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  1. 1. ESCALATOR Ar. Abhinav Srivastav Assistant Professor B.Arch., M.Tech (IIT-R) Presented By-
  2. 2. OUTLINE- • History • Introduction • Terminology • Design Guidelines • Arrangement • Layout • Mechanical Layout • Spiral Escalator • Interesting Facts • References Escalator
  3. 3. Escalator Source:Illustration from U.S. Patent #25,076: Revolving Stairs. Issued August 9, 1859, to Nathan Ames • The word escalator was coined by combining the Latin word for steps— “scala”—with the word “elevator.” • Nathan Ames, a patent solicitor from Saugus, Massachusetts, is credited with patenting the first "escalator" in 1859, despite the fact that no working model of his design was ever built. • On March 15, 1892, Jesse W. Reno patented the "Endless Conveyor or Elevator” History
  4. 4. Escalator History (cont.) • Reno, a graduate of Lehigh University, produced the first working escalator (he actually called it the "inclined elevator") and installed it alongside the Old Iron Pier at Coney Island, New York City in 1896. • This particular device was little more than an inclined belt with cast-iron slats or cleats on the surface for traction, and traveled along a 25° incline
  5. 5. Escalator Introduction • An escalator is a conveyor type transport device that moves people. It is a moving staircase with steps that move up or down using a conveyor belt and tracks keeping each step horizontal for the passenger. • They are provided where it is necessary to move large number of people from floor to floor in minimum of space. For example , at railway stations , airports etc. • The escalators operate at a constant speed , serve only two levels and have a known maximum capacity , which varies from 3200 to 6400 persons per hour depending on the width of the escalators. • Escalators are reversible in direction. • They are generally operated at a speed of not more than 38m/minute.
  6. 6. Escalator Terminology • General Terms Relating to Escalators Angle of Inclination - Maximum angle to the horizontal in which the steps, the pallets or the belt move. It shall not be in excess of 30° from the horizontal excepting that with an escalators having a vertical rise not exceeding 6m an angle up to 35° may be allowed. Auxiliary Brake - Fail safe brake, which is used to stop an escalators/moving walk under all normal conditions or under certain fault conditions only, typically situated on one side of the main drive shaft. Balustrade - Part of the escalator/moving walk which ensures the users safety by providing stability, protecting from moving parts and supporting the handrail.
  7. 7. Escalator Terminology (cont.) Balustrade Decking - Transverse member of the balustrade which meets the handrail guidance profile and which forms the top cover of the balustrade. Brake Load - Load on the step/pallet/belt for which the brake system is designed to stop the escalator. Comb - Pronged section at each landing that meshes with the grooves of the steps Comb Lighting - Small flush light panels located in the skirt panels on both sides of the escalators/moving walk unit at both upper and lower landing and immediately adjacent to the comb teeth to illuminate the comb and step tread and assist passengers boarding and alighting the escalators/moving walk. Comb Plate - Platform at each landing to which the combs are attached.
  8. 8. Escalator Comb Plate Switch - Switch in safety circuit that opens when excessive force is detected in vertical and/or horizontal direction on the comb or comb plate of escalators/moving walk. Terminology (cont.) Emergency Brake - Auxiliary mechanically automatically operated brake, which will stop a fully loaded escalator, if the drive chain breaks. Emergency Stop Switch - Separate stop button usually located in adjacent walls, columns or within the balustrade providing the facility to stop the escalator/moving walk, in the event of emergency. Escalator - Power-driven, inclined, continuous moving stairway used for raising or lowering persons in which the user carrying surface (for example, steps) remains horizontal. NOTE - Escalators are machines, and even when out of operation, shall not be considered as fixed staircases as there could be a safety concern.
  9. 9. Escalator Exterior Panel - Part of the exterior side of the enclosure of an escalator. Handrail - Power-driven moving rail for persons to grip while using the escalator. Interior Panel - Panel located between the skirting or lower inner decking and the handrail guidance profile or balustrade decking. Machinery - Escalator or moving walk machine(s) mechanisms and associated equipment. Terminology (cont.) Machinery Spaces - Space(s) inside or outside of the truss where the machinery as a whole or in parts is placed. Maximum Capacity - Maximum flow of persons that can be achieved under operational conditions. Newel - End of the balustrade.
  10. 10. Escalator Nominal/Rated Speed - Speed in the direction of the moving steps, pallets or the belt stated by the manufacturer for which the escalator or moving walk has been designed, without load on the steps/pallets/ belt at nominal frequency and nominal voltage. Pit - Recess in the floor to receive that portion of the lower landing and the lower end of the incline section which occurs below the floor line when there is no floor under the escalator such as in a basement. Rated Load - Load which the equipment is designed to move. Rise (Travel) - Vertical distance between the upper and lower finished floor levels. Safety Circuit - Part of the electric safety system consisting of electrical safety devices. Skirting - Vertical part of the balustrade interfacing with the steps, pallets or belt. Terminology (cont.)
  11. 11. Escalator Design Guidelines • Escalators are desirable where the movement of people, in large numbers at a controlled rate in the minimum of space, is involved, for example, railway stations, shopping centers/malls, airports, etc. These encourage people to circulate freely and conveniently. • As the escalators and moving walks operate at a constant speed, serve only two levels and have a known maximum capacity, the traffic study is rather easy, provided the population to be handled in a given time is known. It is easy to predict the rate at which the population can be handled.
  12. 12. Escalator Design Guidelines (cont.) Flow chart of escalators Capacity of escalators
  13. 13. Escalator Design Guidelines (cont.)
  14. 14. Escalator Arrangement
  15. 15. Escalator Arrangement (cont.)
  16. 16. Escalator Layout
  17. 17. Escalator Layout
  18. 18. Escalator Layout
  19. 19. Escalator Mechanical Layout
  20. 20. Escalator Mechanical Layout
  21. 21. Escalator Mechanical Layout
  22. 22. Escalator Mechanical Layout
  23. 23. Escalator Mechanical Layout
  24. 24. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  25. 25. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  26. 26. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  27. 27. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  28. 28. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  29. 29. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  30. 30. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  31. 31. Escalator Spiral Escalator
  32. 32. Escalator Interesting Facts • The first escalator installed in Coney Island, New York City. • The first Elevator at Raj Bhavan – Kolkata in late 19th century. • The first Escalator at Reserve Bank of India, Kolkata in mid 60’s.
  33. 33. Escalator References • National Building Code-2016 • International Building Code • Neufert, Architect data • Fred Hall, Building Services Handbook • Elevatorworld • OTIS Brochure • Mitsubishi Brochure • Time Saver Architecture Design Data
  34. 34. Climatology Lab Development Thanks