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Modal verbs short

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Modal verbs short

  1. 1. MODAL VERBS <ul><li>The modal verbs are can, could, may, might, must, should, ought to, shall, will, would, need and dare. </li></ul><ul><li>We use them to talk about, for example, ability, obligation, necessity, prohibition, certainty, possibility, probability, permission, willingness, requests, offers, suggestions. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>We form the affirmative by putting the modal verb between the subject and the full verb . </li></ul><ul><li>I can swim (ability) It might rain (possibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Modal verbs take the same form in all persons . There is no –s ending in the third person singular of the present simple. She can swim </li></ul><ul><li>After all modal verbs (except ought) we use the infinitive without to . </li></ul><ul><li>You can go to the cinema (permission) </li></ul><ul><li>We ought to go now (advice) </li></ul><ul><li>We form the negative by putting n’t/not after the modal verb. We can’t swim </li></ul><ul><li>We shouldn’t go It might not rain </li></ul>
  3. 3. We form questions by inverting the subject and the modal verb . Can she swim? Should we go? We sometimes use expressions such as be able to, be allowed to, had to instead of modal verbs . Examples: I’d like to be able to play the piano. ( Can have no infinitive) We’ll be able to travel to Mars in ten years. She had to go to the doctor’s yesterday.  
  4. 4. Modal verbs: Can, could <ul><li>Can </li></ul><ul><li>Ability: He can play the guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Permission: Can I go to the toilet, please? (informal) </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility (if it is theoretically possible) It can get very hot in July. </li></ul><ul><li>Request: Can you bring me an aspirin? (informal) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Could </li></ul><ul><li>Permission (more polite) Could I listen to music in my bedroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility : It could rain (possible but not likely +) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability: He could play the piano very well. </li></ul><ul><li>Request: Could you bring an aspirin (more polite) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. May, might, must, have to <ul><li>May and might </li></ul><ul><li>Permission (formal) May/might I go to the toilet, please? </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility: </li></ul><ul><li>It may rain (it is possible +++) It might rain (it is possible ++) </li></ul><ul><li>Request: </li></ul><ul><li>May (formal)/might (very formal) you bring me an aspirin? </li></ul><ul><li>Must, have to </li></ul><ul><li>Must. Obligation . An obligation that depends on the person speaking or listening . </li></ul><ul><li>I must study harder. </li></ul><ul><li>Have to . An obligation that comes from outside , by law, by rule … An external obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to obey my teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>I have to work. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Must, had better, should , ought to <ul><li>Ought to/should (mild obligation) </li></ul><ul><li>Ought to/ should are weak forms of must (mild obligation). </li></ul><ul><li>It is a matter of conscience or good sense. </li></ul><ul><li>I should help other people. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Advice (should/ough to, </li></ul><ul><li>had better, must) </li></ul><ul><li>Should/ought to (debería) had better(sería mejor) Must </li></ul><ul><li>a) To advise peop le: </li></ul><ul><li>You should study harder </li></ul><ul><li>You ought to go </li></ul><ul><li>b) To advise people : It is going to be cold tonight. You’d better turn on the heating </li></ul><ul><li>c) Must can also express advice : You must see the film. You’ll enjoy it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Need, shall <ul><li>Need Need to </li></ul><ul><li>Need to = need (Necessity) He needs to control himself= he need control himself </li></ul><ul><li>Needn’t= don’t need to (absence of necessity) He doesn’t need to come = he needn’t come </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Shall : Offer, suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Shall I bring you an aspirin? (offer) </li></ul><ul><li>Shall we go to the cinema? (suggestion) </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion (other ways of making suggestions) : </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s go to the cinema, </li></ul><ul><li>/ Why don’t we go to the cinema/ </li></ul><ul><li>How about going to the cinema?/ </li></ul><ul><li>What about going to the cinema? </li></ul>

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