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361 
 
Disorders of the respiratory system
Lecture 14
Introduction
 Respiratory illness is a major cause of mortality and...
362 
 
General symptoms of respiratory disease
 Hypoxia — Decreased levels of oxygen in the tissues
 Hypoxemia — Decreas...
363 
 
Influenza
 Influenza is a viral infection that can affect the upper or lower respiratory tract.
 Three distinct f...
364 
 
Symptoms of influenza infection
 Headache
 Fever, chills
 Muscle aches
 Nasal discharge
 Unproductive cough
 ...
365 
 
 Inhibits the activity of viral neuraminidase enzyme that is necessary for spread of the
influenza virus
Infection...
366 
 
 It may be caused by bacteria, viruses and noninfectious agents, such as gastric secretions
that are aspirated int...
367 
 
Typical pneumonia
 Usually bacterial in origin.
 Organisms replicate in the spaces of the alveoli.
Manifestations...
368 
 
 Treatment of these organisms requires specific drug therapy, and, in the case of protozoa
and fungi, the organism...
369 
 
Tuberculosis (Introduction)
 TB ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide,
a...
370 
 
 Because live M. tuberculosis is often found within these encapsulations, impairment of
immune function in the inf...
371 
 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (stained red) in tissue (blue)
Manifestations of primary tuberculosis:
 Productive, pro...
372 
 
 Macrophages ingest and destroy the tuberculin, allowing the tissue to return to normal
Tuberculosis Summary
 Tub...
373 
 
 Management of tuberculosis often requires prolonged treatment with powerful
antimycobacterial drugs. Unfortunatel...
374 
 
Definition of Asthma
 Asthma is a common chronic disorder of the airways that is complex and characterized
by vari...
375 
 
Potential Asthma Triggers
Classification of Asthma
Intrinsic Asthma (Nonatopic , Nonallergic)
 No allergic or (per...
376 
 
 Other allergic manifestations in patients
 History of specific allergic association triggers (e.g. pollen, anima...
377 
 
Asthma Pathophysiology: (2 phases; will be discussed below in detail)
1) Early Phase Response: due to the acute eff...
378 
 
reaction in lungs results in production of huge amounts of mucus that obstructs the
air passage.
3) The immune resp...
379 
 
The second pathway in an asthmatic immune response is the direct Th2 cell-mediated
eosinophil recruitment and infil...
380 
 
381 
 
Methacholine challenge test (MCT)
 The clinical diagnosis of asthma can be difficult at times, since there is no p...
382 
 
 Increased respiratory rate
 Excess mucus production
 Barrel chest due to trapping of air in the lungs
 Signifi...
383 
 
Staging of the Severity of an Acute Asthma Attack
 Stage I (mild)
 Mild dyspnea
 Diffuse wheezing
 Adequate air...
384 
 
Asthma Treatment
385 
 
Therapeutic Options Targeting IgE pathway
 Histamines : AntiHistamines (e.g. Benadryl, Zyrtec)
 Prostaglandins : ...
386 
 
Definition of COPD
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease
with some ...
387 
 
Diagnosis of COPD
 A diagnosis of COPD should be considered in any patient who has cough, sputum
production, or dy...
388 
 
Classification of COPD Severity by Spirometry
Stage I: Mild FEV1/FVC < 0.70
FEV1 > 80% predicted
Stage II: Moderate...
389 
 
Asthma vs. COPD
Bronchitis
 Bronchitis is an obstructive respiratory disease that may occur in both acute and chro...
390 
 
 Chronic bronchitis sufferers are often referred to as “blue bloaters” as a result of the
cyanosis and peripheral ...
391 
 
 Hemoptysis (due to pulmonary arteriolar rupture or leakage)
 Hoarseness - occurs occasionally (due to compressio...
392 
 
 Levels of a protective enzyme α-1-antitrypsin have been shown to be lacking in certain
individuals who are chroni...
393 
 
Pathogenesis of emphysema
Emphysema Types
There are 4 types of emphysema:
1) centriacinar/centrilobular - seen in c...
394 
 
Comparison of Symptoms for Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema
395 
 
Emphysema: ABG & CXR
396 
 
397 
 
Overlap b/t COPD and asthma
398 
 
Restrictive pulmonary disorders
Pneumothorax
• Pneumothorax is the entry of air into the pleural cavity in which th...
399 
 
400 
 
Manifestations of pneumothorax:
• Tachypnea, dyspnea
• Chest pain
• Possible compression of thoracic blood vessels ...
401 
 
• disease, infections, cystic fibrosis, tumor growth or exposure to respiratory toxins.
• The major manifestations ...
402 
 
Treatment of cystic fibrosis
 Use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent respiratory infections
 Frequent manual ...
403 
 
Manifestations of ARDS:
• Dyspnea, tachypnea.
• Hypoxemia — CO2 is significantly more water soluble than O2 and can...
404 
 
Manifestations of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn:
• Rapid, shallow breathing
• Lung collapse
• Lung i...
405 
 
Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn
 Delay or prevention of premature delivery of infant if ...
406 
 
Manifestations of interstitial lung disease:
• Dyspnea, tachypnea
• Cough
• Hypoxemia
• Clubbing of fingers due to ...
407 
 
• Initial tachycardia and increased cardiac output followed by bradycardia and
decreased cardiac output
Causes of R...
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Lecture 14 disorders of the respiratory system- Pathology

Lecture 14 disorders of the respiratory system- Pathology

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Lecture 14 disorders of the respiratory system- Pathology

  1. 1. 361    Disorders of the respiratory system Lecture 14 Introduction  Respiratory illness is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States.  Respiratory structures such as the airways, alveoli and pleural membranes may all be affected by various disease processes.  These respiratory diseases include infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis, as well as obstructive disorders such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema that obstruct airflow into and out of the lungs.  Other conditions such as pneumothorax, atelectasis, respiratory distress syndrome and cystic fibrosis are classified as restrictive disorders, as they limit normal expansion of the lungs.  Pulmonary function may also be affected by exposure to inhaled particles or by the growth of cancers.
  2. 2. 362    General symptoms of respiratory disease  Hypoxia — Decreased levels of oxygen in the tissues  Hypoxemia — Decreased levels of oxygen in arterial blood  Hypercapnia — Increased levels of CO2 in the blood Hypocapnia — Decreased levels of CO2 in the blood  Dyspnea — Difficulty breathing  Tachypnea — Rapid rate of breathing  Cyanosis — Bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes due to poor oxygenation of the blood  Hemoptysis — Blood in the sputum Respiratory infections  Infections of the respiratory tract can occur in the upper or lower respiratory tract, or both.  Organisms capable of infecting respiratory structures include bacteria, viruses and fungi.  Depending on the organism and extent of infection, the manifestations can range from mild to severe and even life-threatening. Infections of the upper respiratory tract The common cold  The majority of upper respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses. The most common viral pathogens for the “common cold” are:  rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus(RSV), adenovirus and  coronavirus→ “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” (MERS-CoV)  These viruses tend to have seasonal variations in their peak incidence and are readily spread from person to person via respiratory secretions.  They gain entry to the body through the nasal mucosa and the surfaces of the eye. Manifestations of the common cold  Rhinitis — Inflammation of the nasal mucosa  Sinusitis — Inflammation of the sinus mucosa  Pharyngitis — Inflammation of the pharynx and throat  Headache  Nasal discharge and congestion
  3. 3. 363    Influenza  Influenza is a viral infection that can affect the upper or lower respiratory tract.  Three distinct forms of influenza virus have been identified: A, B and C. Of these three variants, type A is the most common and causes the most serious illness.  The influenza virus is a highly transmissible respiratory pathogen.  Because the organism has a high tendency for genetic mutation, new variants of the virus are constantly arising in different places around the world.  Serious Pandemics of influenza are seen every 8 to 10 years as a result of this genetic mutation. Epidemiology of Influenza Infection  Endemic — Outbreak of disease in a particular population that occurs in a regular, predictable manner (Hospitals)  Epidemic — Outbreak of disease affecting a large number of individuals in a population (e.g., Salmonella outbreak).  Pandemic — Outbreak of disease that is worldwide (HIV , H1N1 2009)
  4. 4. 364    Symptoms of influenza infection  Headache  Fever, chills  Muscle aches  Nasal discharge  Unproductive cough  Sore throat  Influenza infection can cause marked inflammation of the respiratory epithelium leading to acute tissue damage and a loss of ciliated cells that protect the respiratory passages from other organisms. As a result, influenza infection may lead to co-infection of the respiratory passages with bacteria.  It is also possible for the influenza virus to infect the tissues of the lung itself to cause a viral pneumonia Treatment of influenza  Bed rest, fluids, warmth  Antiviral drugs  Influenza vaccine — Provides protection against certain A and B influenza strains that are expected to be prevalent in a certain year. o The vaccine must be updated and administered yearly to be effective but will not be effective against influenza strains not included in the vaccine. o The influenza vaccine is particularly indicated in elderly people, in individuals weakened by other disease and in health-care workers. Drugs for Treating Influenza Amantidine  Used orally or by aerosol administration  Effective only against type A influenza  Inhibits viral fusion, assembly and release from the infected host cell Neuraminidase inhibitors (Zanamavir, Oseltamivir)  New drugs that can be used by inhalation (Zanamavir) or orally (Oseltamivir)  Effective against both type A and B influenza
  5. 5. 365     Inhibits the activity of viral neuraminidase enzyme that is necessary for spread of the influenza virus Infections of the lower respiratory tract  The respiratory tract is protected by a number of very effective defense mechanisms designed to keep infectious organisms and particulates from reaching the lungs.  The development of pneumonia is facilitated by: 1) An exceedingly virulent organism and present in very large number 2) And impaired host respiratory defenses:  Cigarette smoking, which can paralyze the cilia lining the cells of the respiratory passages and impair removal of secretions, particles and microorganisms.  Respiratory pathogen such as the cold or influenza virus may also cause an inflammatory reaction that impairs the defense barriers and opens an individual to infection by other respiratory pathogens. Defenses of the Respiratory System  Moist, mucus-covered surfaces — Trap particles and organisms  Cell surface IgA, lysosomes  Ciliated epithelium — Clears trapped particles and organisms from airway passages  Cough reflex and epiglottis — Prevents aspiration of particles and irritants into lower airways  Pulmonary macrophages — Phagocytize foreign particles and organisms in the alveolar spaces Bacteria Classification according the Cell Wall Bacteria can be classified into 3 groups based on differences in the thickness or composition of the cell wall structure: Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and Acid-fast. 1) There are 6 common gram-positive : Staphylococcus (S. aureus ,S. epidermidis S. saprophyticus) ,Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci) Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus),Streptococcus agalactiae ,Bacillus anthracis ,Clostridium botulinum ,Clostridium difficile) 2) The rest are considered gram-negative : Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , Shigella , Helicobacter pylori Klebsiella pneumonia, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni 3) Acid fast (The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain) is helpful in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis since its lipid rich cell wall makes it resistant to Gram stain.) Pneumonia  Pneumonia is a condition that involves inflammation of lower lung structures such as the alveoli or interstitial spaces.
  6. 6. 366     It may be caused by bacteria, viruses and noninfectious agents, such as gastric secretions that are aspirated into the lungs (Aspiration Pneumonia)  Despite advances in drug therapy, pneumonia is still the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.  The prevalence and severity of pneumonia have been heightened in recent years due to the emergence of HIV as well as antibiotic resistance.  Pneumonia may be classified according to the pathogen that is responsible for the infection.  There tend to be distinct organisms that cause pneumonia in the hospital setting vs. the community setting. Individuals Most at Risk for Pneumonia  Elderly  Those with viral infection  Chronically ill  AIDS or immunosuppressed patients  Smokers  Patients with chronic respiratory disease Classification of pneumonia 1. Hospital acquired or nosocomial  Enteric Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli & Klebsiella pneumonia ) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus. 2. Community acquired  Streptococcus pneumoniae (single most common cause) Haemophilus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia & Influenza viruses  A second classification scheme for pneumonia is based on the specific structures of the lung that the organisms infect and includes typical and atypical pneumonia. Classification of Pneumonia according the etiology  Typical: up to 70% Usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae  Atypical: 30-40%  “My Lungs Contain Viruses” o Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Walking pneumonia) because it is usually mild and rarely requires hospitalization). o Legionella pneumophila o Chlamydia pneumoniae ( All the 3 species are gram-negative bacteria) o Viruses: Influenza, Adenovirus  May be co-pathogens in other cases
  7. 7. 367    Typical pneumonia  Usually bacterial in origin.  Organisms replicate in the spaces of the alveoli. Manifestations:  Inflammation and fluid accumulation are seen in the alveoli.  White cell infiltration and exudation that can been seen on chest radiographs.  High fever, chest pain, chills, and malaise are present.  Purulent sputum is present.  Some degree of hypoxemia is present. Atypical pneumonia  Usually viral in origin.  Organisms replicate in the spaces around the alveoli. Manifestations:  Milder symptoms than typical pneumonia(Headache, Malaise , Fever , dry cough , Arthralgia, myalgia)  Lab tests : Normal or Mild elevation WBC, ↑ ALT (alanine aminotransferase (SGPT :serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) ,↑ Alk Phos  Lack of white cell infiltration in alveoli.  Lack of fluid accumulation in the alveoli.  Not usually evident on radiographs.  May make the patient susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.  Treatment: Macrolide e.g. Clarithromycin ,Doxycycline, Ciprofloxacin Opportunistic organisms  A number of organisms not commonly associated with respiratory illness in otherwise healthy individuals can cause severe respiratory infections and pneumonia in patients with HIV or those who are immunocompromised as a result of immune suppressive therapy.  These organisms include mycobacteria, fungus (Histoplasma) and protozoa (Pneumocystis carinii).
  8. 8. 368     Treatment of these organisms requires specific drug therapy, and, in the case of protozoa and fungi, the organisms are very difficult to kill. Treatment of pneumonia  Antibiotics if bacterial in origin. The health-care provider should consider the possibility that antibiotic-resistant organisms are present.  Oxygen therapy for hypoxemia.  A vaccine for pneumococcal pneumonia is currently available and highly effective. This vaccine should be considered in high-risk individuals.
  9. 9. 369    Tuberculosis (Introduction)  TB ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, after HIV  Tuberculosis is a treatable and preventable disease.  About 1 in 3 of the world’s population is infected with tubercle bacilli.  There were an estimated 12 million prevalent cases in 2011  170 cases per 100 000 population  Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily transmitted via the airborne route.  Nearly all TB infection is acquired by inhalation of respiratory droplets from people with TB in the lungs or throat.  Mycobacterium Bovis can cause TB in people who drink unpasteurised milk from infected cows. Tuberculosis  Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Unlike most other bacteria, M. tuberculosis is surrounded by an outer capsule that makes the organism very resistant to destruction.  Once in the lung tissues, the organism causes an inflammatory reaction as it is attacked first by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and later by macrophages.  In the alveoli, TB enters macrophages and with other cells form a shell called granuloma.  The granuloma prevents dissemination of the mycobacterium. Bacteria inside the granuloma can become dormant, resulting in a latent infection.  The primary lesion that results in the lung during tuberculosis infection is called the Ghon’s focus. If the lesion also involves regional lymph nodes, it is termed a Ghon’s complex.  Necrosis of infected lung tissues may result in a cheesy appearance to the tissue that is referred to as a caseous necrosis. Liquefaction of the necrotic lesions might also occur over time.  In an otherwise healthy individual, the immune system is usually able to contain the organism and over time will encapsulate it through calcification of the lesions.  These calcified Ghon’s complexes are readily visualized by chest radiograph for the remainder of the patient’s life.
  10. 10. 370     Because live M. tuberculosis is often found within these encapsulations, impairment of immune function in the infected individual may lead to reactivation of the primary infection. What are the likely outcomes following exposure to open TB? Pathogenesis of TB Infection
  11. 11. 371    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (stained red) in tissue (blue) Manifestations of primary tuberculosis:  Productive, prolonged cough  Chest pain, hemoptysis  Chill, fever, night sweats  Anorexia, weight loss Testing for Tuberculosis  Mantoux test or (Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) or TT or PPD Test)  Acid-fast staining of sputum cultures to visualize M. tuberculosis  Chest radiograph to identify Ghon’s complex Tuberculin Response (Type IV Hypersensitivity) (Delayed or Cell-Mediated) Skin of an individual exposed to tuberculosis or tuberculosis vaccine reacts to an injection beneath the skin of tuberculin  Used to diagnose contact with antigens of M. tuberculosis  No response when tuberculin injected into the skin of a never infected or vaccinated individual  A red hard swelling develops when tuberculin is injected into a previously infected or immunized individual  The tuberculin response is mediated by memory T cells  When first infected with M. tuberculosis, the resulting cell-mediated response generates memory T cells that persist in the body  When sensitized individual is injected with tuberculin, dendritic cells migrate to the site and attract memory T cells  T cells secrete cytokines that attract more T cells and macrophages to produce a slowly developing inflammatory response
  12. 12. 372     Macrophages ingest and destroy the tuberculin, allowing the tissue to return to normal Tuberculosis Summary  Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a rod- shaped aerobic bacteria that is resistant to destruction and can persist in necrotic and calcified lesions for prolonged periods and remain capable of reinstating growth.  The organism is spread by inhaling the mycobacterium-containing droplet nuclei that circulate in the air.  The cell-mediated response plays a dominant role in walling off the tubercle bacilli and preventing the development of active tuberculosis. People with impaired cell-mediated immunity are more likely to experience active tuberculosis when infected.  A positive tuberculin skin test results from a cell mediated immune response and implies that a person has been infected with M. tuberculosis and has mounted a cell-mediated immune response. It does not mean that the person has active tuberculosis. Treatment of tuberculosis  Despite a continuous decline in the incidence of tuberculosis in the decades preceding the 1980s, since 1985 there has been a steady increase in the worldwide incidence of tuberculosis.  A major contributing factor to this resurgence of tuberculosis has been the spread of HIV. M. tuberculosis can be a opportunistic organism that infects AIDS patients whose immune systems are weakened and inadequate to combat the organism. The rise of homelessness may also be a contributing factor to increased rates of tuberculosis in urban settings, as the organism thrives in the dark, dank environments in which homeless people sometimes dwell.
  13. 13. 373     Management of tuberculosis often requires prolonged treatment with powerful antimycobacterial drugs. Unfortunately, in recent years the treatment of tuberculosis has been complicated by the rise of organisms that are resistant to one or more of the commonly used antitubercular agents.  In cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, mortality can be on the order of 70 to 90%.  Factors that affect immune function such as proper nutrition and management of other diseases are also essential for successful treatment of tuberculosis. Drugs for the Treatment of Tuberculosis Isoniazid (INH)  Active only against mycobacteria  Used orally, mechanism of action is uncertain  Resistance can result from reduced penetration of the drug into the organism Rifampicin (RIF)  Used orally, it is highly active at inhibiting the activity of RNA polymerase in mycobacteria  Inducer of liver enzymes and thus may affect metabolism of other liver metabolized drugs  Resistance can emerge rapidly Ethambutol (EMB)  Used orally to inhibit the growth of mycobacteria  Mechanism of action is uncertain  Resistance can develop rapidly Pyrazinamide (PZA)  Pyrazinamide is well absorbed orally.  It is metabolised by the liver and the metabolic products are excreted by the kidneys.  Pyrazinamide is only used in combination with other drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Obstructive respiratory disorders 1) Asthma 2) COPD : Bronchitis & Emphysema
  14. 14. 374    Definition of Asthma  Asthma is a common chronic disorder of the airways that is complex and characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, airflow limitation (Obstruction), bronchial hyperresponsiveness and underlying inflammation.  The interaction of these features of asthma determines the clinical manifestations and severity of asthma and the response to treatment. A Lot Going On Beneath The Surface  With asthma, what we see is the tip of the iceberg, the symptoms.  At the base of the iceberg is the airway inflammation.  This inflammation underlies the bronchial hyperresponsiveness of asthma, the air flow obstruction, and the culmination of the inflammatory process is the tip of the iceberg, the symptoms. *Active inflammation of the airways can be present for 6 to 8 weeks following a sever respiratory infection. *Airflow obstruction results from bronchoconstriction, bronchial edema, mucus hypersecretion, and inflammatory cell recruitment including eosinophils, a key inflammatory cell.
  15. 15. 375    Potential Asthma Triggers Classification of Asthma Intrinsic Asthma (Nonatopic , Nonallergic)  No allergic or (personal family) history  Usually adult onset  Initiated by •Infections, Exercise and cold air, Industrial pollutants or occupational exposure, Drugs, food additives, and food preservatives, Gastroesophageal reflux, Sleep (nocturnal asthma), Emotional stress, Premenstrual asthma  Often follows severe respiratory illness  Symptoms usually permanent  More refractory to treatment Extrinsic Asthma (Atopic; Allergic)  Strong family history of allergies  Usually onset at a young age
  16. 16. 376     Other allergic manifestations in patients  History of specific allergic association triggers (e.g. pollen, animal dander, food, dust)  Correlation with skin and inhalation responses to specific antigens  Atopy” previously: allergic conditions which tend to cluster in families.  More recently, atopy has been characterized by the production of specific IgE in response to common environmental allergens. Asthma Pathophysiology  Asthma is a heterogeneous, chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, obstruction, and inflammatory cell infiltrates.  The pathogenesis of the disease involves a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. Steps of Asthma Pathophysiology 1) Airway Inflammation 2) Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness: is a state characterized by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles) due to a wide variety of airway narrowing stimuli. 3) Bronchoconstriction 4) Bronchial Wall Edema 5) Excess Mucous Secretions 6) Airway Remodeling: Smooth muscle proliferation & subepithelial collagen deposition.
  17. 17. 377    Asthma Pathophysiology: (2 phases; will be discussed below in detail) 1) Early Phase Response: due to the acute effect of histamine release from mast cells.  Involves Type I Hypersensitivity(Immediate Type)  IgE antibody with Mast Cells 2) Late Phase Response: mediated through the actions of inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor and the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells.  Involves Type IV Hypersensitivity(Delayed Type )  T cell mediated response activates Eosinophils, B cells, others  There are two types of T helper cells: Th1 and Th2.  Th1 cells tend to promote cell-mediated immune responses by producing interferon- gamma, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and TNF-β.  In contrast,  Th2 cells promote the production of IgE antibodies by producing IL-4 and IL-13, which are interleukins that act B lymphocytes (B cells) to promote the production of IgE antibodies to a specific antigen.  People who are prone to develop allergies, i.e., atopic people, are believed to have a higher ratio of Th2/Th1 cells, and this is believed to be an important factor in their tendency to produce allergy-mediating IgE antibodies.  An imbalance in Th2/Th1 plays an important role in the development of allergies and, specifically, of asthma. (Normally, Th1 and Th2 immune responses are in balance with each other). Immune response of allergic Asthma  There are 10 genes already identified as asthma genes.  The current hypothesis suggests that while the asthma gene variations are present in the host, it is the exposure to environmental allergens and irritants and the infectious disease directives that propagate the asthmatic response of each patient over time.  In non-asthmatic individuals, the bronchial epithelium provides a protective barrier against inhaled allergens that prevents these particles from reaching the antigen presenting dendritic cells beneath the epithelial layer.  In asthmatic patients : 1) It has been demonstrated that the bronchial epithelium is unusually permeable to certain allergens, allowing access to the subepithelial dendritic cells. 2) In extrinsic asthma, immune system which exerts a protective mechanism reacts to simple harmless substances such as pollen and produces antibodies. This allergic
  18. 18. 378    reaction in lungs results in production of huge amounts of mucus that obstructs the air passage. 3) The immune response to inhaled allergen is mediated by two major pathways, each associated with a distinct phase in the asthmatic reaction. The T cell is considered to be the central orchestrator of all immune responses against the allergen. 4) Individuals with asthma appear to produce large amounts of the antibody IgE that attach to the mast cells present in many tissues.  Upon the next exposure to a trigger such as pollen will result in the allergen- binding mast cell-bound IgE, which in turn causes the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes , Eosinophilic chemotactic factor (ECF) and Neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF).  Because this process results from the binding of antigen to existing antibody- receptor complexes, an immediate response occurs (ie, within minutes), forming the basis for immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The initial response to allergen exposure is called the early phase asthmatic response (occurring 4 to 6 minutes after exposure), and is mediated by the IgE antibody network (humoral immunity).  Upon activation by allergen, the Th2 cell secretes IL-4 which induces the production of allergen-specific IgE by B lymphocytes (by Plasma cells). IgE binds to the allergen, and this complex in turn binds to certain high affinity IgE receptors.  After binding to the mast cell, these allergen-IgE complexes cross-link with each other, which stimulates the mast cell to release its intracellular granules.  Such degranulation is also stimulated by histamine releasing factors secreted by T cells.  Mast cell granule products, including histamine, leukotrienes, tryptase, prostoglandin, and platelet-activating factor, are major contributors to the clinical manifestations of asthma.  These products produce: o the immediate bronchoconstriction, o vasodilation (resulting in bronchial edema), o mucus secretion, and o tissue destruction  These responses characterize the early phase asthmatic response. They are short-lived and comprise only the initial acute phase of the asthmatic process.
  19. 19. 379    The second pathway in an asthmatic immune response is the direct Th2 cell-mediated eosinophil recruitment and infiltration of the lungs in the late phase asthmatic response (4 to 6 hours after exposure).  This recruitment phase is begun by IgE-activated mast cells products and is greatly enhanced by the eventual arrival of Th2 cells to the site of allergen exposure. Both of which result in the migration of eosinophils to the region of allergen exposure. Eosinophils recruited to the site of allergen exposure become the major effector cells of the late phase asthmatic response.  The most significant result of the eosinophil response in asthma is the damage and death of the bronchial epithelium, which is directly correlated with increased airway hyperresponsiveness.  Because of their late entrance into the immune response and the significant damage caused to bronchial epithelium, eosinophil effector mechanisms are responsible for the long-term bronchial inflammation and chronic symptoms of asthma.
  20. 20. 380   
  21. 21. 381    Methacholine challenge test (MCT)  The clinical diagnosis of asthma can be difficult at times, since there is no perfect laboratory test to definitely tell whether a patient has asthma.  The methacholine challenge test (MCT) is a widely used clinical test to evaluate for airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma.  Methacholine is a is a synthetic choline ester that provoke bronchoconstriction  Asthmatics usually demonstrate an excessive response to an inhaled dose of methacholine which causes little or no change in lung function in normal healthy individuals.  This test has been long regarded to be a good test to exclude the diagnosis of asthma if it was normal. However, we do not know if the test is still valid in recent years given that many patients are on potent inhaled corticosteroids. Clinical Classification of Asthma  Mild intermittent — Attacks occur 2 times per week or less  Mild persistent — Attacks occur more than 2 times per week  Moderate persistent — Attacks occur daily or almost daily and are severe enough to affect activity  Severe persistent — Attacks are very frequent and persist for a long period of time; attacks severely limit activity Manifestations of asthma  Coughing, wheezing  Difficulty breathing  Rapid, shallow breathing
  22. 22. 382     Increased respiratory rate  Excess mucus production  Barrel chest due to trapping of air in the lungs  Significant anxiety Complications of asthma  Status asthmaticus : o which is a life-threatening condition of prolonged bronchospasm that is often not responsive to drug therapy.  Pneumothorax : o is also a possible consequence as a result of lung pressure increases
  23. 23. 383    Staging of the Severity of an Acute Asthma Attack  Stage I (mild)  Mild dyspnea  Diffuse wheezing  Adequate air exchange  Stage II (moderate)  Respiratory distress at rest  Marked wheezing  Stage III (severe)  Marked respiratory distress  Cyanosis  Marked wheezing or absence of breath sounds  Stage IV (respiratory failure)  Severe respiratory distress, lethargy, confusion, prominent pulsus paradoxus Additional Risk Factors  Residence in a large urban area, especially the inner city  Exposure to secondhand smoke  A parent who has asthma  Respiratory infections in childhood  Low birth weight  Obesity Spirometry in Asthma
  24. 24. 384    Asthma Treatment
  25. 25. 385    Therapeutic Options Targeting IgE pathway  Histamines : AntiHistamines (e.g. Benadryl, Zyrtec)  Prostaglandins : Steroids (e.g. Prednisone)  Leukotrienes : Leukotriene Inhibators (e.g. Singulair)  IgE : Anti-IgE (e.g. Xolair ) Omalizumab - Anti-IgE Monoclonal Antibodies  It is a new approach to the treatment of asthma. It is a recombinant humanized gamma immunoglobulin (IgG)1 monoclonal antibody that is targeted against the portion of IgE that binds to its receptors (FC -R1 and FC -R2 receptors) on mast cells and other inflammatory cells.  It inhibits the binding of IgE to mast cells but does not activate IgE already bound to these cells and thus does not provoke mast cell degranulation. It may also inhibit IgE synthesis by B lymphocytes. In addition, omalizumab causes down-regulation of IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils.  Administration of omalizumab to asthmatic individuals for 10 weeks lowers plasma IgE to undetectable levels and significantly reduces the magnitude of both the early and the late bronchospastic responses to antigen challenge.  Omalizumab treatment reduced exacerbations requiring hospitalization by 88%.
  26. 26. 386    Definition of COPD  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease with some significant extrapulmonary effects that may contribute to the severity in individual patients.  Its pulmonary component is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.  The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles or gases. COPD spectrum
  27. 27. 387    Diagnosis of COPD  A diagnosis of COPD should be considered in any patient who has cough, sputum production, or dyspnea and/or a history of exposure to risk factors. The diagnosis is confirmed by spirometry.  To help identify individuals earlier in the course of disease, spirometry should be performed for patients who have chronic cough and sputum production even if they do not have dyspnea.  Spirometry is the best way to diagnose COPD and to monitor its progression and health care workers to care for COPD patients should have assess to spirometry. Spirometry for COPD Diagnosis and Classification of Severity
  28. 28. 388    Classification of COPD Severity by Spirometry Stage I: Mild FEV1/FVC < 0.70 FEV1 > 80% predicted Stage II: Moderate FEV1/FVC < 0.70 50% < FEV1 < 80% predicted Stage III: Severe FEV1/FVC < 0.70 30% < FEV1 < 50% predicted Stage IV: Very Severe FEV1/FVC < 0.70 FEV1 < 30% predicted or FEV1 < 50% predicted plus chronic respiratory failure  FEV1% predicted is defined as FEV1% of the patient divided by the average FEV1% in the population for any person of similar age, sex and body composition.  Predicted normal values can be calculated online and depend on age, sex, height, weight and ethnicity as well as the research study that they are based upon.
  29. 29. 389    Asthma vs. COPD Bronchitis  Bronchitis is an obstructive respiratory disease that may occur in both acute and chronic forms.  Acute bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial passages most commonly caused by infection with bacteria or viruses.  Acute bronchitis is generally a self-limiting condition in healthy individuals but can have much more severe consequences in individuals who are weakened with other illness or who are immunocompromised. Symptoms of acute bronchitis often include productive cough, dyspnea and possible fever. Chronic bronchitis  It is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is most frequently associated with cigarette smoking (approximately 90% of cases).  Chronic bronchitis may also be caused by prolonged exposure to inhaled particulates such as coal dust or other pollutants.  The disease is characterized by excess mucus production in the lower respiratory tract.  This mucus accumulation can impair function of the ciliated epithelium and lining of the respiratory tract and prevent the clearing of debris and organisms.  As a result, patients with chronic bronchitis often suffer repeated bouts of respiratory infection.
  30. 30. 390     Chronic bronchitis sufferers are often referred to as “blue bloaters” as a result of the cyanosis and peripheral edema that is often present. Manifestations of chronic bronchitis  Productive, chronic cough Production of purulent sputum  Frequent respiratory infections Dyspnea  Hypoxia, cyanosis  Symptoms of cor pulmonale  Fluid accumulation in later stages Treatment of chronic bronchitis  Cessation of smoking or exposure to irritants  Bronchodilators to open airway passages  Expectorants to loosen mucus  Anti-inflammatories to relieve airway inflammation and reduce mucus secretion  Prophylactic antibiotics for respiratory infections  Oxygen therapy Cor pulmonale  Cor pulmonale refers to the altered structure (eg, hypertrophy or dilatation) and/or impaired function of the right ventricle that results from pulmonary hypertension (High blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs)  Any chronic lung condition that causes prolonged hypoxia (low blood oxygen levels) may lead to pulmonary hypertension and possibly to cor pulmonale.  These causes include:  COPD  Chronic blood clots in the lungs: It can be a part of a blockage remaining after the clearing of an acute pulmonary embolism, or a clot remaining from an undetected, and therefore untreated, acute pulmonary embolism.  Cystic fibrosis  Scarring of the lung tissue ( Interstitial lung disease)  Severe curving of the upper part of the spine (Kyphoscoliosis)  Obstructive sleep apnea, in which pauses occur during breathing because of airway inflammation Cor pulmonale Symptoms  Worsening tachypnea (particularly at rest)  Fatigue and lassitude  Ankle swelling  Worsening exertional dyspnea (with deterioration in exercise tolerance)  Worsening cough (particularly if non-productive)  Angina-type chest discomfort - often non-responsive to nitrates (thought to be due to right ventricular ischemia or stretching of pulmonary artery during exertion)
  31. 31. 391     Hemoptysis (due to pulmonary arteriolar rupture or leakage)  Hoarseness - occurs occasionally (due to compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve by dilated pulmonary artery)  Exertional syncope - a late symptom (indicating severe disease)  Late-stage hepatic congestion can cause symptoms (anorexia, jaundice and right upper quadrant abdominal discomfort) Signs  Cyanosis Hepatomegaly  Jaundice in advanced cases  Ascites in advanced cases  Peripheral pitting edema Treatment  targets the underlying illness and may include supplemental oxygen, a low-salt diet or calcium channel blockers. Emphysema  Emphysema is a respiratory disease that is characterized by destruction and permanent enlargement of terminal bronchioles and alveolar air sacs.  Over 95% of all patients with emphysema are chronic cigarette smokers.  Although the exact etiology of emphysema is still uncertain, it appears that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic inflammation of the alveolar airways, which results in infiltration by lymphocytes and macrophages.  Excess release of protease enzymes such as trypsin from lung tissues and leukocytes can digest and destroy the elastic walls of the alveoli. Alveolar air sacs become enlarged and distended as their structure is affected and their elasticity lost.
  32. 32. 392     Levels of a protective enzyme α-1-antitrypsin have been shown to be lacking in certain individuals who are chronic cigarette smokers.  α-1-antitrypsin enzyme is a protease inhibitor (also known as serum trypsin inhibitor). It inactivates destructive protease enzymes in lung tissue, especially neutrophil elastase, and has a reference range in blood of 1.5 - 3.5 gram/liter  In fact, a rare form of emphysema occurs in individuals who are not cigarette smokers but who have a genetic lack of α-1-antitrypsin. Emphysema Etiology  Cigarette smoking  Genetic predisposition : Alpha1 protease inhibitor  Occupational exposure to chemical irritants  Exposure to atmospheric pollutants Emphysema: Anatomic Alterations of the Lungs  Permanent enlargement and deterioration of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles  Destruction of pulmonary capillaries  Weakening of the distal airways, primarily the respiratory bronchioles  Bronchospasm (with concomitant bronchitis)  Hyperinflation of alveoli (air-trapping) Manifestations of emphysema The major physiologic changes seen in emphysema are a loss of alveolar (lung) elasticity and a decrease in the overall surface area for gas exchange within the lungs.  Tachypnea (increased respiratory rate): Because the increased respiratory rate in these individuals is effective in maintaining arterial blood gases, one does not usually see hypoxia or cyanosis until the end stages of the disease.  Patients with emphysema are often referred to as “pink puffers” because of their high respiratory rates and lack of obvious cyanosis.  Dyspnea  Barrel chest from prolonged expiration  Lack of purulent sputum  Possible long-term consequences, including cor pulmonale , respiratory failure
  33. 33. 393    Pathogenesis of emphysema Emphysema Types There are 4 types of emphysema: 1) centriacinar/centrilobular - seen in cigarette smokers 2) panacinar/panlobular - seen in α1-antitrypsin deficiency 3) distal acinar 4) irregular.
  34. 34. 394    Comparison of Symptoms for Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema
  35. 35. 395    Emphysema: ABG & CXR
  36. 36. 396   
  37. 37. 397    Overlap b/t COPD and asthma
  38. 38. 398    Restrictive pulmonary disorders Pneumothorax • Pneumothorax is the entry of air into the pleural cavity in which the lungs reside. • In order for normal lung expansion to occur, there must be a negative pressure within the pleural cavity with respect to atmospheric pressure outside the pleural cavity. • The inside of the pleural cavity is essentially a vacuum and when air enters the pleural cavity the negative pressure is lost and the lungs collapse. • Because each lung sits in a separate pleural cavity, pneumothorax of one plural cavity will not cause collapse of the other lung Types of pneumothorax 1. Open or communicating pneumothorax:  Usually involves a traumatic chest wound.  Air enters the pleural cavity from the atmosphere.  The lung collapses due to equilibration of pressure within the pleural cavity with atmospheric pressure. 2. Closed or spontaneous pneumothorax:  Occurs when air “leaks” from the lungs into the pleural cavity.  May be caused by lung cancer, rupture, pulmonary disease.  The increased plural pressure prevents lung expansion during inspiration and the lung remains collapsed. 3. Tension pneumothorax:  A condition in which there is a one-way movement of air into but not out of the pleural cavity.  May involve a hole or wound to the pleural cavity that allows air to enter and the lung to collapse. Upon expiration, the hole or opening closes, which prevents the movement of air back out of the pleural cavity.  A life-threatening condition because pressure in the pleural cavity continues to increase and may result in further lung compression or compression of large blood vessels in the thorax or the heart.
  39. 39. 399   
  40. 40. 400    Manifestations of pneumothorax: • Tachypnea, dyspnea • Chest pain • Possible compression of thoracic blood vessels and heart, especially with tension pneumothorax Treatment of pneumothorax: • Removal of air from the pleural cavity with a needle or chest tube • Repair of trauma and closure of opening into pleural cavity Atelectasis Atelectasis is a condition in which there is incomplete expansion of lung tissues due to blockage of the airways or compression of the alveolar sacs. Types of atelectasis: 1. Absorption atelectasis • Results when the bronchial passages are blocked with mucus, tumors or edema • May occur with conditions such as chronic bronchitis or cystic fibrosis (see below) in which there is the accumulation of excess mucus in the respiratory passages 2. Compression atelectasis • Occurs when lung tissue is compressed externally by air, blood, fluids or a tumor Manifestations of atelectasis: • Dyspnea, cough. • Reduced gas exchange. The effects of atelectasis on gas exchange will depend on the amount of lung tissue that is prevented from expanding. • Shunting of blood to areas of the lungs that are inflated. The ventila- tion–perfusion coupling ability of the lungs will help ensure that blood is directed to areas of the lungs where gas exchange can still occur. Treatment of atelectasis: • Removal of airway blockage • Removal of air, blood, fluids, tumors, etc. that are compressing lung tissues Bronchiectasis • Bronchiectasis is a condition that results from prolonged injury or inflammation of respiratory airways and bronchioles. • It is characterized by abnormal dilation of the bronchus or bronchi. • It is most frequently associated with chronic respiratory
  41. 41. 401    • disease, infections, cystic fibrosis, tumor growth or exposure to respiratory toxins. • The major manifestations of bronchiectasis are impaired ventilation of the alveoli, chronic inflammation and possible fibrosis of the areas. Cystic fibrosis • Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects function of exocrine glands throughout the body. • The disorder is an autosomal recessive condition caused by a defect in the gene that codes for a cell membrane–associated protein called the transmembrane conductance protein. • This protein is involved in regulation of chloride transport across the cell membrane. Lack of this protein results in production of overly thick mucus that cannot be cleared from the respiratory passages and accumulates to form mucous plugs. • The accumulated mucus also becomes a breeding ground for numerous respiratory pathogens. • Over time, chronic infection and inflammation of respiratory tissues will lead to deterioration of lung function and eventual respiratory failure, which is the leading cause of death in these patients. • Excess mucus may also be produced by cells of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to possible gastrointestinal blockage and impairment of digestion. • Exocrine function of the pancreas is also affected by this disorder and can result in impaired digestion of nutrients as well as possible destruction of the pancreas. Manifestations of cystic fibrosis • Thick, viscous mucus in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract • Frequent, serious respiratory infections • Obstruction of respiratory passages • Progressive deterioration of respiratory function • Dyspnea, hypoxemia • Respiratory failure • Pancreatic destruction, diabetes • Gastrointestinal blockage • Poor nutrient digestion
  42. 42. 402    Treatment of cystic fibrosis  Use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent respiratory infections  Frequent manual drainage of respiratory secretions  K+-sparing diuretic (amiloride), which used in aerosolized form has been shown to improve mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis  Bronchodilators  Inhaled corticosteroids for chronic inflammation  Gene therapy — Possible that in the future the missing gene in cystic fibrosis may be introduced into affected cells using a viral vector  Lung transplantation Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)  ARDS is a syndrome associated with destruction of alveolar membranes and their related capillaries.  It may occur as a result of direct injury to the lungs or as a result of dramatic decreases in blood flow to the lung (“shock lung,”); which is a condition in which the lungs suddenly become damaged. The term ‘shock lung’ was first used during the Vietnam War when soldiers developed ARDS after severe injuries.
  43. 43. 403    Manifestations of ARDS: • Dyspnea, tachypnea. • Hypoxemia — CO2 is significantly more water soluble than O2 and can still be eliminated from the lungs via diffusion; as a result blood levels of oxygen are more affected by ARDS than CO2. Hypocapnia may result. • Infiltration of lung tissues with immune cells that release inflammatory mediators. • Accumulation of fluids in alveoli and around alveolar spaces. • Changes in blood pH due to altered blood levels of CO2. • Pulmonary fibrosis. • Respiratory failure. Treatment of ARDS: • Oxygen therapy • Anti-inflammatory drugs • Diuretics to reduce edema • Correction of acid–base balance Possible Causes of ARDS • Septicemia, uremia • Trauma • Near drowning • Inhalation of toxic gases or agents • Aspiration of gastric contents • Widespread pneumonia • Drug overdose • Systemic shock Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn • The etiology of newborn respiratory distress syndrome differs considerably from that of the adult disorder. • Respiratory distress in the newborn is most commonly caused by a lack of surfactant in the lungs. • Pulmonary surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins produced by Type II cells of the alveoli. • A thin layer of surfactant covers the surfaces of the alveoli and provides surface tension that prevents the thin-walled alveoli from collapsing. Surfactant also moistens the alveolar surfaces to facilitate gas exchange. • Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn occurs most commonly in infants who are born prematurely and whose lungs have not developed to the point where they are producing adequate surfactant. • Clinical manifestations become evident immediately at birth and can be rapidly fatal if not treated.
  44. 44. 404    Manifestations of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn: • Rapid, shallow breathing • Lung collapse • Lung inflammation and damage • Hypoxemia • Nasal flaring, grunting upon inspiration Nasal flaring o Is when the nostrils widen while a person is breathing. o It is a sign that the person is having difficulty breathing. o It is most commonly seen in children and infants; in those cases nasal flaring can indicate respiratory distress.
  45. 45. 405    Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn  Delay or prevention of premature delivery of infant if possible.  Treatment of premature newborn with synthetic surfactant delivered directly into the lower respiratory tract.  Exogenous surfactant will need to be supplied until the infant’s lungs have matured to the point where they are producing their own surfactant.  Mechanical ventilation.  Injection of cortisol in the mother prior to delivery may significantly reduce the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants.  Cortisol has also been shown to stimulate activity of Type II cells. Interstitial lung diseases  Interstitial lung diseases represent a number of restrictive disorders whose main characteristic is scarring and fibrosis of lung tissue.  The result of extensive lung scarring is reduced lung compliance and overall decreased lung volumes.  Many causes of interstitial lung disease involve occupational exposure to injurious substances such as coal dust (“black lung”), asbestos (asbestosis), silicone dust (silicosis), radiation, drugs or toxins.  Chronic lung infections, pulmonary edema or tumors might also lead to scarring and fibrosis of lung tissue. However, the etiology of a significant percentage of interstitial lung disease remains unknown.
  46. 46. 406    Manifestations of interstitial lung disease: • Dyspnea, tachypnea • Cough • Hypoxemia • Clubbing of fingers due to chronic hypoxia • Progressive deterioration of pulmonary function and possible respiratory • failure Possible Causes of Interstitial Lung Diseases  Exposure to injurious substances • Coal dust • Asbestos • Silicone dust • Talc • Organic dusts (hay, cotton, etc.) • Noxious gases • Radiation • Anticancer drugs • Infectious agents  Unknown causes • Sarcoidosis — An immune disorder that affects the lungs, skin and eyes • Connective tissue diseases Treatment: • Treatment options for these disorders are limited and mainly focus on removal of the injurious substances. • Anti-inflammatory drugs may be of use in limiting damage from chronic inflammation. • Oxygen therapy may be instituted in severe cases. Respiratory failure  Respiratory failure is a condition that results when the lungs are no longer able to oxygenate the blood sufficiently or remove CO2 from it.  It may occur as the end result of chronic respiratory diseases or it may be an acute event caused by factors such as pneumothorax or opioid drug overdose Manifestations of respiratory failure: • Hypoxemia • Hypercapnia • Ventilation–perfusion mismatch • Cyanosis, possible but not always present • Central nervous system symptoms — Slurred speech, confusion, impaired motor function • Altered blood pH
  47. 47. 407    • Initial tachycardia and increased cardiac output followed by bradycardia and decreased cardiac output Causes of Respiratory Failure Acute • Pneumothorax • Drug overdose (opioids, sedatives) • Pleural effusion — Accumulation of fluids in the pleural cavity • Airway obstruction • Status asthmaticus • Inhalation of toxins or noxious gases Chronic • Emphysema • Interstitial lung diseases • Cystic fibrosis • Spinal cord or brain injury • Congestive heart failure • Neuromuscular disorders — Muscular dystrophy, myasthenia • gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis • Pulmonary emboli • Diffuse pneumonia • Pulmonary edema Treatment • Bronchodilators • Correction of blood pH • Oxygen therapy • Mechanical ventilation _____________________

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