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Cross Cultural Communications

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Cross Cultural Communications, 2014 CreditScape, Western Region Credit Conference Seminar Slide Deck, sponsored by Credit Management Association. More information: www.creditmanagementassociation.org

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Cross Cultural Communications

  1. 1. ER$ Consulting Services Presents for NACM WRCC Cross-Cultural Communication: A Cultural Journey 9:00 AM – 10:15 AM Las Vegas The Palms Hotel October 16, 2014 Copyright: Eddy A. Sumar 2014
  2. 2. Cross-Cultural Communication A Cultural Journey
  3. 3. http://www.international.gc.ca/cfsi-icse/cil-cai/intercultural-interculturelle-Exercise
  4. 4. A Global Village
  5. 5. The World is Global International trade Trade agreements Multinational corporations No boundaries for business & commerce The ability to execute financial transactions instantaneously on a global basis The ability to locate business, particularly manufacturing, wherever the cost is lowest The ability of information and communication technology to transcend time and distance Business is Global
  6. 6. Cross-cultural competence is no longer an option It is survival
  7. 7. Understanding Culture = Survival Survival = Harnessing R3 •Roots [Content & Context] •Risks •Rewards R3
  8. 8. Cultural intelligence Cultural intelligence is the capability to deal effectively with people from different cultural backgrounds Cultural intelligence is not difficult to understand but it is difficult to put into practice on an ongoing basis
  9. 9. Three Components of Cultural intelligence Knowledge of culture: [Definition] what culture is how culture affects human behavior how cultures vary Awareness: being aware of our own assumptions, ideas, words, and behavior being aware of other person’s assumptions, ideas, words, and behavior using all the senses in perceiving situations viewing situations from several perspectives Behavioral skills: [Competence & Choice] choosing and displaying the appropriate behavior for each particular intercultural situation
  10. 10. Define Culture
  11. 11. Culture is…… The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Geert Hofstede Beliefs, norms, and attitudes that are used to guide our behaviors and to solve human problems. Guo-Ming Chen, William Starosta The customs, beliefs, art and all other products of human thought, made by a particular group of people at a particular time. Richard D. Lewis
  12. 12. Culture is: The way we dress The way we communicate (verbal and non-verbal) The way we relate to others and authority Our outlook and attitude toward life Our perception of self and role in society Our perception of time Our space perception The way we learn and study A way of life
  13. 13. Culture is below the surface…… Culture hides more than what it reveals, and strangely enough, what it hides, it hides most effectively from its own participants. Edward Hall
  14. 14. Culture is like an iceberg: only a part of it is seen; all the rest is hidden under the water
  15. 15. Behaviors Products Values Ancient artifacts Buildings & Architecture Customs Beliefs Assumptions Myths & Legends Roots Perceptions Folklore & History Outward appearance
  16. 16. Layers of cultures A national level A regional level A generation level A social class level A gender level A personal level Organizational or corporate level
  17. 17. Understanding Culture Searching the Roots History Religion Tradition Customs Values Beliefs Art Literature (Sayings, & Proverbs)
  18. 18. Understanding Culture Avoiding the Risks Alienation Culture shock Conflict Confrontation Loss of face Loss of business Loss of credibility
  19. 19. Understanding Culture Enjoying the Rewards Increased market share Higher sales and profitability Enhanced cash flow Diversified portfolio Truly global presence Ability to compete Improved relationships Enhanced loyalty
  20. 20. Understanding Culture Start from the Home Front $ Understand the Values of your own Culture $ Consider your assumptions
  21. 21. $ How do we conduct business? $ How do we establish business relationships? $ What are our expectations of the other person? $ What does it take to establish trust and respect? $ How do we make decisions? $ How do we view time, power & space? $ How do we persuade others? $ How do we communicate? Understanding Culture Consider Your Assumptions
  22. 22. Understanding Culture Consider the other person & Culture $ Understand the Values of the new Culture $ Consider their assumptions
  23. 23. $ How do they conduct business? $ How do they establish business relationships? $ What are their expectations of you? $ How do they establish trust and respect? $ How do they make decisions? $ How do they view time, power, & space? $ How do they persuade others? $ How do they communicate? Understanding Culture Consider the other person & Culture
  24. 24. Dimensions of Culture
  25. 25. Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions 1. Power Distance 2. Individualism vs. Collectivism 3. Masculinity vs. Femininity 4. Uncertainty Avoidance 5. Long-term Orientation http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html
  26. 26. Dimensions of National Culture Individual ……………Group Direct…………………Indirect Verbal………………..Non-verbal Informal……………..Formal Egalitarian…………..Hierarchical Task………………….Relationship Universal…………….Situational
  27. 27. Relationships Across Cultures A Middle-eastern Example • Establish personal rapport • Establish personal status/family context • Express admiration; use flattery; be indirect • Close distance and informal • Long range • Generosity and and hospitality • Emotional support and harmony
  28. 28. Communicating Across Cultures Communication is the interchange of messages [verbal & non-verbal] between people. It is the fundamental building block of social experience. We always communicate whether we are selling, buying, negotiating, leading or working with each other
  29. 29. Body language Up to 90 % of our communication is non-verbal Supportive body language Non-supportive body language
  30. 30. Introductions Forms of address (names) Exchange of business cards Handshake Eye contact
  31. 31. Personal space The American bubble Extends about 12-15 inches (combined 24-30 inches) Asian, especially the Japanese, stand even further apart Latin Americans, Mexicans, Mediterranean people stand much closer
  32. 32. Touch Touch •Spain and Portugal •Some Asian cultures •Middle Eastern countries •Latin Americans (only the same gender) Don’t touch •United States and Canada •England •Northern European countries •Japan •Australia
  33. 33. Gestures http://www.slideshare.net/NirmalaPadmavat/hand-gesture-of-differents-cultures http://travel.ca.msn.com/international/photogallery.aspx?cp-documentid=22585990
  34. 34. Communication styles In direct convention of communication most of the message is placed in the content of the communication – the actual words that are used In indirect convention the context is more important, such elements as the previous history of relations between the participants, power distance, the physical setting, nonverbal clues and others http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/countryinsights-apercuspays-eng.asp
  35. 35. Cultures High context cultures Japanese Chinese Arab Greek Spanish Italian English French American Scandinavian German German-Swiss Low context cultures Indirect Direct
  36. 36. Perception of Time Monochronic people • Do one thing at a time • Concentrate on the job • Take time commitments (deadlines, schedules) seriously • Are committed to the job • Adhere religiously to plans • Are accustomed to short-term relationships Polychronic people • Do many things at once • Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions • Consider time commitments an objective to be achieved if possible • Are committed to people and human relationship • Change plans often and easily • Have strong tendency to build lifetime relationships
  37. 37. Individualism Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose:everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family only • Individual is treated as the most important element in any societal setting • Self-esteem, self-identity, self-image and self-expression are emphasized • Personal goals supersede group goals • Individuals are task-oriented and seek individual reward and appraisal • Competition is encouraged
  38. 38. Collectivism Collectivism stands for a society in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong , cohesive ingroups, which throughout people’s lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty • Individual is interdependent and shows conformity to the group’s norms • Self-concept plays a less significant role in social interaction, people are emotionally dependent on the success of the group • Only ingroup views and needs are emphasized • Cooperation is encouraged
  39. 39. Second language strategies • Be patient • Speak distinctly, enunciate the words • Use short, simple sentences • Use action words – verbs etc. • Pause frequently, allow time for the person to formulate responses • Provide feedback and encouragement • Avoid idioms, slang, acronyms and sports terminology • Paraphrase if not understood instead of repeating the whole statement louder and slower • Be careful with numbers, write them down or repeat if necessary • Never assume that people around you do not understand your language • Use gestures, actions, visual aids to help understanding
  40. 40. Cross-cultural negotiation Phases of negotiation Building a relationship Exchanging information Trying to persuade each other Making concessions and reaching agreements
  41. 41. Western culture mainly take a “transactional” approach: they focus mainly on the last two stages Many other cultures pay more attention to creating a background relationship: they emphasize the social side of the situation over the task side
  42. 42. Strategies For Cross-Cultural Communication • Understand your own culture as the point of reference [Self] • Develop an international cultural perspective and global mind-set [Self] • Gather culture-specific information about the countries you are doing business with [Others] • Appreciate the complexities of cultures and individuals – avoid mindless stereotyping [Others] • Be aware of on-going cultural changes [Self & others]
  43. 43. Final Thoughts • Think beyond local perceptions • Prepare for new mindset • Adapt to new realities and ways • Be open and flexible • Welcome new experiences • Show appreciation for other cultures • Observe behavior; suspend judgment, seek rationale • Never ignore local sayings and proverbs • Negotiate differences: I adjust, you adjust, we look for a third way
  44. 44. American Proverbs Good fences make good neighbors.  In God we trust; all others pay cash. Scratch my back and I'll scratch yours.
  45. 45. American Sayings One today is worth two tomorrows; what I am to be, I am now becoming.  Time is Money. Where sense is wanting, everything is wanting. There’s danger in delay.
  46. 46. Middle East in Perspective Sayings to be guided by “One step at a time” (literally, "Grapes are eaten one by one") A foolish man may be known by six things: Anger without cause, speech without profit, change without progress, inquiry without object, putting trust in a stranger, and mistaking foes for friends. Arrogance diminishes wisdom.
  47. 47. Middle East in Perspective An Arab Proverb ♞Eat whatever you like, but dress as others do. ♞No cure, no pay. ♞What is learnt in the cradle lasts to the grave.
  48. 48. China in Perspective Sayings to be guided by  No friends, no business  A drop of water in time of need will be reciprocated forever  A man without a smile should not open a shop  A sweet temper and friendliness produce money  If you pull out one hair, you must rebalance the whole body  The divine dragon exhibits its head but never its tail
  49. 49. India in Perspective Proverbs to be guided by 1. Unity is strength. 2. One Who could not dance said that the ground was uneven. 3. One's mother and homeland are greater than even heaven. 4. A scalded cat dreads cold water. 5. To lose is to learn. 6. Don’t bargain for fish which are still in the water.
  50. 50. Become a Global Citizen. A global citizen is able to work effectively together with other people of any culture, personality, or profession. Become a cultural commuter, one who can cross from culture to culture with ease and naturalness. www.international.gc.ca http://ediplomat.com/
  51. 51. Thank You!