-dimensional solid whose thickness is
very small when compared with other dimensions, and in
structural terms, by the stress resultants calculated in the middle
plane displaying components which are both coplanar and
normal to the surface.
15. TYPES OF LOAD
1. Dead Loads (DL)
The first vertical load that is considered is dead load. Dead loads are
permanent or stationary loads which are transferred to structure
throughout the life span. Dead load is primarily due to self weight
of structural members, permanent partition walls, fixed permanent
equipments and weight of different materials. It majorly consists of
the weight of roofs, beams, walls and column etc. which are
otherwise the permanent parts of the building.
16. 2. Imposed Loads or Live Loads
• Live loads are either movable or moving loads
with out any acceleration or impact. These loads
are assumed to be produced by the intended use
or occupancy of the building including weights of
movable partitions or furniture etc..
• Live loads keeps on changing from time to time.
These loads are to be suitably assumed by the
designer. It is one of the major load in the design.
The minimum values of live loads to be assumed
are given in IS 875 (part 2)–1987. It depends upon
the intended use of the building.
18. 3. Wind loads
• Wind load is primarily horizontal load caused by
the movement of air relative to earth. Wind load
is required to be considered in structural design
especially when the heath of the building
exceeds two times the dimensions transverse to
the exposed wind surface.
• The horizontal forces exerted by the components
of winds is to be kept in mind while designing is
the building. The calculation of wind loads
depends on the two factors, namely velocity of
wind and size of the building. Complete details
of calculating wind load on structures are given
below (by the IS-875 (Part 3) -1987).
19. 4. SNOW LOAD
• Snow loads constitute to the vertical loads in the
building. But these types of loads are considered only in
the snow fall places. The IS 875 (part 4) – 1987 deals
with snow loads on roofs of the building.
5. Earthquake Loads (EL)
• Earthquake forces constitute to both vertical and
horizontal forces on the building. The total vibration
caused by earthquake may be resolved into three
mutually perpendicular directions, usually taken as
vertical and two horizontal directions.
• The movement in vertical direction do not cause forces
in superstructure to any significant extent. But the
horizontal movement of the building at the time of
earthquake is to be considered while designing.
20. 6. Other Loads and Effects acting on Structures
• As per the clause 19.6 of IS 456 – 2000, in addition
to above load discussed, account shall be taken of
the following forces and effects if they are liable to
affect materially the safety and serviceability of the
• (a) Foundation movement (See IS 1904)
• (b) Elastic axial shortening
• (c) Soil and fluid pressure (See IS 875, Part 5)
• (d) Vibration
• (e) Fatigue
• (f) Impact (See IS 875, Part 5)
• (g) Erection loads (See IS 875, Part 2) and
• (h) Stress concentration effect due to point load and the
22. DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
• It involves the choice of technology, the definition of work
tasks, the estimation of the required resources and
durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any
interactions among the different work tasks. A good
construction plan is the basis for developing the budget
and the schedule for work.
• 1. High rise building technology
• 2. Seismic technology
• 3. Large space technology
23. 1. High rise building technology
• A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed
to a low-rise building and is defined by its height
differently in various jurisdictions. ... The materials
used for the structural system of high-rise
buildings are reinforced concrete and steel.
24. SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY
• The conventional standard of earthquake resistance is
how to construct a building rigid enough to resist
seismic force ( rigid structure) or flexible enough to (
• The seismic effects on structure can be controlled by
vibration control system, then the vibration control
system further classified into two types as follows:
1. Passive control systems
2. Active Control systems
3. Semi-active control systems
4. Hybrid control systems
26. ACTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
• In the active control, an external source of
energy is used to activate the control system by
providing an analog signal to it. This signal is
generated by the computer following a control
algorithm that uses measured responses of the
27. SEMI-ACTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
It compromise between the passive and active control
The structural motion is utilized to develop the control
actions or forces through the adjustment of its
The action of control forces can maintained by using
small external power supply or even with battery
28. PASSIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
• The passive control system does not require
an external power source and being utilizes
the structural motion to dissipate seismic
energy or isolates the vibrations so that
response of structure can be controlled
• 1. Base Isolation
• 2. Passive Energy Dissipating
29. BASE ISOLATION
A building mounted on a material with low lateral stiffness,
such as rubber, achieves a flexible base.
During the earthquake, the flexible base is able to filter out high
frequencies from the ground motion and to prevent the
building from being damaged or collapsing
- deflecting the seismic energy and
- absorbing the seismic energy
Conventional Structure Base Isolated structure
30. VARIOUS TYPE OF BASE ISOLATION
• Elastomeric Bearings:
• -Low-Damping Natural or Synthetic Rubber
- High-Damping Natural Rubber Bearing
- Lead-Rubber Bearing
• (Low damping natural rubber with lead
• Sliding Bearings
• - Flat Sliding Bearing
• - Spherical Sliding Bearing
31. PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATING DEVICES
Mechanical devices to dissipate or absorb a portion
of structural input energy, thus reducing structural response
and possible structural damage.
• Metallic Yield Dampers
• Friction Dampers
• Visco-elastic Dampers
• Viscous Fluid Dampers, And
• Tuned Mass Dampers And Tuned Liquid Dampers.
32. METALLIC YIELD DAMPERS
Metallic yield damper:
relies on the principle
the the metallic device
deforms plastically, thus
35. VISCO-ELASTIC DAMPERS
dampers utilize high
damping from VE
materials to dissipate
energy through shear
Such materials include
rubber, polymers, and
38. HYBRID CONTROL SYSTEMS
Combine controls system together
Passive + Active
Passive + Semi-Active
Reduce external power requirement
When loss of electric during earthquake, hybrid control can act as a
Reduce construction and maintenance costs due to active or
39. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS
Methods for assessing and choosing materials are based on
the following guidelines:
• 1. Environmental factors
• 2. Local materials and transport needs (savings)
• 3. Needs of occupants of dwellings
• 4. Need for appropriate building design for marketing
• 5. Need for financial viability/affordability
• 6. Need to make best use of current technology, through the
Building Material Assessment System (see above).
40. Each material is assessed at five stages of its life:
• - mining/extraction
• - manufacture
• - construction
• - use
• - demolition.
The assessment is covered by 14 different parameters:
• a) The damage to the environment during mining or
harvesting of the basic material.
• b) How much damage in relation to the quantity of
materials (what else is disturbed or damaged?).
• c) The source, size, or renewability of the basic
• d) The recycle content.
41. • e) Waste residue, solid or liquid, in production
• f) The air pollution due to manufacture and production.
• g) The embodied energy
• h) The energy consumed during transportation to site of usage.
• i) The energy consumed on-site for erection or assembling.
• j) The on-site waste and packaging.
• k) The maintenance required during the life-cycle.
• l) The environmental impact during the life-cycle (ie, toxic emissions).
• m) The energy and effects associated with demolition/disposal at the
end of the life-cycle.
• n) The recyclability of the demolished/dissembled material.
42. Phases versus Stages
Goal and Scope
Portions of LCA procedure
Sections of product life cycle
Extraction and upstream production
Note: This is a general diagram of stages and some products or processes
may have more or less stages than those shown here
04/2015 LCA Module α3
43. Life Cycle of a Building
Source (bottom cropped): WBCSD Cement Sustainability Initiative, PCR for
concrete, UN CPC 375, 2013-02-12
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44. Life Cycle of a Transportation Fuel
Image Source (without dashed boxes):
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45. Inputs and Outputs throughout Stages
Source: Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles. EPA/600/R-92/245. Office of Research
Development. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
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Exploration for and
removal of raw
materials from natural
Image sources: phoenixparts.com, blog.tradequip.com, columbiate
Transformation of raw
materials into a form
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Transforming energy and raw/pre-processed
materials into products, and packaging them
Image sources: madeintheusa.dreamlandinteractive.com angus-
Energy use (gas,
Raw material use
Chemical use and
May include assembly of parts,
transportation between facilities, packaging
for distribution, and any uses and emissions
from the facility
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Getting rid of product at the end of its life
Similar issues as use for uncertainty
◦ For example, disposal of lubricating oil could be done by
◦ Dumping (illegal)
Due to uncertainty, may be wise to include multiple
use cases in analysis or present sensitivity analyses
If recycling or reusing, some impacts may be offset in
◦ Can sometimes result in net environmental benefits for
◦ Example: -5 kg CO2-eq for GWP means that it was as if 5
kg of CO2 were sequestered (does not mean actual
physical sequestration occurred)
What disposal options
Which most likely?
Is a product offset by
Is there additional
transport involved in
LCA Module α3
Example of Disposal Routes for a
Plastic Water Bottle
Refill with tap
LCA Module α3
Materials and products must be moved
at multiple points in the life cycle
◦ After extraction
◦ After processing and/or manufacture
◦ To the customer
◦ To the disposal facility
Impacts from various transport
methods are generally well studied
◦ Most databases have these processes
◦ Many studies in the literature
◦ Often only include energy, regulated
emissions, and greenhouse gases
Modes of transport
Shipped with other
Transport processes can be:
◦ Considered to be one stage
◦ Considered to be individual
stages for each transport
◦ Included as part of the stage
directly before or after
◦ Choose one or the other to avoid
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51. Common Transport Modes
Image sources: popularmechanics.com blog.uship.com truckstars.com maritime-connector.com
LCA Module α3
52. GREEN BUILDING/ ECO
“It is the practice of
increasing efficiency with which buildings use
resources- energy, water and materials-while
reducing building impacts on human health
and the environment.”
The `Green Building' concept is
gaining importance in various countries,
including India. These are buildings that
ensure that waste is minimized at every stage
during the construction and operation of the
53. Source of Material
• Renewable sources: Forests
• Reuse from waste: old plumbing , doors etc..
54. Wool brick
• Obtained by adding wool
and a natural polymer found
in seaweed to the clay of the
• 37% More strength than
• Resistant for cold and wet
59. Merits Of Green Building
Return On Investment
Improved Indoor Air Quality
60. • Continue…
• Temperature Moderation
• Waste Reduction
• Water Conservation
• Economical Construction For Poor
• Healthier Lifestyles and Recreation
• Improved Health.
61. DEMERITS OF GREEN BUILDING
• INITIAL COST IS HIGH
AILABILITY OF MA
• NEED MORE TIME TO CONSTRUCT
• NEED SKILED WORKER
62. GRIHA Rating System
• GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) is the Indian national
green building rating system.
• It was developed by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute) in 2007. This rating
system is divided into:
• Sustainable site planning-21.2%, health and well being- 9.6%, building planning
and construction-7.7%, energy: end use-36.5%,
• Energy: renewable- 7.7%, recycle, recharge and reuse of water-6.7%, waste
management-4.8%, building operation and maintenance-1.9%, and innovation
• The GRIHA rates the buildings from 50-60 one star, 61-70 two stars, 71-80 three
stars, 81-90 four stars, and above 90 % five stars.
• A building is assessed based on its predicted performance over its entire life cycle
— from inception to operation.
• The stages of the life cycle that have been identified for evaluation are: pre-
construction, building design, and construction, and building O & M (operation
63. • Pre-construction stage (intra- and inter-site issues)
• Building planning and construction stages (issues of
resource conservation and reduction in resource
demand resource utilization efficiency, resource
recovery and reuse, and provisions for occupant
health and well-being). The prime resources that
are considered in this section are land, water,
energy, air, and green cover.
• Building O&M stage (issues of O&M of building
systems and processes, monitoring and recording of
consumption, and occupant health and well-being,
and also issues that affect the global and local
64. NATURAL BUILDING
• The materials common to many types of natural
building are clay and sand. When mixed with water
and, usually, straw or another fiber, the mixture
may form cob or adobe (clay blocks).
• Other materials commonly used in natural building
are: earth (as rammed earth or earth bag), wood
(cordwood or timber frame/post-and-beam), straw,
rice-hulls, bambooand stone.
• A wide variety of reused or recycled non-toxic
materials are common in natural building, including
urbanite (salvaged chunks of used concrete),
vehicle windscreens and other recycled glass.
66. MATERIALS USED FOR NATURAL BUILDING
• Adobe Or Cob.
• Rammed earth.
• Straw bale.
• Recycled glass
• One of the oldest natural building techniques, adobe involves
creating a building material with earth and water – sometimes
with straw added – which is then dried in the sun.
• Typically the abode composite is formed into uniform shapes and
then used like conventional bricks, but it can also simply be
layered over time to create a structure.
• The best results come from adobe made from earth with at least
20 percent clay by volume, with the remainder being primarily
composed of sand.
• This provides strength as well as good thermal mass for
temperature regulation, although adobe does benefit from the
utilization of some insulation; traditionally a double wall with an
air space fulfilled this role, but today applying an insulation
material to the exterior is more common.
• Cob is similar in technique to adobe, but with more straw is
added to the mixture.
• Also, rather than being formed into uniform bricks, cob is
generally used in irregular “cobs” that are applied by hand to
build up the structure.
• While this makes the technique more labor intensive than
some other natural building techniques – indeed, in the past,
the cob material was typically mixed by laborers’ feet – it
does allow for freedom in the shape of the property.
• Altering the proportion of straw in the cob mixture will
affect its insulating properties and strength, with cobs
containing a greater proportion of straw used for interior
• As the name suggests, Earthbags are fabric or plastic sacks
filled with earth that are then used to create walls.
• In terms of housing construction, Earthbags are a relatively
new technique, but they have been used successfully as
flood barriers and for military defenses for some time.
• As such, Earthbag homes are sturdy and very good at
protecting the inhabitants from the elements.
• Because the sacks – whether the traditional burlap or more
modern polypropylene variations – will eventually degrade
over time, permanent structures constructed with Earthbags
will need plastering with a suitable material, such as a lime-
73. Straw Bales:
Straw bale house construction is among the cheapest of all
natural building techniques.
• Straw is often considered a straw waste product by farmers
and burnt in the field, so using it in construction is also a good
way to reuse something that may otherwise by destroyed.
• And because it is an annual crop, straw is a renewable
resource. Planning regulations typically mean that straw bales
are used as a highly effective insulating infill for a timber or
steel frame house, rather than being freestanding, load-
bearing walls themselves.
• Straw bale houses are comparatively quick to construct, but
care must be taken to allow the straw to breathe, otherwise
moisture can collect in them and cause them to rot.
• Bamboo has long been used as a construction
material in tropical climates in Asia, Central America
and South America.
• It has great integral strength, meaning that it can be
used for structural applications as well as decorative
• The use of bamboo does rely on specialist
knowledge, as joinery techniques used in timber
construction do not work well with the unique
character of bamboo, however, as long as it is
sourced from a sustainable supply, it offers a greener
alternative to timer construction, as wood becomes
Rather than a species of tree, cordwood is a term that refers to
the length of pieces of wood used in the construction technique.
• Unlike more conventional timber methods, cordwood uses short
lengths of wood, comparatively small in diameter. The best way
to conceive of it is to imagine using firewood for construction.
• The logs are bound with a mortar, either cement-based or cob.
• Cordwood is a relatively quick technique, and typically uses
timber that has been deemed worthless by conventional timber
• Planning restrictions typically require cordwood to be used as
infill – it does have good insulating qualities – within a timber or
79. Rammed Earth:
• Rammed earth uses a soil mixture that has at least 20 percent
• The earth is also wetter than comparative techniques such as
adobe, with a moisture content of around 10 percent.
• The earth is the tamped down in layers – traditionally by hand
but increasingly by machinery – of between six and eight inches
thick. The walls of a property built using rammed earth are
usually around a foot wide.
• This provides great strength as well as taking advantage of the
material’s excellent thermal mass.
• The material’s ability to reabsorb and release heat makes it ideal
for temperate climates (those in warmer climes may want to
consider insulating the exterior to prevent temperatures rising
81. PASSIVE BUILDING
• Passive house (German: Passivhaus) is a rigorous,
voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a building,
which reduces the building's ecological footprint.
• It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little
energy for space heating or cooling.
• Passive House is the world‘s leading standard in energy
• The Passive House Standard stands for quality, comfort and
• Passive Houses require very little energy to achieve a
comfortable temperature year round, making conventional
heating and air conditioning systems obsolete. While
delivering superior levels of comfort, the Passive House
Standard also protects the building structure.
83. Passive House is based on five main
• High performance thermal insulation.
• Well insulated windows with low-e coatings.
• Ventilation and heat recovery, using heat
• Air tightness.
• Absence of thermal bridges.
84. INTELLIGENT (SMART) BUILDING
• Smart buildings are nothing but through the
use of computers and communication
equipment, the entire system of the building
• The equipment and operating personnel can
be stationed in a so called Control center.
• That is the entire equipment can be
monitored and controlled remotely via a
computer, modem and telephone line.
• An Intelligent building is the one which
provides a productive and cost-effective
environment through optimization of four
basic elements: structure, systems, services and
management, and the interrelationship
• It is a type of building that uses both
technology and process to create an
environment that is safe, healthy, and
comfortable to everyone.
86. Need of Intelligent Building
• Technology is changing how we design and construct buildings
and the building fabrics themselves .
• Intelligent buildings are the new Era in the field of
construction throughout the world.
• It is Environment Friendly.
• It is cost Effective.
• It has many social benefits.
87. Difference between ordinary and
• Intelligent building: Intelligent building adjusts the inside
functional aspects such as lighting, ventilation, fire-fighting, air-
conditioning, etc. automatically with the changes in environmental
conditions controlled by computer.
• the security system , communication system, etc. are coordinated
and automatically controlled by computer work station.
• Ordinary building: Ordinary building there will be different room
conditions depending on the changes in the environmental
• The security system , communication system, etc. are not
coordinated and automatically controlled by computer work
88. Cost Effective Construction
• Fly ash Based concrete walls should be used.
• Intelligent buildings are more energy efficient.
• These buildings use less water.
• Materials efficiency.
• Intelligent building should be constructed so that it can take
advantages of renewable resources.
• Reduces operating cost.
• Solar cells should be used.
90. Components of Energy efficient
• Provide good Landscaping
• Ratio of built form to open spacing
• Location of water bodies should be at proper place
• There should be proper orientation of the building
• Use of materials with low embodied energy
91. Environment Friendly
• An intelligent building starts with an environmentally friendly
• They maintains a comfortable, safe and secure environment .
• The uses of carbon is minimum which reduces pollution.
• Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems.
• Improve air and water quality.
• Reduce waste streams.
• Optimum Use of Day Light.
93. Access control
• Access control restricts how and when people enter and exit an
• It can be done by many methods.
1) Finger Print Lock
2) Voice and Video Intercom
3) Code Based Access System
4) Swipe Card Access System
5) Biometric Access System
6) Surveillance through CCTVs
• Life safety systems, often called “fire systems”, are typically
driven by code considerations .
• Early warning systems like smoke detection systems, detects
the fire at a very early stage and pinpoint to the caretaker
where exactly it is occurring, so that the fire is extinguished
locally through manual fire extinguishers.
• Fire protection system pumps water to the areas where the
fire occurs, so as to douse it automatically through sprinkler
bulbs and also manually through the fire brigade.
97. Management systems
• Energy Management
• HVAC systems
• Lighting systems
• Lift and Escalator systems
• Alarm Monitoring
• Water Management systems
98. Water Management System
• Rain Water Harvesting should be done
• Water Efficient Plumbing and Fixtures should be used
• Water Treatment, Recycling & Minimal Disposal
• Gray Water Handling
• Solid Waste Control Strategies
• Proper water drainage system should be provided.
99. HVAC Systems
• HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as
High rise buildings and Intelligent buildings.
• It refers to Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning of the
• Heaters can be used to generate heat if required.
• Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as
well as circulation of air within the building.
• Unpleasant smells and excessive moisture are reduced.
100. Advantages of Intelligent buildings
• Provides Air quality control
• Higher level of security and safety
• Reduced administration costs
• Provides good comfort
• Environment friendly
• Proper control over the entire structure
• focus on eliminating CO2 emissions
101. Disadvantages of Intelligent
• The initial cost of an installed system is high.
• Repairing problems.
• Requires special super vision over all configuration.
• Small life of the electronic equipment.
• Serviceability would be an issue unless users have a trained
technician on the staff.
• Technological limitations.
•It should have advanced automatic control
system to monitor various facilities including air
condition control of temperature, lighting,
heating, etc….to provide a comfortable working
environment for the users.
•It should have good networking infra-structure to
enable dais flow between different floors.
•It should create an environment which allows
organization to achieve its business objectives
with minimum life cycle costs.
i) Benefits to building owner
• Smart buildings are energy efficient and the
operating costs are significantly lower than the
conventional buildings. (saves 20% to 30%
• Improved staff productivity.
• Extended life of a building.
• More effective and comfortable environment
for all the residents.
ii) Benefits to occupants.
– Working environment
– Enhanced productivity
– Environmental benefits
The structural design engineers initially could
not understand intelligent building
management system and building automation
system to give the details of full requirements.
Many intelligent buildings did not have
adequate follow up actions as in energy
consumptions monthly and annual auditing
and maintenances programes.
A good intelligent building will lose its
efficiency through aging and lack of
105. Building automation system(bas)
• BAS is a intelligent building control system , based on computer
monitoring, designed to coordinate, organize and optimize
various building control sub- system like HVAC ( heating,
ventilation & air conditioning) system, electrical systems, fire
system, security systems and elevator systems.
• It is the automatic centralized control of a building’s HVAC
system through a building management system.
• The main objectives of BAS are improved occupant comfort,
efficient operation of building systems, reduction in energy
consumption and operating cost and improved life cycle of
• BAS should reduce building energy and maintenance costs
compared to a non- controlled building. Most commercial,
institutional and industrial buildings built after 2000 include a
106. Energy efficient building services with
proper selection of equipment
• This plays the vital role. Building services such
as lighting, HVAC, fire, etc… consumes less
energy by selection of energy efficient
equipment and integrating them for efficient
utilization of services.
107. Information management
• Facility owners and managers require large
amount of data of various types for quality
and efficient management.
• Typically information such as management
data utilities, energy, maintenance, space,
tenant and environmental compliance is a
available and recorded on various computers
or control stations.
108. List of energy efficient buildings in India
Cold and sunny
• Degree College and Hill Council Complex, Leh
• Airport and staff housing colony, Kargil
• LEDeG Trainees’ Hostel, Leh
• Sarai for Tabo Gompa, Spiti
• The Druk White Lotus School, Shey, Ladakh
Cold And Cloud
• Residence of Mohini Mullick, Bhowali, Nainital
• Himachal Pradesh State Co-operative Bank,
• MLA Hostel, Shimla
• Himurja Office Building, Shimla
• PEDA office complex, Chandigarh
• Bidani House, Faridabad
• Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New
• Transport Corporation of India Ltd, Gurgaon
• SOS Tibetan Children’s Village, Rajpur, Dehradun
• Redevelopment of property at Civil Lines, Delhi
• Integrated Rural Energy Programme Training
110. Hot and dry
• Indian Institute of Health Management
• Sangath – an architect’s studio, Ahmedabad
• Torrent Research Centre, Ahmedabad
• Residence for Mahendra Patel, Ahmedabad
• Solar passive hostel, Jodhpur
• college of engineering, Phaltan
• Residence for Mary Mathew, Bangalore
• TERI office building-cum-guest house, Bangalore
111. Warm and humid
• Nisha’s play School, Goa
• Office building of the West Bengal Renewable Energy
Development Agency, Kolkata
• Office-cum-laboratory for the West Bengal Pollution
Control Board, Kolkata
• Silent Valley, Kalasa
• Vikas Apartments, Auroville
• La Cuisine Solaire, Auroville
• Kindergarten School, Auroville
• Visitors’ Centre, Auroville
• Computer Maintenance Corporation House, Mumbai
• Dormitory Building, Karjat