SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Commonly used instruments in Experimental Pharmacology
Commonly used instruments in
Aim:- To study about commonly used instrument in Experimental
1.Student Organ Bath:-
Tissue bath used to put the animal tissue for studying the drug
action.(Application of drug)
This was first discovered by Rudolph Magnus in 1904
1.Single Unit organ bath:- Designed & developed by Rudolph magnus. It has
one inner organ bath
2.Double or multiple unit organ bath:-
it has two inner tissue organ bath. Used for more efficient and fast drug
discovery in industry
Parts of organ bath:-
1.Outer bath/outer water jacket:- made up of steel or perspex
Mainly use to store water outside the inner organ bath to maintain the
temp. for experiment.
2.Inner organ bath:- made up of glass contain PSS and tissues to be
3.Water heater/Heating coil:- to heat the water, fitted in outer organ bath
4.Thermostat:- to maintain constant temptertaure of water in outer organ bath
5.Rotator/Stirrer:- it gives circulating water to maintain the similar temp
throughout the outer organ bath
6.Mariotte bottle:- Reservoir for PSS also called aspiration bottle. It delivers a
constant rate of flow from closed bottles. It named after French physiologist
7.Areator cum tissue holder tube:- supply continuous air/o2 to the tissue
and also hold the tissue
8.Fulcrum:- writing lever is attach to this help in free vertical movement
to record the response
9.Pre heating coil:- Maintain temp. of PSS when outer organ bath is empty
Mechanical instrument used in isolated tissue work and made up of aluminum,
stainless steel. they are very light & rigid so that while writing on a smoked
surface they do not bend.
Parts of lever :- 1.Effort arm-point where force to be applied
2.Load arm-effect observed due to application of force
1.Simple Lever:- Made up of stainless steel,Aluminium a celluloid writing tip is
attached at the end of the longer arm.
Attachment of simple lever should be tangential to the smoked drum
2.Frontal writing lever:- attachment of this lever should be perpendicular to
the smoked drum. Writing point rotates freely about its axis. It magnified a
small contraction of tissue on the kymograph
3.Universal lever/Brodies lever:- general utility lever with axis screwed with
two nuts.it is a general utility lever
3.Starling heart lever:- use to record the contraction of the heart.consists of
metallic horizontal bar with which there is a suspending spring.end of the spring
is fitted with stylus.with the movement of heart the spring moves up and down
Kymograph:- electrically device used for recording
the response of the tissue.
1.Rotating drum:- also called Sherrington rotating drum
• Its speed can be adjusted by attached gear and lever. Standard speed of the drum
is 1 revolution 96 min
• Drum rotate clockwise direction so that all kymograph record can be read from
left to right.
• Kymogram is the paper used to record the response.
2.Base:- contain gear and lever.
3.Shaft:- screw to adjust the level of drum
Smoking of the kymograph drum:-
after fixing of paper to the drum should be uniformly smoked with the help of
burning cotton soaked in kerosene.
Fixing of the Tracings :- recording on the smoking drum are preserved by
properly fixing them with the help of fixing solution. Commonly used resins to
prepare fixing solution.
Isotonic lever:- Change in length due to contraction is recorded
Isometric lever:- consists of a heavy brass frame with spring steel-wire fixed
to each limb and carrying the lever from the centre. The screw is so
arranged that it forces the limbs apart & increases the tension of the spring
Cannula:- Tube that can be inserted into the body, often
for the delivery or removal of fluid
1.Venous cannula:- Inserted into a vein, primarily for the
administration of intravenous fluids, for obtaining blood
samples and for administering medicines.it pierces the
femoral vein & used in dog experiment
2.Arterial Cannula:- used for BP measurement and
infusion of GA.
Consists with bulbs with 3 arms
1. Smallest arm-inserted into artery
2. Intermediate arm-for BP measurement
3. Longest arm-for removing blood clots
Physiological salt solution:-
The ionic requirement and nutritional supply can be
provided in isolated tissue experiments by using a suitable
solution known as PSS.
It provides an artificial media resembling the inorganic
composition of blood plasma together with a better
mechanism to facilitate tissue metabolism
Solution prepare with the help of distilled or deionized
Role of each ingredients:-
1.Nacl :- to maintain iso-osmolarity ,Isotonicity
2.Kcl:- for Ionic balance.its role is remarkable in maintaining heart rate and
3.Cacl2:- To maintain the contractility of the preparation.
4.Sodium bicarbonate:- to provide alkaline PH
5.Glucose:- to provide energy
6.Sodium or potassium dihydrogen phosphate :-
Acts as a buffer
7.Mgcl2/Mgso4:- to stabilize the preparation (decrease spontaneous activity)
Factor affecting the PSS:-
PH :- standered PH should be 7.3 to 7.4 PH can be increase
or decrease by adding NaHco3 & NaH2Po4 or KH2 Po4
Temperature:- 37 degree If bath temp decrease below 37
the tonus of the intestine is increase, contraction become
smaller and contraction-relaxation time increase
Aeration:- air flow rate of 0.5 to 2lit/min are adequate for