Towards a Human Resource Development Ontology Combining Competence Management and Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning 1...
Outline <ul><li>Why an HR Development Ontology? </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>The ontology </li></ul><u...
Two development directions <ul><li>Competence Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aligning human resource development with co...
Need for integration <ul><li>... but how to make them fit together? </li></ul><ul><li>We need a  domain engineering  appro...
Requirements and Key Issues <ul><li>Alignment  of human resource development  with business processes & goals </li></ul><u...
Automatability <ul><li>Ontologies as models with a formal semantics  are the basis for computer-supported guidance </li></...
Developing the Ontology
Development Process Learning in Process Ontology Competence Management Ontology Integration e-learning knowledge managemen...
Competency <ul><li>Competencies  are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bundles of knowledge, skills and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Competency Relationships <ul><li>In practice, usually competency hierarchies are used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mono-hierarchi...
Competency Part of the Ontology Usually to be derived
Diagnosing Competencies <ul><li>Problem: Competencies are not directly measurable, but only indirectly derivable from perf...
Developing Competencies: The Knowledge Maturing Process
Developing Competencies: Learning Opportunities <ul><li>Learning Opportunity <covers> Topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic ge...
Developing Competencies
Requirements <ul><li>For recommending  learning opportunities within work processes we need to determine what is relevant ...
Embedding it into the enterprise
Implementation in OWL <ul><li>Metamodeling   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are themselves instances of other concepts </l...
Issue of Derived Properties <ul><li>Properties can be  time-dependent  and  uncertain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. has-compe...
Conclusions & Outlook <ul><li>Ontology presented is a first step towards a domain engineering approach integrating the dif...
More information: http://professional-learning.eu Andreas Schmidt Team Manager „Knowledge and Learning“ FZI Research Cente...
 
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Towards a Human Resource Development Ontology Combining Competence Management and Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning

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Towards a Human Resource Development Ontology Combining Competence Management and Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning

  1. 1. Towards a Human Resource Development Ontology Combining Competence Management and Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning 1 FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, GERMANY ² Kompetenzorientierte Personalentwicklung, Königsbach-Stein, GERMANY Andreas.Schmidt@fzi.de | contact@christine-kunzmann.de http://www.fzi.de/ipe | http://kompetenzen-gestalten.de Andreas Schmidt 1 Christine Kunzmann²
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Why an HR Development Ontology? </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>The ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosing competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation issues OWL-DL </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding it into the Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Outlook </li></ul>
  3. 3. Two development directions <ul><li>Competence Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aligning human resource development with corporate goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify, secure and make use of employee competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but also development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competency-Oriented Technology-Enhanced Workplace Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-learning, knowledge management & performance support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formal and informal learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integration of competence development into work activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are about learning, competencies, work processes... </li></ul>
  4. 4. Need for integration <ul><li>... but how to make them fit together? </li></ul><ul><li>We need a domain engineering approach that brings them together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a shared domain model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a specification of a shared infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and its implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First step: a shared domain model (or ontology ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Requirements and Key Issues <ul><li>Alignment of human resource development with business processes & goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning needs are determined by both individual and corporate interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatability of learning & HR micro management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recommending relevant learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tracking learning progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supporting staffing and ensuring sufficient competence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth transition to knowledge management activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge management is about learning, too! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holistic view of human resource development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of formal training as well as informal competence development </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Automatability <ul><li>Ontologies as models with a formal semantics are the basis for computer-supported guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Several promising areas have emerged: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile matching with similarity measures [Biesalski & Abecker 05] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>selecting applicants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>team staffing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding learning opportunities with knowledge gap analysis and competency subsumtion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning on demand [Schmidt 05] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>training planning [Kunzmann & Schmidt 06] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detecting competence development pathways [Ley 06] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Developing the Ontology
  8. 8. Development Process Learning in Process Ontology Competence Management Ontology Integration e-learning knowledge management performance support HR training departments competence management operational HR development
  9. 9. Competency <ul><li>Competencies are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bundles of knowledge, skills and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relevant to work performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sufficiently measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and developable [Kunzmann & Schmidt 2006] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually competency scales are used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>novice, beginner, intermediate, competent, expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEFR scales for language proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scales are usually specific for certain competency types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a competency is then an instance of an abstract competency type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competency type has a scale attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: English Language Proficiency (TYPE) , English C2 (COMPETENCY) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Competency Relationships <ul><li>In practice, usually competency hierarchies are used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mono-hierarchies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no well-defined semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is-a relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poly-hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defined on competency types (regardless of the level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: OWL-Modeling <is-a> Ontology Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part-of relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum-style philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defined on competencies (level-specific) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL-Modeling Intermediate <consists-of> { Protégé Expert, OWL Modeling Methodology Beginner } </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Competency Part of the Ontology Usually to be derived
  12. 12. Diagnosing Competencies <ul><li>Problem: Competencies are not directly measurable, but only indirectly derivable from performances </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of competency evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>see also HRXML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>training evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self-assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently under discussion: clear separation into observable performance and inferred competence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Developing Competencies: The Knowledge Maturing Process
  14. 14. Developing Competencies: Learning Opportunities <ul><li>Learning Opportunity <covers> Topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic generalization of Competency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Artifact </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Entity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning prerequisites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Object </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Developing Competencies
  16. 16. Requirements <ul><li>For recommending learning opportunities within work processes we need to determine what is relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attached to organizational entities </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Embedding it into the enterprise
  18. 18. Implementation in OWL <ul><li>Metamodeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are themselves instances of other concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English E2 <instance-of> English Proficiency <instance-of> CompetencyType </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In OWL-DL : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CompetencyTypes are concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies are instances with levels attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scales are assigned to CompetencyTypes via annotation properties </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Issue of Derived Properties <ul><li>Properties can be time-dependent and uncertain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. has-competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two layers: physical and logical view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> ODBASE talk on Thursday 14:30! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derived properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWRL is not sufficient for complex computations like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>subsumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has-competency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both issues cannot be efficiently dealt with within the OWL-DL frame, but are better dealt with outside of it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implemented as services in an infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions & Outlook <ul><li>Ontology presented is a first step towards a domain engineering approach integrating the different perspectives on learning in enterprises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experiences from Learning in Process and subsequent TEL projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and competence management projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>current and future versions available under a creative commons license under http://professional-learning.eu/competency.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration highly welcome and invited! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next step is a service-oriented infrastructure offering a shared set of services. </li></ul>
  21. 21. More information: http://professional-learning.eu Andreas Schmidt Team Manager „Knowledge and Learning“ FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Information Process Engineering [email_address] http://fzi.de/ipe

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