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Commonly used instruments in Experimental Pharmacology

Commonly used instruments in Experimental Pharmacology

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Commonly used instruments in Experimental Pharmacology

  1. 1. Commonly used instruments in Experimental Pharmacology Ex-6
  2. 2. Aim:- To study about commonly used instrument in Experimental pharmacology 1.Student Organ Bath:- Tissue bath used to put the animal tissue for studying the drug action.(Application of drug) This was first discovered by Rudolph Magnus in 1904 Types:- 1.Single Unit- 2.Double Unit-
  3. 3. 1.Single Unit organ bath:- Designed & developed by Rudolph magnus. It has one inner organ bath 2.Double or multiple unit organ bath:- it has two inner tissue organ bath. Used for more efficient and fast drug discovery in industry Parts of organ bath:- 1.Outer bath/outer water jacket:- made up of steel or perspex glass.contain water. Mainly use to store water outside the inner organ bath to maintain the temp. for experiment. 2.Inner organ bath:- made up of glass contain PSS and tissues to be studied. 3.Water heater/Heating coil:- to heat the water, fitted in outer organ bath
  4. 4. 4.Thermostat:- to maintain constant temptertaure of water in outer organ bath 5.Rotator/Stirrer:- it gives circulating water to maintain the similar temp throughout the outer organ bath 6.Mariotte bottle:- Reservoir for PSS also called aspiration bottle. It delivers a constant rate of flow from closed bottles. It named after French physiologist Edme Mariotte.
  5. 5. 7.Areator cum tissue holder tube:- supply continuous air/o2 to the tissue and also hold the tissue 8.Fulcrum:- writing lever is attach to this help in free vertical movement to record the response 9.Pre heating coil:- Maintain temp. of PSS when outer organ bath is empty
  6. 6. 10.Recording lever:- Mechanical instrument used in isolated tissue work and made up of aluminum, stainless steel. they are very light & rigid so that while writing on a smoked surface they do not bend. Parts of lever :- 1.Effort arm-point where force to be applied 2.Load arm-effect observed due to application of force 3.Fulcum -:Types:- 1.Simple Lever:- Made up of stainless steel,Aluminium a celluloid writing tip is attached at the end of the longer arm. Attachment of simple lever should be tangential to the smoked drum
  7. 7. 2.Frontal writing lever:- attachment of this lever should be perpendicular to the smoked drum. Writing point rotates freely about its axis. It magnified a small contraction of tissue on the kymograph 3.Universal lever/Brodies lever:- general utility lever with axis screwed with two nuts.it is a general utility lever
  8. 8. 3.Starling heart lever:- use to record the contraction of the heart.consists of metallic horizontal bar with which there is a suspending spring.end of the spring is fitted with stylus.with the movement of heart the spring moves up and down Kymograph:- electrically device used for recording the response of the tissue. Parts :- 1.Rotating drum:- also called Sherrington rotating drum
  9. 9. • Its speed can be adjusted by attached gear and lever. Standard speed of the drum is 1 revolution 96 min • Drum rotate clockwise direction so that all kymograph record can be read from left to right. • Kymogram is the paper used to record the response. 2.Base:- contain gear and lever. 3.Shaft:- screw to adjust the level of drum Smoking of the kymograph drum:- after fixing of paper to the drum should be uniformly smoked with the help of burning cotton soaked in kerosene. Fixing of the Tracings :- recording on the smoking drum are preserved by properly fixing them with the help of fixing solution. Commonly used resins to prepare fixing solution.
  10. 10. 1.Class-1 lever:- Loadeffort Fulcrum 2.Class-2 lever- Isotonic lever:- Change in length due to contraction is recorded Isometric lever:- consists of a heavy brass frame with spring steel-wire fixed to each limb and carrying the lever from the centre. The screw is so arranged that it forces the limbs apart & increases the tension of the spring Effect Fulcrum Load
  11. 11. Cannula:- Tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid 1.Venous cannula:- Inserted into a vein, primarily for the administration of intravenous fluids, for obtaining blood samples and for administering medicines.it pierces the femoral vein & used in dog experiment 2.Arterial Cannula:- used for BP measurement and infusion of GA. Consists with bulbs with 3 arms 1. Smallest arm-inserted into artery 2. Intermediate arm-for BP measurement 3. Longest arm-for removing blood clots
  12. 12. Physiological salt solution:- The ionic requirement and nutritional supply can be provided in isolated tissue experiments by using a suitable solution known as PSS. It provides an artificial media resembling the inorganic composition of blood plasma together with a better mechanism to facilitate tissue metabolism Solution prepare with the help of distilled or deionized water
  13. 13. Role of each ingredients:- 1.Nacl :- to maintain iso-osmolarity ,Isotonicity 2.Kcl:- for Ionic balance.its role is remarkable in maintaining heart rate and rhythm 3.Cacl2:- To maintain the contractility of the preparation. 4.Sodium bicarbonate:- to provide alkaline PH 5.Glucose:- to provide energy 6.Sodium or potassium dihydrogen phosphate :- Acts as a buffer 7.Mgcl2/Mgso4:- to stabilize the preparation (decrease spontaneous activity)
  14. 14. Factor affecting the PSS:- PH :- standered PH should be 7.3 to 7.4 PH can be increase or decrease by adding NaHco3 & NaH2Po4 or KH2 Po4 Temperature:- 37 degree If bath temp decrease below 37 the tonus of the intestine is increase, contraction become smaller and contraction-relaxation time increase Aeration:- air flow rate of 0.5 to 2lit/min are adequate for most preparation.
  15. 15. Commonly used salt solution:- Frog Ringer solution Tyrode solution Nacl-6.50g/L NaCl-8g/l Kcl-0.14g/L Kcl-0.2g/L Cacl2- 0.12 Mgcl2- 0.1g/l NaHCo3-0.2 gm/L Cacl2-0.20g/l Glucose- 2gm/L NaH2P04-0.05g/l NaHco3-1g/l Glucose-2g/l
  16. 16. PSS Isolated tissue Experiment Frog Ringer Frog rectus abdominis Frog heart Leech dorsal muscle Acetylcholine bioassay Tyrode solution Guineapig lieum Vasdeference Rabbit duodenum or ileum Rat ileum,stomach,phrenic nerve,diaphram Histamine bioassay Acetylcholine bioassay

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