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Public Service Rules & Official Communication Procedures

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Public Service Rules & Official Communication Procedures

  1. 1. Dr. Oyewole O. Sarumi PUBLIC SERVICE RULES & OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION Monday, 23 November 20151
  2. 2. Aims  To facilitate a platform for understanding of Public Service in Nigeria.  To offer participants a broad introduction to public service rules and reforms.  Identify and explain the main concepts associated with public service rules.  Provide knowledge on procedure guiding official communication in public service and why they are undertaken. Monday, 23 November 20152
  3. 3. Objectives  Explore issues of Public Service Rules  Understand the concepts and principles of Public Service Rules  Evaluate the various ways of official communication channels in the Nigerian Public Service  Understand the role of Public Service Rules in good governance and effective service delivery Monday, 23 November 20153
  4. 4. Outcomes At the end of this session, participants will:  Have a clear understanding and gain knowledge/skills on Public Service Rules  Know these rules and how they affect them as Public Servants  Be able to describe the various official communication channels in the public service. Monday, 23 November 20154
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION:  Social sciences have bequeathed to humanity the institution of government. Before the emergence of government and governance, social interactions and behaviour were not regulated. Man was lawless and naturally barbaric. Everyone did things the way they pleased him or her. 5 Monday, 23 November 2015
  6. 6.  In short, humans behaved like animals. Anarchy was the order of the day. It was a state of survival of the fittest and high level degree of oppression.  Government emerged to regulate behaviour, human activities and social interactions. Monday, 23 November 20156
  7. 7.  Social sciences field of study has contributed more than any other field in the world because without an enabling environment propelled by government and governance, there would have been no such great inventions in the fields of engineering, medicine, architecture, etc. 7 Monday, 23 November 2015
  8. 8.  In a micro dimension therefore, if there are no regulations, rules and laws generally, the public service in fact would have not been in existence let alone functional.  It is in this direction that some scholars see the public service to be synonymous with bureaucracy because bureaucracy itself is characterized by fixed rules, discipline and proper conduct. 8 Monday, 23 November 2015
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION…..Cont’d  For the public service to achieve its aims there is the need for a set of rules and code of conduct to be put in place so that services can be delivered effectively and efficiently.  It is in this direction that the government came up with such guidelines as the Public Service Rules, Code of Conduct for public office holders, Code of Ethic in Government business, financial regulations, financial memorandum, etc. 9 Monday, 23 November 2015
  10. 10.  Here, we’re concerned with public service rules and code of conduct for public servants of the federation of Nigeria, of which you are an integral part of.  We’ll highlight some of the provisions of the current Public Service Rules published by the Federal Government of Nigeria, and the Code of Conduct for Public Officers enshrined in the Fifth Schedule, Part 1 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended). 10 Monday, 23 November 2015
  11. 11. PUBLIC SERVICE RULES:  Public service rules refer to a set of laws guiding the conduct of public servants for the effective and efficient performance of their jobs. Included in the public service rules are conditions of service for public servants (Okonkwo, 2008).  The Public Service Rules in Nigeria have undergone many changes in nomenclature right from the colonial days to the present day. 11 Monday, 23 November 2015
  12. 12. Evolution of Public Service Rules Before 1960, called General Orders (G.Os) instituted by the colonial masters. After 1960, changed to Civil Service Rules. In the 1990s, changed to present title of Public Service Rules Monday, 23 November 201512
  13. 13.  It started as General Orders (G.Os) instituted by the colonial masters. Before independence, the G.Os served as guide for all government employees in Government Departments and Agencies.  Immediately after independence, the name changed again to Civil Service Rules, and later to the present title of Public Service Rules (Mustapha, 2008). 13 Monday, 23 November 2015
  14. 14.  The present title is adopted to make the rules have general application to all manner of government employees in Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs).  Please note that the public service is generic and broader in nature than civil service which is restricted to personnel of core government ministries only. 14 Monday, 23 November 2015
  15. 15.  Thus, all civil servants are public servants but not all public servants are civil servants. (See below).  The public service rules refer to a code of regulations which provide for basic rules, regulations and procedures that are germane for carrying out the business of government geared towards efficient service delivery. Monday, 23 November 201515
  16. 16.  It is expected that every public servant should strictly comply with the provisions of the Rules.  The overall aim of the public service rules is to ensure good conduct, loyalty, honesty, courtesy, hard work and ethical principles. 16 Monday, 23 November 2015
  17. 17. WHAT IS CIVIL SERVICE Rule 010103-This is a body or organ of the Government, which enjoys continuity of existence and is usually referred to as Government's Central bureaucracy. Essentially, it covers Ministries/Extra- Ministerial Departments andAgencies. Its head is Head of Service. It is also the instrument of the Government of the day but neither the service nor its members are the partisan of any party. 17 Monday, 23 November 2015
  18. 18. The Civil Service is made up of Civil Servants who command a pool of experience and expertise for implementing Government policies. The Civil Service is indispensable irrespective of the type of regime whether military or civilian. Monday, 23 November 201518
  19. 19. Public Service  A body or organ that enjoys continuity of existence. It is made up of the civil service, theTeaching Service, the Health Service, the Local Government, the Judiciary, Parastatal organisation, Government-owned companies andTertiary institutions.  Rule 010101- Public Service Rules are a compendium of rules regulating the conduct, attitude and career movement of its staff on a daily basis to the point of exit. 19 Monday, 23 November 2015
  20. 20. 20  Conduct - in terms of relationship with your superior,  your subordinates,  your colleagues;  Attitude to work and work place;  Career movement has to do with your progress in the Service. Monday, 23 November 2015
  21. 21. DEFINING THE PUBLIC SERVICE “Public Service” refers to an agglomeration of all organisations that exist as part of government machinery for the delivery of services Monday, 23 November 201521
  22. 22. The Differences: Between Civil And Public Servants  Civil service is an organ in the executive arm of government, primarily responsible for the execution of government policies and program. Civil service is divided into departments, these departments are called ministries and these ministries are headed by ministers. CIVIL SERVANTS are SIMPLY THOSE WORKING FOR the GOVT, UNDER THESE MINISTRIES. Simply put, civil servants are government workers, at federal, state or local govt. levels.
  23. 23. The Differences: Between Civil And Public Servants  Please note that civil service doesn't include the following.....police, armed forces, public corporation and government owned establishment.....BUT AN INCLUSION OF THESE BODIES (just mentioned) TO the CIVIL SERVICE IS WHAT'S CALLED "PUBLIC SERVICE". What makes it "public" is that these set of people also work for government (like civil servants) but render direct services to the people on behalf of the government. Monday, 23 November 201523
  24. 24. DEFINING THE PUBLIC SERVICE (CONTD)  It is the machinery through which government articulates and implements its programmes  It is a mandatory institution of the State under the Constitution, see: Chapter VI of 1999 Constitution under the title: “The Executive, Part I (D) and Part II (C) provides for a Public Service at Federal and State Levels. Monday, 23 November 201524
  25. 25. SUMMARY OF THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC SERVICE  Advises government on policy options.  Administrative machinery of Government for implementing policy decisions and delivering services.  Driver of all development initiatives and pivot for growth of economy.  Lead institution in strategic thinking and translation of intentions to policies for the delivery of improved quality of life.  Fulfills the mandate of the Government, in conjunction with the political leadership, which is to serve the people.  Crucial to the overall effort of responding effectively to the development challenges of the 21st century. Monday, 23 November 201525
  26. 26. DEFINING PUBLIC SERVICE RULES & REGULATIONS  Public Service rules and regulations are publicly agreed upon sets of principles, policies, criteria, descriptions and/or conducts governing the operations and activities of the public service  Public Service Rules ensure that the fundamental ethical issues in the Public Service are strictly adhered to. Monday, 23 November 201526
  27. 27. AIMS OF PUBLIC SERVICE RULES & REGULATIONS  Aimed at entrenching the issues of transparency, accountability, justice, equity, due process, and the rule of law. All these are very paramount to the conduct of Government business, which all Public Servants must imbibe.  The strategic goal of Public Service Rules and reforms (PSR&R), is to achieve our national development agenda and collective goal of becoming one of the 20 leading industrialized nations of the world by 2020 through a focused and vibrant Public Service. Monday, 23 November 201527
  28. 28. Public Service Rules It cover a wide range of issues relating to:  1. Appointment and leaving the service – Types of appointment; appointment to senior posts, Secret society prohibition, etc.  2. Rules for appointment on probation: – Period of probation (2 years before confirmation).  3. Rules for appointment on contract:- conditions for contract; duration of appointment, etc.  4. Transfer and secondments: Procedures for transfer and secondments.  5. Acting Appointment:- Only when necessary 28 Monday, 23 November 2015
  29. 29. 2.  6. Leaving the Service:- retirement in public interest, termination during probation, resignation, etc.  7. Allowances: – various types  8. Annual Performance Evaluation Report and Certificates of Service  9. Compensation for injuries:- workmen compensation Act, etc  10. Compensation and Insurance:- loss of property, loss of private property, life assurance, etc.  11. Courses of instructions within and outside Nigeria  12. Discipline:- (a) Misconduct (b) Serious misconduct (c) Conduct prejudicial to the security of the State. 29 Monday, 23 November 2015
  30. 30. 3.  13. Emoluments and Increment:- payment of salaries; increment, etc.  14. Examination in law and official publications: combined confirmation/promotion examination, compulsory examination for executive officers, etc.  15. Inventions and Award Committee: functions, procedure, etc.  16. Leave - types, date, etc.  17. Medical and Dental Procedures: medical treatment, etc.  18. Petitions and Appeals  19. Promotions  20. Reward for outstanding works. 30 Monday, 23 November 2015
  31. 31. Our Purpose  Because these rules are detailed and lengthy, this lecture will only highlight briefly the provisions of some of them you are likely to come across with, shortly in your service with the State. These include rules on: Discipline Leave Petitions and Appeals Official Communication Procedures Monday, 23 November 201531
  32. 32. FORMS OF, AND PENALTIES FOR, INDISCIPLINE IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE  The Public Service Rules seem to recognize four main heads of indiscipline.  The heads are: General inefficiency, Misconduct, Serious Misconduct, and Conduct Prejudicial to the Security of the State.!"  The disciplinary measures that may be inflicted upon an erring public servant are: Monday, 23 November 201532
  33. 33. FORMS OF, AND PENALTIES FOR, INDISCIPLINE IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE  Dismissal, termination or retirement;  Reduction in rank;  Reduction in salary;  Withholding or deferment of increment;  Loss of pay/non-payment for the corresponding days an officer is not at his duty post/station without authority;  Surcharge; Monday, 23 November 201533
  34. 34. FORMS OF, AND PENALTIES FOR, INDISCIPLINE IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE  Reprimand;  Written Warning;  Verbal Warning. Monday, 23 November 201534
  35. 35. Annual Leave Defined  120202 – annual leave is the absence of an officer from duty for a period specified in Rule 120209 as may be authorized by a superior officer 35 Monday, 23 November 2015
  36. 36. LEAVE:  Rule 100101 defines leave as the authorized absence of an officer from duty for specific period.The Rule identified the following types of leave:  Annual Leave – absence of an officer from duty for: 30 days for senior officers 21 days for junior officers 14 days for officers below grade level 03 Monday, 23 November 201536
  37. 37. Annual Leave Is Compulsory  120203 -Annual vacation leave is compulsory. No officer shall be required or allowed to take working leave whereby the officer reports for duty during his approved leave period.All officers must therefore take vacation leave within the calendar year in which such leave is due. LEAVEYEAR  Period between 1st day of January and the 31st of December of the year. 37 Monday, 23 November 2015
  38. 38. DEFERRED LEAVE  –Vacation leave which an officer is permitted to carry forward until the time of his retirement. EX-GRATIA LEAVE  Leave granted as a gift or favour not because there is a legal duty to grant it. 38 Monday, 23 November 2015
  39. 39. OTHER LEAVE -120201 Annual leave Leave to attendTrade Union conference; Examination leave; Sabbatical leave; Leave of absence; Pro rata leave or proportionate leave; Study leave with pay; Study leave without pay; 39 Pre-retirement leave Maternity leave; Sick leave; Leave to attend cultural or sporting activities. Casual leave  Paternity leave Leave on compassionate ground Leave on ground of urgent private affairs Adoption leave Monday, 23 November 2015
  40. 40. Leave Inclusive Of Saturday, Sunday And Public Holidays  120207 provides that the period of any leave as casual leave, sick leave, maternity leave etc granted under these rules shall be inclusive of Saturday, Sunday and Public holidays occurring therein. Leave Allowance  120208 -An officer whether serving at a station away from his home place or serving at his home place when granted annual leave shall be provided with leave allowance at the prevailing rates. 40 Monday, 23 November 2015
  41. 41. Paternity Leave 120237 It is the authorised absence from duty of a serving male officer to whom a new baby or babies in a case of multiple births is born or adopted up to a maximum of 10 days in relation to and at the time of his spouse first two deliveries. A male officer shall not be entitled to Paternity leave in respect of the third and subsequent children.Approval is subject to presentation of child's birth certificate or letter of release as applicable. 41 Monday, 23 November 2015
  42. 42. Adoption Leave  120235  B.-a female officer who adopts is entitled to 12 weeks Adoption leave at a stretch beginning from the date of release of baby with full pay. Evidence showing the release of the baby must be presented before grant of leave.Where this annual leave has already been enjoyed before the grant of adoption leave, that part of the adoption leave equivalent to the annual leave will be without pay. 42 Monday, 23 November 2015
  43. 43. Pro-rata Or Proportionate Leave  Proportionate leave is a vacation granted to a new, officers who attend courses of instruction/training over a period of six months or retiring officer in proportion to the number of days he has put into the service.Any period of service under 30 days is not reckonable. 43 Monday, 23 November 2015
  44. 44. Leave Of Absence  It is the absence from duty authorized on grounds of public policy.  All such leave shall be approved without pay by the Civil Service Commission or any other such body on the recommendation of the Head of Service. 44 Monday, 23 November 2015
  45. 45. Types Of Leave Of Absence A. leave of absence to join spouse on course of instruction of not less than 9 months duration abroad. B. special leave of absence to join spouse on grounds of Health/Public Policy. C. leave of absence on grounds of Public Policy forTechnical Aid Programme. D. leave of absence to take up non-elective political appointment. E. leave of absence on grounds of Public policy for an official whose spouse is a President,Vice President, Governor, Deputy Governor, Chairman orVice Chairman. 45 Monday, 23 November 2015
  46. 46. PETITIONS:  The Public Service Rules define petition as “a formal appeal to ultimate authority, that is, the Head of Government for special consideration of a matter affecting an officer personally”.  The Rules advised officers to as much as possible exhaust all possible peaceful avenues provided in the Public Service Rules and Circulars for redress before proceeding to courts of law. Monday, 23 November 201546
  47. 47.  A petition must be submitted through the proper departmental channels, namely the petitioner’s immediate superior officer and the Permanent Secretary/Head of Extra ministerial office, who will forward the petition with his or her comments and recommendations to the Chairman of the Federal Civil Service Commission and Head of the Civil Service of the Federation. Monday, 23 November 201547
  48. 48.  A petition must bear the full name, staff number, signature and address of the petitioner (Rule 090206).  A petition submitted more than 6 months after the decision complained of has been given, will not be entertained, unless such delay is supported by valid reasons. Monday, 23 November 201548
  49. 49. CODE OF CONDUCT  The overall objective of Code of Conduct is to ensure public accountability by public officials.  Code of Conduct refers to “a comprehensive and systematically arranged collection of laws, regulations and rules of conduct procedure that guide, regulate and direct the behaviour of public officers” . Monday, 23 November 201549
  50. 50.  Every public servant and indeed public office holder in Nigeria is expected to abide by the provision of the Code of Conduct for public officers as stipulated in the Fifth Schedule, Part 1 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended).  For the avoidance of doubt, Part II of the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution defines the categories of public officers for which the Code of Conduct is applicable to. Monday, 23 November 201550
  52. 52. PATTERNS OF COMMUNICATION FLOW IN AN ORGANIZATION  According to Eboh (1986), the flow of communication in an organization can be: Upward communication Downward communication Cross-wise communication. Monday, 23 November 201552
  53. 53. TYPES OF OFFICIAL COMMUNICATION: STEPS & PROCEDURES  The Nigerian Civil Service has many channels through which it communicates with not only its members but also members of the public. Some of these are; written, oral, or non-verbal channels.Very often, the channels that are used within the service, depends on:  1)What is to be communicated?  2)Who is doing the communicating?  3)At who is the communication targeted.  4)What is the feed-back.  The wrong channel would naturally result in the target audience missing the message or information altogether. Monday, 23 November 201553
  54. 54. The 4 Pathway in Government Communications Monday, 23 November 201554
  55. 55. WRITTEN CHANNELS: In Public Service  In the Nigerian Civil Service, this is the most frequently and intensively used communication strategy.  Some of the written channels often used in the civil service are hereby listed below: Monday, 23 November 201555
  56. 56.  Memorandum  Minutes  Reports  Press Releases  Press Conferences  Executive Orders  Gazettes  Letters  Pamphlets  Handouts  Circulars  Bulleting Boards  Petitions  Newsletters Monday, 23 November 201556
  57. 57. ORAL CHANNELS: In Public Service  In the service, there are various forms of oral communication. They could take the form of: Meetings, Seminars, Public lectures, Telephone discussions. Monday, 23 November 201557
  58. 58. COMMUNICATION BARRIERS WITHIN THE CIVIL SERVICE  The preferred communication strategy in the Nigerian Civil Service. Most civil servants prefer that one puts whatever he wishes to say in writing.  Written channels are generally the most preferred in the service. Every employee wishes to have and keep a written record of communication, so that the sender cannot later deny the message. Monday, 23 November 201558
  59. 59.  The basic barriers to effective communication in the civil service may be classified into two broad categories. Those barriers that have to do with the person, and classifiable into the psychological, the physical and the semantic. Those that concern the service itself as an institution. Monday, 23 November 201559
  60. 60.  There are official barriers to effective communication created by the civil service itself. These have to do with civil service rules and regulations, the biggest of these being the Oath of Secrecy.  It is a basic requirement that every public official subscribes to the Oath of Secrecy, which is signed and carefully preserved. Monday, 23 November 201560
  61. 61.  What constitutes a breach of the official secret acts is so widely defined that it cover any kind of information given out without official permission.  No civil servant wishes to inadvertently disclose information that may be covered by the official secret acts. Monday, 23 November 201561
  62. 62.  As a result, civil servants have to seek permission before they can communicate any information to a person who needs it.This slows down the communication process and in several instances frustrates it altogether.  Civil servants are also prohibited from publishing in the mass media or speaking in public on matters of political or administrative import.They are on tap, not on top; to be seen, not to be heard. Monday, 23 November 201562
  63. 63.  This makes the civil servant circumspect in choosing his words in public or even refuse to hold discussion in public for fear that he might breach the rules.  These barriers to communication created by the government has made it very difficult to receive communication on civil service or government affairs. Monday, 23 November 201563
  64. 64.  The advent of FOI Bill may ease difficulties in accessing required information if the information seeker can be prudent to pursue the law to its end. Monday, 23 November 201564
  65. 65. How to Overcome Barriers of  Taking the receiver more seriously  Crystal clear message  Delivering messages skilfully  Focusing on the receiver  Using multiple channels to communicate instead of relying on one channel  Ensuring appropriate feedback  Be aware of your own state of mind/emotions/attitude Monday, 23 November 201565
  66. 66. Tools of effective  Be Brief  Manners  Using “I am directed”  Be Positive  Good listener  Spice up your words  Clarity  Pronunciation Monday, 23 November 201566
  67. 67. Some Last Words  In order to improve communication within the Public Service, it is necessary to remove or modify some of the institutional barriers within the Service.  First, the Oath of Secrecy as it stands today is much too restrictive.Although official secret acts are a necessity, the problem here remains the fact that it is too all-embracing.Things that should not be secret have been made so by this act. Monday, 23 November 201567
  68. 68.  A well-considered modification of the official SecretActs 1982, will improve communication from government to the people and the people to government.  A list of those kinds of information that should not be revealed should be made available to the public.The Oath should then only be binding on the listed items. Any other matter, not covered by the list should be freely revealed. Monday, 23 November 201568
  69. 69.  Such a modification will speed up the flow of information because civil servants will then be free to uncover what is not listed as official secret.  Second, is the need to reduce the severity of the rule prohibiting civil servants from making public statements. When a dedicated civil servant, working within the system to improve it, meets with frustration, he may be justified in going public with his case. Monday, 23 November 201569
  70. 70.  Constructive criticisms are fair criticisms which must be allowed in a responsible organization. If the civil service is to operate at a desirable level of efficiency, it is important that communication within the service must be effective, not only in some ministries like the Presidency, or the governor’s office, but throughout the service. Monday, 23 November 201570
  71. 71.  And for communication to be effective, it must flow in all directions.When this is facilitated through granting some level of freedom of communication to civil servants within the system, bureaucratic red-tape and the long pipeline syndrome will be reduced, and efficiency enhanced in the civil service.  Like I opined earlier, the enactment of FOI Bill into law may ease this secrecy if the information seeker or prodder can be prudent and tenaciuos to pursue the law to its logical and conclusive end. Monday, 23 November 201571
  72. 72. CONCLUSION  One major characteristic of the public service is the stability of tenure of its personnel.  It is expected that bearing any form of misconduct, accident, disability or death, a public servant is expected is to work till he or she attains retirement age. Monday, 23 November 201572
  73. 73.  This is diametrically antithetical to what is obtainable in private sector where an employee can be hired today and fired tomorrow even without any misconduct or wrong doing.  For us therefore, to enjoy this special public service privilege, it is expected of us to abide by all the provisions of the Public Service Rules, Code of Conduct for public Officers, Circulars, directives, and indeed other regulations. 73 Monday, 23 November 2015
  74. 74.  It is recommended therefore, that each and every one of you should have copies of the latest edition of the Public Service Rules and Code of Conduct for Public Officers or the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.  They are Bibles of the public service and should be read, studied and obeyed in the same manner Christians do with the Holy Bible and Moslems with the Holy Koran. 74 Monday, 23 November 2015
  75. 75. CLOSING STORY: Seek Complete Information Always Before Acting!  JackWalshertum, an airplane cleaner was cleaning the cockpit when he saw a book titled:“HOWTO FLYAN AIRPLANE FOR BEGINNERS….Volume 1”.  He opened the first page which said:To start the engine, press the RED button. He did so, and the plane engine started. He was happy, and open page 2 which said:  To set the airplane moving, press the BLUE button. He did so and the plane started moving at an amazing speed.  He wanted to fly, so he opened the third page which said: Monday, 23 November 201575
  76. 76.  To let the airplane fly, please press the GREEN button. He did so and the plane started to fly. He was excited.  After 20 minutes of flying, he was satisfied and wanted to land, so he decided to go to page 4.  He fainted after reading the instructions.The 4th page said:To learn how to land a plane, please buyVolume 2.  WHATARETHE MORAL LESSONS FROMTHIS STORY? Monday, 23 November 201576
  77. 77. MORAL LESSONS  Seek complete information before doing a task especially in areas you are less competent.  You need others to become more knowledgeable in this life.  Incomplete or partial information on anything could lead to fatality.  Ignorance is not an excuse to put your life and that of others at risk. Monday, 23 November 201577
  78. 78. So……..  Be a good public servant!  Be a conscientious public servant!  Be an instrument of public service delivery!  Be an exemplary public servant! 78 Monday, 23 November 2015
  79. 79. Attributions  Okonkwo, J.K.J. Public Services Rules and Code Of Conduct For Public Servants.A paper presented to the newly employed staff ofAkanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, (2009 – date), on the occasion of the induction programme organised by the Polytechnic, Tuesday, March 25, 2014, at the Polytechnic auditorium. Culled from http://akanuibiampoly.edu.ng/?page_id=344  Laws Guiding Public Civil Service Employees In Nigeria Culled from http://martinslibrary.blogspot.com.ng/2013/03/laws- guiding-public-civil-service.html Monday, 23 November 201579
  80. 80.  Introduction to Public Service. From the workshop conducted for the Federal Ministry ofWorks,Abuja.  Public Service Reforms and Code of Conduct.A workshop conducted by PearlAssociates for Lagos State MOH staff, 2015.  Lagos State Human Resources Policies.  Public Service Rules – Office of the Head of Service – 2008 Edition.  The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, (1999, as amended. Monday, 23 November 201580