4. Female reproductive system comprises primary sex
organs and accessory sex organs.
Primary sex organs
pair of ovaries( produce ova and female sex
Accessory sex organs
A system of genital ducts- fallopian tubes,uterus,cervix,
External genitalia - labia majora, labia minora and clitoris
5. functional anatomy of accessory sex
Uterus is a hollow ,thick walled muscular organ situated
between the urinary bladder and rectum.
It is divided into two parts –body and cervix.
The upper 2/3rd of uterus forms the body of uterus and
cylindrical lower part,which protrudes into the upper part of
vagina forms the cervix.cervix is 2.5cm long
6. 3 layers of uterus
Serosal layer(perimetrium) - outermost
Myometrium - middle one
Endometrium - innermost
Cervix is the lower constricted part of uterus.
It is divided into two portions
1.Upper supravaginal portion
The supravaginal portion communicates with body of uterus
through internal os of cervix.
2.Lower vaginal portion
The vaginal portion of cervix projects into the anterior wall of
the vagina and it communicates with vagina through external os
Vagina is a short tubular organ.
it is lined by mucus membrane
which is formed by stratified
9. Structure of ovary
A pair of ovaries is located in the pelvic cavity
one on each side of the uterus near the
fimbriated end of fallopian tubes.
Each ovary,weighs about 5-10 g,is ovoid in shape
and is attached to the uterus by ligaments.
It consists of an outer cortex and inner medulla.
12. Outer most layer of ovary is formed of germinal
Inner to germinal epithelium is a dense connective
tissue layer called tunica albuginea.
Ovarian follicles in different stages of maturation are
present in the stroma of cortex.
15. Oogenesis(production of ova)
In the fetus,oogonia (oogonium-singular) present in the
ovarian cortex multiply rapidly to form primary oocyte.
By 7th month of intrauterine life, multiplication of oogonia
At the time of birth, the primary oocyte undergoes first
meiotic division and stops at prophase stage up to puberty
18. At puberty,the number of oocytes is only 3-4 lakhs.
Just before ovulation,first meiotic division is
completed and the primary oocyte divides to form
secondary oocyte and first polar body.
The secondary oocyte contains only 23 chromosomes.
The first polar body usually degenerates.
19. The secondary oocyte undergoes second meiotic division
and stops at the stage of metaphase.
Second meiotic division gets completed only when the
sperm fertilizes the ovum.if fertilization doesnot occur,the
oocytes cell will release out of the body through
During fertilization second meiotic division is completed to
form an ovum and second polar body.
20. If the first polar body persists, it divides to
form 2 polar bodies
Thus one primary oocyte finally gives rise to
one haploid ovum and three haploid polar
At the time of ovulation only one ovum is
21. Secretion of female sex hormones
ovary secretes the female sex hormones
estrogen and progesterone.
Ovary also secretes few more hormones namely
inhibin ,relaxin and small quantities of
Estrogen is a steroid hormone secreted in large quantity
by theca interna cells of ovarian follicles and in small
quantity by corpus luteum of the ovaries.
Estrogen is present in 3 forms;
The major functions of the estrogen is to
promote cellular proliferation and tissue growth
in the sexual organs and in other tissues related
26. Effects on ovarian follicles
Promotes the growth of ovarian follicles by
increasing the proliferation of the follicular cells.
It also increases the secretory activity of theca
28. Effects on uterus
Enlargement of uterus
Increase in the blood supply to endometrium
Deposition of glycogen and fats in endometrium
Proliferation and dilatation of blood vessels of
Proliferation and dilatation of the endometrial
29. Increase in the spontaneous activity of the
uterine muscles and sensitivity to oxytocin.
Increase in the contractility of the uterine muscles
due to increase in actomysoin concentration.
30. Effect on fallopian tubes
Act on the mucosal lining of the fallopian tubes and
increases the number and size of the epithelial cells.
Increases the activity of the cilia ,so that the
movement of the ovum in the fallopian tube is
Enhances the proliferation of glandular tissues in
31. Effect on vagina
Changes the vaginal epithelium from cuboidal into
Increases the layers of the vaginal epithelium by
Reduces the pH of vagina making it more acidic
32. EFFECT ON SECONDARY SEXUAL
Hair distribution:hair develops in the pubic region and axilla
Skin : estrogen renders softness and smoothness ,vascularity of
Body shape ; the shoulders become narrow ,hip broadens,the
fat deposition increases in the breast and buttocks.
Pelvis :broadening of pelvis with increased transverse
diameter,the round or oval –shaped pelvic outlet,the round or
oval – shape of pelvis
Progesterone is a steroid hormone secreted by
corpus luteum and placenta.
Final preparation of the uterus for pregnancy and
breast for lactation
40. Functions of progesterone
Effect on fallopian tubes
Promotes secretory activities of mucosal lining
of the fallopian tubes
Effect on the uterus
Increases the thickness of the endometrium by
increasing the number and size of the cells
Increases the size of uterine glands .
42. Increases secretory activities of epithelial cells
of uterine glands.
Increases the deposition of lipid and glycogen
in the stromal cells of endometrium.
Increases the blood supply to endometrium
Decreases the frequency of uterine contractions
43. Effect on cervix
Increases thickness of cervical mucosa and thereby
inhibits transport of sperm into uterus
Effect on mammary glands
Promotes the development of the lobules and
alveoli of the mammary glands
Makes the breast secretory in nature.
45. Effect on hypothalamus
Inhibits the release of LH from hypothalamus through
Increases the body temperature after ovulation.
Effect on respiration
During luteal phase of menstrual cycle and during
pregnancy,progesterone increases the ventilation via
46. Effect on electrolyte balance
Increases reabsorption of sodium and water
the renal tubules.