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North-East Unexploreindia.com

  1. 1. North-East India This India Unexplored
  2. 2. 8 Sister State Rich Cultural heritage, legacy of religion, Authencity of origins & Scenic treasure. Peace in abundance of Natural Beauty
  3. 3. North East India Heritage in Mountains
  4. 4. NAGALAND LAND OF FESTIVALS The diversity of people and tribes, each with their own culture and heritage, creates a year-long atmosphere of celebrations. In addition, the state celebrates all the Christian festivities. Traditional tribe-related festivals revolve round agriculture, as a vast majority of the population of Nagaland is directly dependent on agriculture.
  5. 5. A Naga Man with his spear, from a tribe, dressed for the war-festival. Nagaland is known in india as the land of festivals. Nagaland is one of three states in India where the population is mostly Christian. English is in predominant use language. Nagaland became the 16th state of India on 1 December 1963. Agriculture is the most important economic activity and the principal crops include rice, corn, millets, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes, and fibres. Other significant economic activity includes forestry, tourism, insurance, real estate, and miscellaneous cottage industries. Nagaland has a high literacy rate of 80.1 per cent. Majority of the population in the state speaks English, which is the official language of the state. The state is rich in mineral resources such as coal, limestone, iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, and marble. Nagaland has a recoverable reserve of limestone of 1,000 million tonnes plus a large untapped resource of marble and handicraft stone. About
  6. 6. Demography - Climate Nagaland is a state in Northeast India. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. It has an area of 16,579 square kilometres (6,401 sq mi) with a population of 1,980,602 per the 2011 Census of India, making it one of the smallest states of India. The state is inhabited by 16 major tribes — Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Kachari, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchunger, and Zeme-Liangmai (Zeliang) as well as sub-tribes. Each tribe is unique in character with its own distinct customs, language and dress. The state is mostly mountainous except those areas bordering Assam valley. Mount Saramati is the highest peak with a height of 3,840 metres and its range forms a natural barrier between Nagaland and Burma. It lies between the parallels of 98-degree and 96-degree East Longitude and 26.6-degree and 27.4-degree latitude north of the equator. The state is home to a rich variety of flora and fauna; it has been suggested as the "falcon capital of the world".
  7. 7. Flora and Fauna: Nagaland is rich in flora and fauna. About one-sixth of Nagaland is under the cover of tropical and sub-tropical evergreen forests—including palms, bamboo, rattan as well as timber and mahogany forests. While some forest areas have been cleared forjhum cultivation, many scrub forests, high grass, reeds; secondary dogs, pangolins, porcupines, elephants, leopards, bears, many species of monkeys, sambar, harts, oxen, and buffaloes thrive across the state's forests. The Great Indian Hornbill is one of the most famous birds found in the state. Blyth's Tragopan, a vulnerable species of pheasant, is the state Bird of Nagaland. It is sighted in Mount Japfü and Dzükou Valley of Kohima district, Satoi range in Zunheboto district and Pfütsero in Phek district. Of the mere 2500 tragopans sighted in the world, Dzükou valley is the natural habitat of more than 1,000. Weather & Rainfall Nagaland has a largely monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Annual rainfall averages around 70–100 inches (1,800–2,500 mm), concentrated in the months of May to September. Temperatures range from 70 °F (21 °C) to 104 °F (40 °C). In winter, temperatures do not generally drop below 39 °F (4 °C), but frost is common at high elevations. The state enjoys a salubrious climate. Summer is the shortest season in the state that lasts for only a few months. The temperature during the summer season remains between 16 °C (61 °F) to 31 °C (88 °F). Winter makes an early arrival and bitter cold and dry weather strikes certain regions of the state. The maximum average temperature recorded in the winter season is 24 °C (75 °F). Strong north-west winds blow across the state during the months of February and March. Demography - Climate
  8. 8. Specialty Cuisine Nagaland is home to the bhut jolokia or ghost pepper, one of the hottest chilis in the world at 855,000 SHU on the Scoville scale. Naga dishes use a lot of locally grown herbs, ghost peppers, ginger and garlic. Galho is a vegetarian porridge cooked with rice, leaves and condiments. Drinks include Zutho and thutse, beers made with sticky rice. Honey & Wax Medicinal & aromatic Plants Silk Pickles Tribes Culture & Festivals Textiles Folk music & dance Cuisine
  9. 9. Embroidered textile of Nagaland Tribe and clan traditions and loyalties play an important part in the life of Nagas. Weaving is a traditional art handed down through generations in Nagaland. Each of the tribe has unique designs and colours, producing shawls, shoulder bags, decorative spears, table mats, wood carvings, and bamboo works. Among many tribes the design of the shawl denotes the social status of the wearer. Some of the more known shawls include Tsungkotepsu and Rongsu of the Ao tribe; Sutam, Ethasu, Longpensu of the Lothas; Supong of the Sangtams, Rongkhim and Tsungrem Khim of the Yimchungers; the Angami Lohe shawls with thick embroidered animal motifs etc.
  10. 10. Folk songs and dances are essential ingredients of the traditional Naga culture. The oral tradition is kept alive through folk tales and songs. Naga folks songs are both romantic and historical, with songs narrating entire stories of famous ancestors and incidents. There are also seasonal songs which describe activities done in an agricultural season. Tribal dances of the Nagas give an insight into the inborn Naga reticence of the people. War dances and other dances belonging to distinctive Naga tribes are a major art form in Nagaland.
  11. 11. Cultural Performance Tribal instruments(Tati, Asem, Jemji,etc); Zeliang dance
  12. 12. Festivals and Events Tribe Festival Celebrated in Angami Sekrenyi February Ao Moatsu, Tsungremong May, August Chakhesang Tsukhenyie, Sekrenyi April/May, January Chang Kundanglem, Nuknyu Lem April, July Dimasa Kachari Bushu Jiba, January, April Khiamniungan Miu Festival, Tsokum May, October Konyak Aoleang Monyu,Lao-ong Mo April,September Kuki Mimkut, Chavang kut January, November Lotha Tokhu Emong November Phom Monyu, Moha, Bongvum April, May, October Pochury Yemshe October Rengma Ngadah September Rongmei Gaan-ngai January Sangtam Amongmong September Sumi Ahuna, Tuluni November, July Yimchungru Metumniu, Tsungkamniu August, January February, October,
  13. 13. The tribes of Nagaland celebrate their festivals with appreciation and fervor. More than 60% of the population of Nagaland depends on agriculture and therefore most of their festivals revolve around agriculture. They consider their festivals sacred and so participation in these festivals is essential. To encourage inter-tribal interaction and to promote cultural heritage of Nagaland, the Government of Nagaland organizes the Hornbill Festival every year in the first week of December. Organized by the State Tourism and Art & Culture Departments, Hornbill Festival showcases a mélange of cultural displays under one roof. This festival usually takes place between the 1st and the 7th of December every year in Kohima. Hornbill Festival is held at Naga Heritage Village, Kisama which is about 12 km from Kohima. All the tribes of Nagaland take part in this festival. The aim of the festival is to revive and protect the rich culture of Nagaland and display its extravaganza and traditions.For visitors it means a closer understanding of the people and culture of Nagaland, and an opportunity to experience the food, songs, dances and customs of Nagaland. The state is mostly mountainous except those areas bordering Assam valley. Mount Saramati is the highest peak with a height of 3,840 metres and its range forms a natural barrier between Nagaland and Burma. It lies between the parallels of 98-degree and 96-degree East Longitude and 26.6-degree and 27.4-degree latitude north of the equator. The state is home to a rich variety of flora and fauna; it has been suggested as the "falcon capital of the world".
  14. 14. Visual Arts • Tribal instruments Tati,Asem,Jemji • Zeliang dance • Cloth painting • Poetry • Metal Work
  15. 15. Kohima War Cemetry It is located at the slopes of the GARRISON HILL in Kohima. It is dedicated to the 10,000 allied soldiers who lost their lives during the Japanese invasion in world war-ii. It is beautifully laid out with lush green carpet grass and seasonal roses It houses some of the rarest artifacts belonging to the different tribes inhabiting the state Colorful traditional dresses, dialect, practices and traditions are displayed at the museum
  16. 16. HOW TO REACH?? Naga Heritage Village The Naga heritage village is the best place to get an overview about the ethnic groups of Nagaland. It offers a panorama of nature and cheerful hospitality of the people of Nagaland. The heritage village protects and preserves all ethnic cultural heritages by establishing a common management approach it also aims to uphold and sustain the distinct identity of dialects, customs and traditions of all the ethnic tribes of Nagaland. 
 It’s situated in the Kisama Village 10 kms. From Kohima city. Bus and taxi rides are easily available from Kohima. It is approx. a 30 to 45 mins drive from Kohima.
  17. 17. Nagaland Tourism Tourism experts contend that the state's uniqueness and strategic location in northeast India give Nagaland an advantage in tapping into the tourism sector for economic growth. The state has been extremely successful in promoting the Hornbill Festival, which attracts Indian and foreign tourists alike. The key thrusts of Nagaland's tourism is it's rich culture, showcasing of history and wildlife.
  18. 18. The Nagaland Baptist Church, DIMAPUR It is one of the popular churches in the state of Nagaland. Baptist Church is an elegant protestant that is situated in Northern East Nagaland. It is one of the oldest churches for the Baptist. Baptist Church was constructed by the Sumi Naga Tribe to worship Lord Jesus. The construction of this Baptist Church represents ancient artefacts and sleek and slender style of architecture.
  19. 19. The spirit of faith church, DIMAPUR It is a very popular church of Nagaland. This huge church is a major pilgrim destination and also a tourist attraction. The head office of the church is based in USA. The members of the church belong to different tribes and ethnic backgrounds. It has a number of facilities such as street evangelism, open-air preaching, a jail ministry, a television ministry, short- term bible school, monthly newsletter which is mailed throughout India, audio and video teaching materials etc.
  20. 20. How to Reach By Air: DIMAPUR has the only Airport in Nagaland at the moment. Direct flights connect the airport to Guwahati and Kolkota and connections can be made from all other airports in India. By Rail: Dimapur has a railway station on the main line of the North east Frontier Railway. It is well connected to Guwahati, with a number of trains that shuttle between the two stations every day. By Road: A number of taxis ply from Dimapur to Kohima. Night buses connect Dimapur and Kohima to Guwahati and Shillong (Meghalaya).
  21. 21. TRIPURA Tripura, a little state of India, is a tribal Hindu land, and a very offbeat place.
  22. 22. Tripura is a state in Northeast India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491 km2 (4,051 sq mi) and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population. The Bengali people form the ethno-linguistic majority in Tripura. Indigenous communities, known in India as scheduled tribes, form more than 30 per cent of Tripura's population. The Kokborok speaking Tripuri people are the major group among 19 tribes and many subtribes. The area of modern 'Tripura' was ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty. About
  23. 23. Demography - Climate Tripura lies in a geographically disadvantageous location in India, as only one major highway, the National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country. Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Atharamura, Longtharai, Shakhan and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys; Agartala, the capital, is located on a plain to the west. The state has a tropical savanna climate, and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which bamboo and cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. The diverse ethno-linguistic groups of Tripura have given rise to a composite culture. The dominant ethnic groups are Bengali, Tripuri (Debbarma, Tripura, Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Mizo, Uchoi, Dhamai, Roaza, Mogh, Manipuri, and other tribal groups such as Munda, Oraon and Santhal who migrated in Tripura as a tea labourers. Bengali people represent the largest ethno-linguist community of the state. Bengali culture, as a result, is the main indigenous, non-Tripura culture. Indeed, many elite tribal families which reside in towns have actively embraced Bengali culture and language in the past, but in today's generation more Tripuris are embracing their culture.The Tripuri kings were great patrons of Bengali culture, especially literature; Bengali language was the language of the court. Elements of Bengali culture, such as Bengali literature, Bengali music, and Bengali cuisine are widespread, particularly in the urban areas of the state.
  24. 24. Specialty Ashokastami mela festival is an important festival of the State. It is followed by a big fair popularly known as "Ashokastami Fair" which is held at Unakoti Tirtha at Kailashahar every year in the month of March/April. Organic tea Clay crafts Tribes Culture Folk music Folk dance
  25. 25. Tripura is noted for bamboo and cane handicrafts.Bamboo, wood and cane are used to create an array of furniture, utensils, hand-held fans, replicas, mats, baskets, idols and interior decoration materials.Music and dance are integral to the culture of the state. Some local musical instruments are the sarinda, chongpreng (both string instruments), and sumui (a type of flute).Each indigenous community has its own repertoire of songs and dances performed during weddings, religious occasions, and other festivities. The Tripuri and Jamatia people perform goria dance during the Goria puja. Jhum dance (also called tangbiti dance), lebang dance, mamita dance, and mosak sulmani dance are other Tripuri dance forms. Reang community, the second largest scheduled tribe of the state, is noted for its hojagiri dance that is performed by young girls balanced on earthen pitchers.Bizhu dance is performed by the Chakmas during the Bizhu festival (the last day of the month of Chaitra in Hindu calendar). Other dance forms include wangala dance of the Garo people, hai-hak dance of the Halam branch of Kuki people, and sangrai dance and owa dance of the Mog. Alongside such traditional music, mainstream Indian musical elements such as Indian classical music and dance, Rabindra Sangeet are also practised. Sachin Dev Burman, a member of the royal family, was a maestro in the filmi genre of Indian music. Sculptures are evidence of the presence of Buddhist and Brahmanical orders for centuries, and represent a rare artistic fusion of traditional organised religions and tribal influence.
  26. 26. Cultural Performance Reang women performs their popular Hozagiri danceA couple in traditional Tripuri costume The traditional folk music of the indigenous people of Tripura – Reangs, Chakmas and Lushais – dates back thousands of years. The Vasant Raas, the dance of the Hindu Manipuris of Tripura and the Hai Hak Dance of the Halam community are some of the more distinctive dance forms. Kham, chempreng instruments
  27. 27. Welcome Dance: 
 As the name suggests, it is dance for welcoming. For this Welcome dance the Lusai girls are well dressed in order to get ready for performance. They generally wear the colorful & bright costumes. They performed welcome dance whenever any visitor pay visits to their house as a guest. This is very colorful & attractive dance where young girls of the entire community take part and enjoy. Their dress is so colorful that the ornaments are not very much required except fragrant flowers. Such kind of songs are deeply rooted in our culture to treat our guest as a God. Folk Dances of Tripura
  28. 28. Garia Dance: They pray to the God `Garia` for a happy harvest. The celebration is attached to the Garia Puja that lasts about for seven days. Lebang Boomani Dance: When the Garia festival is over, the Tripuris have a time to take rest & relax with waiting for the monsoon. During this period, charming colorful insects called `Lebang` use to visit hill slopes in search of seeds sewn on it. 
 This gives the tribal youths to indulge in merry-making process. For this the men-folk make a peculiar rhythmic sound with the help of two bamboo chips held in their hand and the women folk run tottering the hill slopes to catch hold of these insects called `Lebang`. In this way they come together accidentally. 
 For this Tripuris use the musical instruments like Khamb made of Bamboo, Flute, Sarinda, Lebang made of bamboo and bamboo cymbal. Wangala Dance: Wangala is a ceremony connected with a consumption of first rice harvest. The dance pattern projects the rehearsal for war. Hai-Hak Dance: Hai-Hak dance is dance performed by Halam community. Hozagiri Dance: The Reangs also use the musical Instruments like Khamb, Flute which is made of bamboo and bamboo cymbal for producing sound. The Reang women prefer to put on black Pachra and Rea as a costume for dance. Way (Lamp) Festival Dance: The traditional dance of the Mog community is known as `Way Dance` or `Lamp Dance`. The youngsters indulge in fun & enjoyment through singing and dancing. It is performed at the premises of Buddha temple.
  29. 29. Garia and Gajan Festival is the biggest festival of the Tripuri people. Lord Garia is worshiped in the form of Lord Shiva. The festival is celebrated throughout the state in the month of April. Buisu or Bisuis the New Year festival of Tripuri people. This festival is celebrated as New Year eve by the Tripuri people. The Buisu or Bisu festival is celebrated for two days. Hojagiri: The worship of goddess Mailuma or Laxmi is known as Hojagiri in Tripuri. The Reang community also performs Hojagiri dance during the Hojagiri festival. Durga puja is celebrated in Tripura with much pomp and gaiety. Durga Puja is celebrated for a period of four days in Tripura. Kharchi festival is celebrated with great joy and devotion. The festival is celebrated with much fanfare and enthusiasm. It is also called 'Chaturdash' or 'Chaudda Devata Puja'. The place where the festival fair is held is, known as 'Chaturdash Devata' or 'Chaudda Devatas bari, Old Agartala, the second capital of His Highness Krishna Manikya. Ker festival is celebrated just after a fortnight of Kharchi Puja. The worship for 'Ker' is held only on the first Tuesday or Saturday after fourteen days of Kharchi Puja. The main feature of this festival is the worship of a long invoked bamboo which is locally known as Nagri Pura. Ashokastami mela festival is an important festival of the State. It is followed by a big fair popularly known as "Ashokastami Fair" which is held at Unakoti Tirtha at Kailashahar every year in the month of March/April. Orange & Tourism Festival is organised every year at the Jampui Hill in the month of November during the Orange Season. Jampui Hill is the only Hill Station in Tripura where large numbers of oranges are grown. Maghi Purnima Mela is held at the time of Maghi Purnima (in the month of February /March) at Chaturdas Devata Mandir of Khowrabill under Kailashahar subdivision. Thousands of devotees visit the site during the mela. Tripura Festivals
  30. 30. Tripura is a land of many fairs and festivals. The tribal community of tripura celebrate different festivals round the year. Festivals like Buisu or Bisu, Garia and Gajan Festival, Hojagiri, Kharchi festival, Ker festival are celebrated by the tribals of Tripura. In accordance with that the other non tribal communities celebrate festivals like Durga puja, Diwali, Holi and many others with much gaiety.
  31. 31. Visual Arts • Plastic art • Terracotta,
  32. 32. Tripura Tourism Mainstream Indian cultural elements, especially from Bengali culture, coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions, weddings and festivities; the use of locally crafted musical instruments and clothes; and the worship of regional deities. The sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti, Pilak and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions. The Ujjayanta Palace in Agartala was the former royal abode of the Tripuri king.
  33. 33. Neermahal palace - Red lake architecture boat palace. Neermahal is a cultural Water Palace of this state
  34. 34. Tripura Government Museum The State Museum in the Ujjayanta Palace in Agartala has impressive galleries that depict the history and culture of Tripura through pictures, videos and other installations.
  35. 35. • Within its small geographical area, Tripura offers plenty of attractions for the tourists in the form of magnificent palaces: Ujjayanta Palace and Kunjaban Palace at Agartala and Neermahal – Lake Palace at Melaghar • Splendid rock-cut carvings and stone images ( Unakoti near Kailashahar, Debtamura near Amarpur and Pilak • Important temples of Hindus and Buddhists including the famous Mata Tripureswari temple ( one of the 51 Pithasthans as per Hindu mythology ) at Udaipur, • The beautiful hill station of Jampui hill bordering Mizoram. • Wild life sanctuaries at Sepahijala, Gumti, Rowa and Trishna, eco parks created by forest department at Manu. • Baramura, Ambassa and rich cultural heritage of Tribals. • The main attractions in Agartala are Ujjayanta Palace, State Museum, Heritage Park, Tribal Museum, Sukanta Academy, M.B.B. College, Laxminarayan Temple, Uma Maheswar Temple, Jagannath Temple, Benuban Bihar, Gedu Mian Mosque, Malancha Niwas, Rabindra Kanan, Purbasha, Handicrafts Designing Centre, Fourteen Goddess Temple, Portuguese Church etc.
  36. 36. How to Reach By Air Agartala Airport, located 12 km northwest of Agartala at Singerbhil, There are direct flights to Kolkata, Imphal, Delhi, Silchar, Aizwal, Guwahati, Bangalore, Chennai, Ahmedabad and Mumbai. Passenger helicopter services are available between the capital and major towns (Kailashahar, Dharmanagar) as well as to more remote areas such as Kanchanpur and Gandacherra.[ By Railway Agartala Railway Station Agartala, came on India's railway map with the advent of the railways in the subcontinent in 1853 but the link was broken when India was partitioned in 1947. The major railways stations in this line are in Agartala, Dharmanagar, and Kumarghat. By Road The border post between Bangladesh and India in Akhaura Only one major road, the National Highway 8 (NH-8), connects Tripura to the rest of India.Starting at Sabroom in southern Tripura, it heads north to the capital Agartala, turns east and then north-east to enter the state of Assam. Locally known as "Assam Road", the NH-8 is often called the lifeline of Tripura. of Bangladesh.
  37. 37. MEGHALAYA PARADISE UNEXPLORED The diversity of people and tribes, each with their own culture and heritage, creates a year-long atmosphere of celebrations. In addition, the state celebrates all the Christian festivities. Traditional tribe- related festivals revolve round agriculture, as a vast majority of the population of Nagaland is directly dependent on agriculture.
  38. 38. Meghalaya is a state in northeast India. The name means "the abode of clouds" in Sanskrit. The population of Meghalaya as of 2016 is estimated to be 3,211,474. The capital of Meghalaya is Shillong. During the British rule of India, the British imperial authorities nicknamed it the "Scotland of the East”. Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January 1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills became the new state of Meghalaya. English is the official language of Meghalaya. The other principal languages spoken include Khasi, Pnar, Hajong, Rabha, Garo and Biate. Unlike many Indian states, Meghalaya has historically followed a matrilineal system where the lineage and inheritance are traced through women; the youngest daughter inherits all wealth and she also takes care of her parents. The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of 12,000 mm (470 in) of rains a year. About 70% of the state is forested. The Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion encompasses the state; its mountain forests are distinct from the lowland tropical forests to the north and south. The forests are notable for their biodiversity of mammals, birds, and plants. Meghalaya has predominantly an agrarian economy with a significant commercial forestry industry. The important crops are potatoes, rice, maize, pineapples, bananas, papayas, spices, etc. The state is geologically rich in minerals, but it has no significant industries. The state has about 1,170 km (730 mi) of national highways. It is also a major logistical center for trade with Bangladesh. About
  39. 39. Demography Meghalaya is one of the Seven Sister States of northeast India. The state of Meghalaya is mountainous, with stretches of valley and highland plateaus, and it is geologically rich. It consists mainly of Archean rock formations. These rock formations contain rich deposits of valuable minerals like coal, limestone, uranium and sillimanite. Meghalaya has many rivers. Most of these are rainfed and seasonal. The important rivers in the Garo Hills region are Daring, Sanda, Bandra, Bhogai, Dareng, Simsang, Nitai and the Bhupai. In the central and eastern sections of the plateau, the important rivers are Khri, Digaru, Umiam, Kynshi (Jadukata), Mawpa, Umiam or Barapani, Umngot and Myntdu. In the southern Khasi Hills region, these rivers have created deep gorges and several beautiful waterfalls.
  40. 40. ClimateAgriculture farms in Meghalaya (above) are on hilly terrain. The elevation of the plateau ranges between 150 m (490 ft) to 1,961 m (6,434 ft). The central part of the plateau comprising the Khasi Hills has the highest elevations, followed by the eastern section comprising the Jaintia Hills region. The highest point in Meghalaya is Shillong Peak, which is a prominent IAF station in the Khasi Hills overlooking the city of Shillong. It has an altitude of 1961 m. With average annual rainfall as high as 12,000 mm (470 in) in some areas, Meghalaya is the wettest place on earth. The western part of the plateau, comprising the Garo Hills region with lower elevations, experiences high temperatures for most of the year. The Shillong area, with the highest elevations, experiences generally low temperatures. The maximum temperature in this region rarely goes beyond 28 °C (82 °F),[15] whereas sub-zero winter temperatures are common. A sign board in Cherrapunji The town of Sohra (Cherrapunji) in the Khasi Hills south of capital Shillong holds the world record for most rain in a calendar month, while the village of Mawsynram, near Sohra (Cherrapunji), holds the record for the most rain in a year.
  41. 41. Specialty Metal ware Bamboo & Cane Clay & Terracotta Dakmanda fabric Culture & festivals Textile Folk music & dance Meghalaya is also the home to a large variety of fruits, vegetables, spices and medicinal plants. Meghalaya is also famous for its large variety of orchids — nearly 325 of them. Of these the largest variety is found in the Mawsmai, Mawmluh and Sohrarim forests in the Khasi hills.
  42. 42. Meghalaya handicrafts The state of Meghalaya is well known for various crafts. Handicrafts made with cane and bamboo products, textile weaving, carpet weaving, ornament making and woodcarving also hold important place in Meghalaya’s art and crafts. In fact, weaving forms an integral part in the culture of the state and its tribes. Markets like Police bazar, Bara bazar and Laitumkhrah in the capital city are a few places where you can buy the innumerable handicraft items that Meghalaya produces. Different categories of Meghalaya handicrafts ,Some of the famous handicrafts of Meghalaya are: • Weaving • Woodcarving • Bamboo work • Cane Mat • Stools • Baskets • Open weave carrying baskets • Closed weave carrying baskets • Bamboo-fishing traps • Storage baskets • Cane containers • Trays & Fans Some of the famous handicrafts of Meghalaya are Weaving, Woodcarving, Bamboo work, Cane work, Stools, Baskets, Bamboo-fishing traps, Cane containers, Trays & Fans and much more Meghalaya is home to many wonderful handicrafts. Weaving, be it on cloth or cane, has been an art for long in the state. There are some amazing handicrafts weaved by the various tribes of Meghalaya. Another prominent work here includes woodcarving and bamboo work because the raw material for these products is found in abundance in the state. The state produces some amazing cane mats, winnowing fans, caps, umbrellas, stools and baskets. Meghalaya is home to many wonderful handicrafts. Weaving, be it on cloth or cane, has been an art for long in the state. There are some amazing handicrafts weaved by the various tribes of Meghalaya. Another prominent work here includes woodcarving and bamboo work because the raw material for these products is found in abundance in the state. The state produces some amazing cane mats, winnowing fans, caps, umbrellas, stools and baskets.
  43. 43. The beautiful state of Meghalaya has many things to charm tourists and art and craft of Meghalaya features as top. The handicrafts of Meghalaya and the cottage industry of Meghalaya are very important part of the state’s development
  44. 44. Cultural Performance Phawar music; nongkrem, lah-ho,etc
  45. 45. Festivals and Events
  46. 46. Khasi Festival The Khasis, Jaintias and Garos of Meghalaya celebrate several festivals which are directly and indirectly connected with religion. They are full of joy and happiness which is expressed outwardly in the form of dance, feast and worship. Shad Suk Mynsiem Dance The Shad Suk Mynsiem reflects the matrilineal and patrilineal aspect of the Khasi society. Shad Suk Mynsiem is celebrated in the month of April at the Weiking grounds near Shillong and at other places in Meghalaya. Behdeinkhlam  Festival One of Meghalaya's most colourful religious festivals, Behdeinkhlam, is celebrated for three days during July at Jowai. Laho Dance The Jaintia People have another dance festival for entertainment. It is called the Laho dance. Members of both the sexes participate in this dance festival, attired in their best finery, usually two young men on either side of a girl, linking arms together, dance in step. Chad Sukra The annual Chad Sukra (sowing festival) is celebrated during the middle of April or early May every year by the Pnar people. Wangala Festival The Wangala is a Garo post-harvest festival that marks the end of the agricultural year. It is an act of thanksgiving to the sun god of fertility, known as Misi-A-Gilpa-Saljong-Galapa. This is the most popular festival of the Garo Hills, and is held in November, the precise date being fixed by the headman. The men and women dance in mirthful gaiety with the beating of drums, blowing of the buffalo horn trumpets and bamboo flutes.
  47. 47. Other Festivals Autumn Festival There are various festivals throughout the year, but Shillong comes alive in the month of October-November during the annual autumn festival. Strawberry Festival Meghalaya’s Strawberry Fest is emerging as a big tourist attraction and a business promotion event for growers and investors from across the country. Meghalaya hosted the country’s first Strawberry Festival on Valentine’s Day. Celebrated worldwide as an expression of love, Ranikor Festival The Mawkyrwat Sub Divisional Officers Welfare A The various activities organized on the two days of the festival were: • Display of the rich cultural diversity of Ranikor by various groups, like Khasis, Garos, Hajong, Assameese etc., through dance and music. • Beach soccer and beach volleyball • Boat ride to the Jadukata Bridge • Trekking to the International Border with the assistance of BSF • Boat riding • Archery competition with participants from all across Khasi Hills • Swimming • Kite flying • Performance by live band • Disco on the Beach with DJ • Ethnic cuisine
  48. 48. Meghalaya Tourism Tourism experts contend that the state's uniqueness and strategic location in northeast India give Nagaland an advantage in tapping into the tourism sector for economic growth. The state has been extremely successful in promoting the Hornbill Festival, which attracts Indian and foreign tourists alike. The key thrusts of Nagaland's tourism is it's rich culture, showcasing of history and wildlife.
  49. 49. Meghalaya is one of the eight northeastern states of India. The beautiful city of Shillong, also known as the Scotland of the East, is the capital of Meghalaya. Meghalaya is one of the most beautiful states of the northeast India and has lot of things to see and experience. Amongst other things, the exclusive flora and fauna, the friendly tribal folks and their cultural heritage are the things that attract people to this state.
  50. 50. MIZORAMLand of Hill People
  51. 51. About The term Mizoram is derived from three Mizo words-Mi, zo and ram. 'Mi' in Mizo means 'People' and 'Ram' means 'land'. There is dispute on the term 'zo'. According to one view, 'zo' means 'highland' (or hill) and Mizoram means 'land of the hill people'. B. Lalthangliana says 'zo' may also mean 'cold region' and therefore, Mizo signifies people of the cold region.
  52. 52. Mizoram is one of the states of Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city. The name is derived from Mi (people), Zo (lofty place, such as a hill) and Ram (land), and thus Mizoram implies "land of the hill people”.
 Climate. Mizoram has a mild climate, being relatively cool in summer 20 to 29 °C (68 to 84 °F)but progressively warmer most probably due to climate change with temperature crossing 30 degrees celsius with winter temperatures ranging from 7 to 22 °C (45 to 72 °F). Demography - Climate In the northeast, it is the southern most landlocked state sharing borders with three of the Seven, now with the addition of Sikkim, Eight sister states, namely Tripura, Assam, Manipur. The state also shares a 722 kilometre border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar. About 91% of the state is forested
  53. 53. Neptunia oleracea Mizoram is host to numerous species of birds, wildlife and flora. About 640 species of birds have been identified in the state, many of which are endemic to Himalayan foothills and southeast Asia. Of the birds found in Mizoram forests, 27 are on worldwide threatened species list and 8 are on critically endangered list. Prominent birds spotted in Mizoram include those from the families of Phasianidae, Anatidae, Ciconiidae, Threskiornithidae, Ardeidae, Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Falconidae, Accipitridae, Otididae, Rallidae, Heliornithidae, Turnicidae, Burhinidae, Charadriidae, Scolopacidae, Jacanidae, Laridae, Columbidae, Psittacidae, Cuculidae, Strigidae, Caprimulgidae, Apodidae, Alcedinidae, Meropidae, Bucerotidae, Ramphastidae, Picidae, Pittidae, Laniidae, Campephagidae, Dicruridae, Corvidae, Paridae, Hirundinidae, Cisticolidae, Pycnonotidae, Sylviidae, Timaliidae, Sittidae, Sturnidae, Turdidae, Dicaedae, Chloropseidae, Ploceidae, Motacillidae, Fringillidae, Nectariniidae and Muscicapidae. Each of these families have many species. The state is also host to a variety of fauna, just like its sister northeastern Indian states. Mammal species observed in the Mizoram forests include slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), red serow; the state animal (Capricornis rubidus), goral (Nemorhaedus goral), tiger (Panthera tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), clouded leopard ("Neofelis nebulosi"), leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Primates seen include stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides), hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei) and capped langur (Trachypithecus pileatus). The state is also home to many reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. The state has two national parks and six wildlife sanctuaries - Blue Mountain (Phawngpui) National Park, Dampa Tiger Reserve (largest), Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Murlen National Park, Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary, Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary, Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary, and Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary.
  54. 54. Specialty Bamboo Cane Ornaments Culture and festivals Textile Folk music and dance
  55. 55. Mizoram has the third highest total forest cover with 1,594,000 hectares (3,940,000 acres), and highest percentage area (90.68%) covered by forests, among the states of India, according to 2011 Forest Survey of India. Tropical Semi Evergreen, Tropical Moist Deciduous, Subtropical Broadleaved Hill and Subtropical Pine Forests are the common vegetation types found in Mizoram. Bamboo is common in the state, typically intermixed with other forest vegetation; about 9,245 km2 (44%) of state's area is bamboo bearing. The state and central governments of India have cooperated to reserve and protect 67% of the land covered by forests, and additional 15% by management. Only 17% of the land is non-forested area for cultivation, industry, mining, housing and other commercial human activity. Satellite data suggests 91% of state's geographical area is covered by forests.[9] Jhum cultivation, or slash-and-burn practice, were a historic tradition in Mizoram and a threat to its forest cover. This practice has reduced in recent decades from a government supported initiative to support horticultural crops such as pineapple and banana plantations.
  56. 56. Cultural Performance Khuallam and many other dance forms
  57. 57. Dance Mizoram has many traditional dances, such as: • Cheraw — a dance that involves men holding bamboo close to the floor. They tap the sticks open and close with the rhythm of music. Women in colourful dresses dance on top, stepping in between and out of the bamboo with the music. It requires co-ordination and skill. • Khuallam — a mixed-gender dance that traditionally celebrated successfully hunting with swaying cloth with singing and music. • Chheihlam — typically performed over cool evenings with rice beer, people sit in a circle with two or more dancers in the centre; they sing with impromptu often humorous compositions about recent events or guests between them with music and dancers keeping up. The song was called Chheih Hla. Mizo people have tried to introduce Chheihlam dance during church sermons with controversy. • Chai — an important dance at the Chapchar Kut, this places the musicians in the centre while men and women in colourful dresses alternate and form a circle; the women held the men at their waist, while men held the women at their shoulders; they step forward to move in circles while swaying left and right with the music. A song may be sung which is also called Chai. Mizo traditional tunes are very soft and gentle, with locals claiming that they can be sung the whole night without the slightest fatigue. The guitar is a popular instrument and Mizos enjoy country style music. Within the church services are drums, commonly used and known locally as "khuang". The "khuang" is made from wood and animal hide and are often beaten enough to instigate a trance-like state with worshipers as they dance in a circular fashion. Mizos enjoy singing and, even without musical instruments, they enthusiastically sing together, clapping hands or by using other rhythmic methods. Informal instruments are called chhepchher
  58. 58. The culture of the Mizo tribes and its social structure has undergone tremendous change over 100 years, since the arrival of Christianity in the late 1890s. Contemporary people of Mizoram celebrate Christmas, Easter and other Christian celebrations replacing many of old tribal customs and practices. The growth of Christianity, scholars state, was shaped from a foundation of cultural, religious and socio-political structure. One such foundation cultural element of Mizo people was Hnatlang, states Hlawndo, which literally means social work, united labour or community labour (the word hna‘ means job or work in the Mizo language; and tlang‘ means together and mutual). The tribal members who were absent from such social work (for reasons other than illness and disability) were penalised — a form of strong peer pressure. Jhum cultivation and raids on neighbouring tribes required Hnatlang, the spirit of united labour and equal sharing of the end result. A consequence of Hnatlang was the culture of Tlawmngaihna, which does not have a direct English translation. Tlawmngaihna as cultural concept incorporates behaviour that is self-sacrificing, self-denying, doing what an occasion demands unselfishly and without concern for inconvenience caused, persevering, stoical, stout-hearted, plucky, brave, firm, independent, loath to lose one's good reputation. Thus, after a fire or landslide or flood damage, the Mizo culture is one of spontaneous humble social work without demands or expectations. Several other cultural elements of ancient Mizo tribes, some of which became less prevalent after arrival of Christianity, included: • Zawlbuk: a place near the chief's home, which served as defence camp in times of war, as well as "bachelor house" where the youth gathered and centre of village life. • Pathian: the term for god, to whom prayers and hymns were recited. The evil spirits were called ramhuai. • Nula-rim: the method of courtship in ancient culture. Courtship, pre-marital sex and polygamy were accepted. The man and the woman could have many partners. If the woman got pregnant, the man was required either marry or pay a substantial sum called Sawnman. If the woman's parents discover the relationship, they had a right to demand a payment called Khumpuikaiman. While pre-marital sex was accepted, a woman who was virgin at marriage was more highly esteemed than one who wasn't. • Pathlawi: a young married man who engaged in extra-marital relationships, something that was acceptable in traditional Mizo society. • Ramrilekha: a boundary drawing that identified a chief's tenured land called ram. Only the chief owned the land, and this ownership was hereditary. The tribe and village worked and harvested the land. In modern Mizoram, much of the social life often revolves around church. Community establishments exist in urban centres that arrange social events, sports event, musical concerts, comedy shows and other activities.
  59. 59. Traditional festivals in Mizoram often revolved around stages of jhum cultivation or the seasons. Community festivals were called kut in the local language, and there were major and minor kuts such as Chapchar Kut, Thalfavang Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kut. Chapchar Kut was the festival of spring (February/March), just before jhum started and land was cut-and-burnt for a new crop. Chapchar Kut was most anticipated by youth, a major festival and involved dancing and feasts. Thalfavang Kut celebrated completion of weeding of the jhum crop fields. Mim Kut was the festival dedicated to ancestors after first maize crop was collected, while Pawl Kut celebrated the end of harvest and the start of new year. These festivals slowly disappeared as Christianity became established in Mizoram. Chapchar Kut was reintroduced and revived in 1973 by Mizo people to celebrate their heritage. Before Christianity arrived in Mizoram, home-brewed alcohol and many meat delicacies were part of the Chapchar celebrations. Now, with Mizoram's state law as a dry state, the youth busy themselves with music and community dancing. Along with reviving traditional festivals, the community has been reviving traditional dances at these festivals, for example, dances such as Cheraw, Khuallam, Chheihlam and Chai. Festivals and Events
  60. 60. Visual Arts Traditional weapons- spears and spikes
  61. 61. Mizoram Tourism
  62. 62. Visitors to Mizoram are required to obtain an 'inner line permit' under the special permit before visiting. Domestic and international visitors face different requirements.
  63. 63. Solomons Temple Aizawl Mizoram Tourism experts contend that the state's uniqueness and strategic location in northeast India give Nagaland an advantage in tapping into the tourism sector for economic growth. The state has been extremely successful in promoting the Hornbill Festival, which attracts Indian and foreign tourists alike. The key thrusts of Nagaland's tourism is it's rich culture, showcasing of history and wildlife.
  64. 64. The state is a bird watcher's destination. For Mrs. Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae), Mizoram is a stronghold.Wild water buffalo, Sumatran rhinoceros, elephants and other mammals have been spotted in the past.
  65. 65. How to Reach By Air: Lengpui Airport which is 1 hr drive from Aizawl is well connected by Air to Kolkata, Guwahati and Imphal Air India-Daily Flight to Kolkata and Guwahati from Aizawl are available everyday, Aizawl to Imphal is available on alternate days Jet Airways- Daily Flights to Kolkata and Guwahati are available everyday. By Rail: Nearest Railhead is Silchar in Assam which is about 6 hrs drive from Aizawl, Maxi Cabs are available from Zarkawt, Aizawl. By Road: Road Distances from Aizawl NH-54 connects Aizawl with the rest of the country through Silchar. Buses and taxis are available from Silchar to Aizawl (6-8 hrs). Night services are also available. Aizawl is also accessible by road from Shillong and Guwahati. Guwahati - 506 km Imphal - 374 km Kohima - 479 km Shillong - 450 km Agartala - 443 km
  66. 66. ARUNACHAL PRADESH The Land of Rising Sun !! Virginal Arunachal Pradesh appears as a giant patch of green on the country’s map. India’s wildest and least explored state, Arunachal (literally the ‘land of dawn-lit mountains’) rises abruptly from the Assam plains as a mass of densely forested and impossibly steep hills, culminating in snow- capped peaks along the Tibetan border
  67. 67. Demography -Climate Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion and material culture •Tibetic area bordering Bhutan in the west •Tani area in the centre of the state •Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area •Tai/Singpho/Tangsa area bordering Myanmar •Naga" area to the south also bordering Myanmar Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds Populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions •Tibetic area -Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes & large numbers of Tibetan refugees •Tani area - major tribes include the Nyishi & Apatani •In The Center - predominantly Galo people with Major Sub Tribes Karka, Lodu, Bogum, Lare, Pugo, Ramo & Pailibo •In the east -Padam, Pasi, Minyong, Bokar and Milang •The Mishmi area-Idu, Miju and Digaru •In the Southeast -Tai Khamti Climate The climate here varies with elevation •The low altitude 100 – 1500 m - Humid subtropical climate •High altitude and Very high altitude 3500 – 5500 m- subtropical highland climate and alpine climate Receives 2000-5000 mm rainfall annually between the months of May- October
  68. 68. Specialty Bamboo & cane craft Weaving Wood Carving Blacksmithy  Textiles
  69. 69. Textiles In Arunachal Pradesh it is said that the art of weaving was learnt in a dream from the goddess Podi Barbi .The colour and design have their symbolic meaning among some of the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh,textile patterns of the various tribes of Arunachal Pradesh: Adi - The Adis concentrate on simple lines & great variety of patterns Apa Tani -Apa Tani cloth gets in effect from a use of broad bands alternating with narrow lines, nearly always horizontal Mishmi - Mishmi weaving is more elaborate diamond designs have been brought to the highest degree of elaboration. In the Khanlang Valley where every one of the five hundred inhabitants are clothed from head to foot in hand woven cloth, not even a single pattern is exactly duplicated Wancho - Zigzag patterns are very common on the Wancho bags. They are made in rather loud and gaudy colours. The Zigzag designs among the Wancho are said to represent the natural aggressive and forceful temperament of the Wanchos. On the Wancho, bags the herring-bone designs are also found Hrussos- a Chinese fence design is made representing the Jana flower. popular designs of the Hrussos is the sun surrounded by its corona. Among the Hrusso aristocracy alone could wear the Tibetan knobbed hat
  70. 70. Textiles Sherdukpens- their loom is simple, light and portable. The articles woven are mainly attractive coloured bags with geometrical designs and rectangular pieces of cloth called Bogre, which are used for carrying things. The yarn is obtained from the plains or is manufactured locally from the bark of plants known as hongchong and hongche. Their Designs revolve around tales like a girl falls in love with a snake, peacocks carrying a baby bird on the back, the elephants with riders, and flowers that are combined with geometric forms. Tuensung- The Tuensung shawls have a grid pattern. The red colour of the shawls is explained for the blood of enemies: blue stands for the sky, black is the night Pailibos -The Pailibos use separate dress for daily wear and for festive occasionshe male dresses include Kedu- a sleeveless, button less coat for daily wear. Sisak Kedu- a white sleeveless and button less coat for daily use. Sab-Ki- lion cloth made of cotton. Nara- a fiber piece hanging from the shoulders covering the back for protection from rain. Namu- a woollen sleeveless and button less coat with cutting to put the neck through. It is used during the winters and during hunts. Jepu-Sube- a winter woollen coat. The female dresses include Jepo- a skirt of cotton,.. Singphos -Weaving is a traditional occupation of the Singpho women, and they are well versed in this art, as in the art of dyeing. A Singpho house is incomplete without the loom in the front of it. All the women irrespective of their age excepting of course the young children, know weaning.
  71. 71. Cultural Heritage
  72. 72. Cultural Performance
  73. 73. Festivities Being the land of various tribes we see a lot of festivities in Arunchal Pradesh key festivals are Choekhor is celebrated to protect the crops before harvest in the seventh month of the lunar calendar. In Tawang district choekhor is celebrated by the Monpa tribe Losar is one of the most commonly doing and famous festival of Monpas.The festival is celebrated to commemorate the advent of new year TorgyaFestival is a monastic festival which celebrated for three days. This festival is performed only at Tawang monastery. Thousands of people throng the monastery during these Monpa festival is celebrated by the Monpa tribe in the Tawang district mainly for agriculture purpose. The Monpas are believed to have a strong festive culture Reh is one of the most important festivals of the Idus. The festival is celebrated during February- August. It is the individuals who belong to the tribe regarded as Idus who celebrate this festival known as Reh. Aim for performing this festival is to appease the mother Goddess ‘Nanyi Inyitara
  74. 74. Festivals and Events Month Date Festivals Place April 25 Moh or Mol - Tangsa tribe Arunachal Pradesh July 5 Dree - Apatani Festival Nenchaya, Ziro, Arunachal Pradesh July 12 Choskhor- Monpa Festival Arunachal Pradesh November 9-Jul Mechuka Arunachal Pradesh November 25 Chalo Loku - Nocte tribe Arunachal Pradesh January 7-Apr Si-Donyi - Tagin Festival Daporijo, Along, Arunachal Pradesh January 6 Boori Boot - Nyishi, Hill Miris Festival Ziro, Daporijo, Arunachal Pradesh January 11 Losar - Monpa Festival Arunachal Pradesh February 3-Jan Reh - Idu, Mishmi Festival Arunachal Pradesh February 15 Tamladu - Idu-Mishmi tribe Tezu, Lohit, Arunachal Pradesh February 20 Arunachal Statehood Day Arunachal Pradesh February 26 Nyokum - Nishi Festival Seppa, Arunachal Pradesh March 7 Uying Aran - Adi Festival Pasighat, East Siang, Arunachal Pradesh April 5-Jan Mopin - Adi Festival Daporijo, Arunachal Pradesh April 14 Sangken - Khamti and Singpho tribe Arunachal Pradesh September 7-Jan Solung - Adi Festival Along, West Siang, Arunachal Pradesh
  75. 75. Visual Arts • Tribal instruments(Ujuk Tapu) • Tribal Dance • Aji Lamu (Monpa Tribe) • Chalo (Nocte Tribe) • Hiirii Khaniing (Apatani Tribe) • Lion and Peacock dance (Monpa) • Pasi Kongki (Adi)Ponung (Adi Tribe) • Popir (Adi Tribe
  76. 76. Twang 
 The birthplace of Dalai Lama
 Must Visit :- Sela Pass , Tawang Monastrey, Tawang War Memorial , Madhuri Lake, Nuranang Falls & etc.
  77. 77. Golden Pagoda, Namsai The Golden Pagoda of Namsai, also known as Poi Lu Kongmu Kham in the Tai-Khampti dialect is a Burmese style Buddhist temple that was opened in 2010. It is located on a 20 hectare complex in Namsai District of Arunachal Pradesh. The Kathina festival is the largest festival celebrated at the Golden Pagoda. The 2016 ceremony, held on November 13 also saw participation from Thai Buddhist monks. An image of Buddha which was earlier kept at Wat Bowonniwet Vihara, known as the Pro Bpor Ror was gifted by the monks on behalf of Bhumibol Adulyadej. The Thai monks also presented a Kalpatru (Money Tree) to the Golden Pagoda. The ceremony of Loi-Krathong, which is marked by the releasing of floating lamps into the Mungchalinda Buddha pond is also held on the last day of the festival
  78. 78. Arunachal Pradesh Tourism The eastern crest of India cocoons a mystical land of bliss- Arunachal Pradesh. This 'Land of Rising Sun' has many wonders and attractions for travelers. The wavering rivers, the snow clad mountains, the stubborn plains, exclusive flora and fauna, legendary cultural heritage trailing since ancient times, the habitat of wild savages, the thick woodlands, the historical heritages, the tribal terrains. Each of the attractions in Arunachal Pradesh is at par. Among the thousands of species of orchids as many as 600 species of orchid are found in Arunachal Pradesh India.
  79. 79. Bomdila This place offers a beautiful view of the snow clad Himalayan peaks, including the Gorichen and Kangto peaks. The numerous hills offer the perfect place for camping and trekking. If you are a strolling person, you can stroll on the quiet and long trails on the mountains and in the forests. Bomdila Monastery is known for its art and craft and is a must visit place. The visitors can visit the local craft centre too. Sessa Orchid Sanctuary houses 2600 orchids and is a visual delight. Other places to visit are Bomdila View Point and Apple Orchards.
  80. 80. Tawang Monastery
 Tawang Monastery is known in Tibetan as Galden Namgey Lhatse, which translates to "celestial paradise in a clear night." It was founded by Merak Lama Lodre Gyatso in 1680-1681 in accordance with the wishes of the 5th Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso. It belongs to the Gelug school of Mahayana Buddhism and had a religious association with Drepung Monastery of Lhasa, which continued during the period of British rule. The monastery is three stories high. It is enclosed by a 925 feet (282 m) long compound wall. Within the complex there are 65 residential buildings. The library of the monastery has valuable old scriptures, mainly Kangyur and Tengyur. Of all the festivals celebrated in the monastery, Torgya is the most elaborate and colorful.
  81. 81. How to Reach By Air: Well-connected to Kolkata ad Guwahati, Lilabari (North Lakhimpur) Tezpur airport in Assam is the nearest airport, 260 km (around 4hours drive). You can catch direct flights to Kolkata and Guwahati from all prime cities including Delhi, Mumbai and Pune. There is easy availability of taxis and bus services going towards the state By Rail: Around 43 km away (just an hour drive) from the state capital Itanagar, Harmuti train station (Assam) is the nearest train station connecting Arunachal Pradesh to other major cities of India. Further, take bus or hire a taxi for your onward journey towards the state By Road :The state is easily reachable by road from all prime cities and nearby states. There are sufficient number of inter bus services available from all major towns of Arunachal Pradesh to Meghalaya (around 790 km), Assam (560 km) and Nagaland (456 km)
  82. 82. Occupying 2.39% of India’s landmass, Assam is the most vibrant of eight states comprising the Northeast. Bounded by these states, West Bengal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, its topographical asymmetry is underscored by the Barail hill range sandwiched between two valleys – Brahmaputra and Barak – named after the dominant rivers.
 Assam is synonymous with breathtaking natural beauty, teeming wildlife, immaculate tea gardens and warm, beautiful people. It’s strategic location in the northeast of India, and it’s accessibility from the rest of the country makes it the gateway to the northeastern states ASSAM
  83. 83. About Sprawled like a prehistoric leviathan along the length of the Brahmaputra valley, Assam (also known as Ahom) is the biggest and most accessible of the Northeast States. A hospitable population, a cuisine with its own distinctive aromas and flavours, a vibrant artistic heritage marked by exotic dance forms, and a string of elegant Hindu temples top its list of innumerable attractions. The archetypal Assamese landscape is a picturesque golden-green vista of rice fields and manicured tea estates, framed by the blue mountains of Arunachal in the north and the highlands of Meghalaya and Nagaland to the south.
  84. 84. Geography & Climate Geography A significant geographical aspect of Assam is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India – The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains (Brahmaputra plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month.Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is an antecedent river, older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 50–60 mi/80–100 km wide, 600 mi/1000 km long). The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi- Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system. In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam- Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River. Urban Centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world. Guwahati is the gateway to the North-East India. Silchar, (in the Barak valley) the 2nd most populous city in Assam and an important centre of business, education and tourism. Other large cities include Dibrugarh, a oil, natural gas, tea and tourism industry and Jorhat. Climate With the "Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate", Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.[44][47] The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar–Apr) and autumn (Sept–Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam's agriculture usually depends on the south-west monsoon rains
  85. 85. Specialty Assam Tea Silk Bamboo and cane Bell-metal and brass
  86. 86. Speciality The people of Assam have traditionally been craftsmen from time immemorial. Though Assam is mostly known for its exquisite silks and the bamboo and cane products, several other crafts are also made here. This thread is dedicated to all those Specialty art and craft from Assam.  • Bell-metal and brass have been the most commonly used metals for the Assamese artisan. Sarthebari, a small town near Guwahati is famous for its bell metal utensils. Traditional utensils like Xorai, Bota, Thal, Ban- bati, Bati,Lota are found in every Assamese household. The Xorai, bota,Kalah etc have been in use for centuries.The Vaishnava Satras founded by Sankardeva has considerable collection of old Assamese utensils. Also many old Assamese families have. In the present times utensils like Xorai, Kalah, Bota etc has become a part of drawing room decoration. The Xorai and bota are used in all our auspicious occasions. • Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden Muga, white Pat and warm Eri silk • Assam Tea -The state of Assam is the world's largest tea-growing region, lying on either side of the Brahmaputra River, and bordering Bangladesh and Myanmar. This part of India experiences high precipitation; during the monsoon period, as much as 10 to 12 inches (250–300 mm) of rain per day. The daytime temperature rises to about 96.8F (36 °C), creating greenhouse-like conditions of extreme humidity and heat. This tropical climate contributes to Assam's unique malty taste, a feature for which this tea is well known.
  87. 87. Cultural Heritage Assam is the meeting ground of diverse cultures. The people of the enchanting state of Assam is an intermixture of various racial stocks such as Mongoloid, Indo-Burmese, Indo-Iranian and Aryan. The natives of the state of Assam are known as "Asomiya" (Assamese), which is also the state language of Assam The Assamese women produce silk and cotton clothes of exquisite designs in their looms. Assam is renowned for its exquisite silks namely Eri, Pat and the world famous Muga silk. The Gamocha is one of the most easily recognizable cultural symbols of the Assamese people besides the tamol-paan (areca nut & betel leaf) which is an integral part of almost all socio-religious ceremonies.
  88. 88. Dances Bihu- is the most popular folk dance of Assam. Bihu dances are performed by young boys and girls during the Bihu festivities which represent youthful passion, reproductive urge and joy.It is characterized by brisk dance steps ,and rapid hand movement. Satriya Nritya -is the classic dance form of Assam which represents the Satriya culture, the basis of the religious and cultural fabric of Assam. It is one among eight principal classical Indian dance traditions. The core of Satriya Nritya has usually been mythological stories. This was an artistic way of presenting mythological teachings to the people in an accessible, immediate, and enjoyable manner Bagurumba -Bodo community has many folk dances to boast. This is mainly a formation dance with slow steps and outstretched hands. About a score of girls dressed in most colourful attire perform this dance to the accompany- merit of Bodo traditional musical instruments. It is the usually practiced during Bwisagu, a festival of the Bodos in the Bishuba Sankranti or Mid- April. Deodhani -Is associated with the worship of the snake goddess Manasa. A Deodhani girl, in a inspired state, goes on dancing to the accompaniment of Kham (drum) and Ciphung (flute) propitiating many a deity beginning with Shiva and ending with Lakshmi. Specially the Deodhani Nritya was observed at Kamakhya Temple.
  89. 89. Cultural Performance
  90. 90. Festivities of Assam The colourful heritage and rich culture of Assam reflect in the different types of festivities and celebrations that take place on its beautiful land. The astonishing range of festivals and fairs that are celebrated in this Northeastern state is entertaining, engaging, vibrant and nothing less than a spectacular experience. • Bihu Festival -The most significant and important of all the cultural and vibrant celebrations in Assam is the Bihu festival. Marking the beginning of the agricultural season, Bihu brings the people of Assam together, irrespective of caste, religion, creed, gender or race. People of Assam rest their faith on their supreme God, Brai Shibrai, locally known as Father Shibrai. People offer their first crop as a gesture of their gratitude towards the God and pray for peace and prosperity in all the coming years • Ambubashi Festival - Hosted in the Kamakhya Devi temple in Guwahati, the Ambubashi Mela is organised during the monsoon season, every year. The festival, organized for a span of four days, brings out the Tantric culture practiced in many parts of Assam. Goddess Kamakhya is cleaned with water and milk which further follows different types of rituals performed as a part of the celebrations. After the grand ceremony, the temple doors welcome the devotees to come and worship Goddess Kamakhya for purity and prosperity
  91. 91. • Majuli Festival -Majuli is considered to be one of the most pleasing and beautiful festivals of Assam. Shaped by the mighty Brahmaputra, the Majuli Island rests in the arms of the vivacious riverThe festival of Majuli invites the different ethnic and cultural groups to come together under one sky to display the prepossessing beauty of their customs and faiths. All day and night long, cultural activities are organised with enthusiasts taking part in huge numbers • Dehing Patkai Festival - Held during the month of January, in the district of Tinsukia, the festival is organized by the Government of Assam itself. The state hosts a wide variety of cultural and adventure sports like Kayaking, Parasaiwing, and wike angwing. The festival does not only spread only merry and joy but also speaks of a strong message to save the species of elephants. • Tea Festival - The city of Jorhat, known as the Tea Capital of the world, masters the ceremonies of the festival during the month of November. Exhibitions are planned and designed beautifully to show with pride, the growth, and cultivation of tea plants in the state. The festival that lasts for three days permit the visitors to taste the different varieties of tea leaves available Festivities of Assam
  92. 92. Festivals and Events Month Date Festivals Place Novembe r 26 - 28 Tea Festival Assam January 15 Magh or Bhogali Bihu Assam, Assam January 16 - 18 Dehing Patkai Festival Lekhpani, Tinsukia, Assam February 18 - 20 Pragjyothi International Dance Festival Rabindra Bhawan, Guwahati, Assam February 22 Ali Aye Ligang - Mishing tribe Assam April 13 - 15 Bihu Assam April 15 - 21 Bohag Bihu Assam June 22 - 25 Ambubachi Mela Kamakhya, Assam
  93. 93. Visual Arts • Tribal instruments(Gogona, Dhol,Singa/ Pepa, Khol Tokari & Serja)
  94. 94. Maujli  It is India’s largest riverine island and is also one of the most important Satras established by Sankardeva and Madhavdeb. Formed by the turbulent Brahmaputra, Majuli islands sprawls over an area of approximately 452 sq km. Most of the islands in Majuli get submerged in water during monsoon; however, the bigger islands like Kamalabari, Auniati and Garamur remain in a better condition. Majuli is a birdwatcher’s paradise. The main occupation here is agriculture, weaving, fishing, pottery and boat making.
  95. 95. Kaziranga National Park has been declared a World Heritage Site. The park is spread over 430 sq. kms and you will find various wild species such as tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, Indian bison, sambar, deer and many more. If you love birds, you need to be here during winter as migratory birds are seen in great numbers.
  96. 96. Assam Tourism Assam is one of the eight states in the Northeastern part of India. It is comprised mostly of the valleys of Brahmaputra and Barak. Assam and the rest of the Northeastern states are connected to the rest of the country via the Siliguri Corridor or the Chicken's Neck, a 22-kilometre small strip of land in West Bengal. Its other name is the Gateway to the Northeast, as it is the main connection to reach the other states in the Northeastern part of the country. The state also shares an international border with Bhutan and Bangladesh. The people, culture and traditions of Assam are similar to that of the South Eastern countries
  97. 97. The Kamakhya Temple also Kamrup-Kamakhya[2] is a Hindu temple dedicated to the mother goddess Kamakhya. It is one of the oldest of the 51 Shakti Pithas. Situated on the Nilachal Hill in western part of Guwahati city in Assam, India, it is the main temple in a complex of individual temples dedicated to the ten Mahavidyas: Kali, Tara, Sodashi, Bhuvaneshwari, Bhairavi, Chhinnamasta, Dhumavati, Bagalamukhi, Matangi and Kamala. Among these, Tripurasundari, Matangi and Kamala reside inside the main temple whereas the other seven reside in individual temples. It is an important pilgrimage destination for general Hindu and especially for Tantric worshipers.
  98. 98. Jorhat is an administrative district of Assam, in the central part of Brahmaputra Valley. The district is bounded by Lakhimpur district on north, Nagaland state on the south, Sivasagar on the east and Golaghat on the west. On the north of the district, the river Brahmaputra forms the largest riverine island of the world. The administrative seat is at Jorhat town
  99. 99. How to Reach By Air: Assam is well connected with Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai and other major cities of India via national carrier and private airlines. Guwahati’s Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport is the nearest airport which is only 25 km away from the city By Rail: You can travel to Assam with ease as there are direct train services from Calcutta, New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Cochin and Trivandrum to Guwahati, the rail hub of Assam. By Road :You can easily reach Assam via road. Highways are pretty much smooch, so you don’t feel any pain of jerk in your back while traveling in bus to approach Assam.
  100. 100. MANIPUR Manipur, a little Shangarila located in North-East India, is a Jewel of India. This little corner is a paradise on Earth where Mother Nature has been extra generous in her bounty. An oval shaped valley surrounded by blue green hills, rich in art and tradition.
  101. 101. About Manipur literally meaning "A jeweled land" nestle deep within a lush green corner of North East India. It seems much like an exquisite work of art executed by superb hands of Nature and is indeed a state of exquisite natural beauty and splendors, the beauty of which once inspired Mrs. St. Clair Grimwood described it as "A Pretty Place more beautiful than many show places of the world" Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru paid a fitting tribute by describing it as "Jewel of India". Surrounded by blue hills with an oval shaped valley at the centre, rich in art and tradition and surcharged with nature's pristine glory. Manipur lies on a melting pot of culture. It is birth place of Polo. This is the place where Rajashree Bhagyachandra created the famous Ras Lila, the classical dance of Manipur, out of his enchanting dream by the grace of Lord Krishna. Her folk dances reveal the mythological concept of creation of Manipur. .
  102. 102. Geography & Climate Manipur may be characterized as two distinct physical regions: an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated land forms. These two areas are distinct in physical features and are conspicuous in flora and fauna. The valley region has hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km2. The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mt. Iso(Tempü) Peak near Mao Songsong. The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand and sandy clay, and are varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The top soil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. Climate The climate of Manipur is largely influenced by the topography of this hilly region. Lying 790 meters above sea level, Manipur is wedged among hills on all sides. This northeastern corner of India enjoys a generally amiable climate, though the winters can be a chilly. The maximum temperature in the summer months is 32 °C (90 °F). In winter the temperature often falls below 0 °C (32 °F), bringing frost. Snow sometimes falls in hilly regions due to the Western Disturbance.[citation needed] The coldest month is January, and the warmest July . The state is drenched in rains from May until mid-October. It receives an average annual rainfall of 1,467.5 millimetres (57.78 in). Rain distribution varies from 933 millimetres (36.7 in) in Imphal to 2,593 millimetres (102.1 in) in Tamenglong. The precipitation ranges from light drizzle to heavy
  103. 103. Specialty Oak Tussar Industry Edible Oil Crushing Bamboo and cane Leather Goods
  104. 104. Kauna Reed Mats of Manipur A unique craft of Manipur is the double-weave mat known as the kaunaphak reed mat. Known as phak in Meithei, a Manipuri tribal language, the reed used to weave the mat is called kauna. The mat is made by the local people for their own use, as well as for commercial purposes. Phak is yellow in colour and is the succulent stem of a plant that grows in water. Reeds are carefully chosen for the mats. The plant is cut only when it has reached maturity. Once cut, the stems are dried and become soft and pithy and quite brittle. A bunch of cut stems of the appropriate length are then woven with bamboo placed at suitable distances to give the mat its desired length Wood Carving Wood Carving is also a craft popular in Manipur. Woodcarving is a child of necessity in Manipur.The main products are wooden tray, spoon and drum Textile Weaving Loin Loom weaving is confined to womenfolk in Manipur. Originally, the raw material used was cotton yarn as woolen yarn was not known to the Manipuris before the Second World War. This craft is also known by the name of Laichamphi, which mean cotton cloth. Loin loom weaving caters to the local demands and requirements only. Stone-Carving Stone carving is a very old traditional craft in the hill areas of Manipur. When a person dies, a memorial stone is usually erected near the village, which also facilitate provision of resting-place to long-distance travelers before they could reach the village in fresh mood. Through these engravement in stones, resting travelers could come to know about the achievements and good deeds of the deceased. At present, the craftsperson in Bishnupur district in Manipur are making many utility items like bowls, candle-stands, grinders, flower-vases, plates, etc Block Printing Hand block printing is one of the most favorite art and craft in Manipur. The warriors and village chiefs were presented with Khamen Chatpa (handblock-printed towel) by the Maharajah as a token of their courage and leadership. This type of dress is also used in the religious ceremony. Printing on pillow-covers and bed-sheets are now very common in Manipur. Speciality
  105. 105. Cultural Heritage Manipur is mosaic of ancient traditions and rich cultural patterns. In the field of art and culture, the State is best represented by its classical and folk dance forms. Raas Leelas depicts the Leelas (Sports) of Lord Krishna as a child with Gopies (milkmaids) of Brindavan, and express their yearning for communion with the Lord. The Raas Dance is perfectly lyrical and has extremely graceful movements. A spring festival, the Lai-Haraoba held in April-May is symbolized by a traditional stylized and ritualistic dance performed for peace and prosperity. The Tribal folk dances are an expression of nature, creativity and aestheticism of the tribal way of life. One can be charmed by the colourful costumes, dance and unique rituals in festival such as Lui-Ngai-Ni (Seed sowing festival of Nagas of Manipur) an annual event and State Holiday. Bests of Best Naga tribe culture is showcased on the stage, KUT (the largest festival of Kuki-Chin-Mizo communities) an annual event and State Holiday. Best of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo tribe culture is showcased on the stage. The handloom and handicrafts items of Manipur are the rare souvenirs for tourists. It is an indispensable aspects of the socio- economic life. There is a saying that every woman of Manipur is a born weaver. There are more than 33 different communities in the State having their peculiar exquisite designs of traditional and indigenous handloom fabrics. Manipur pottery is crafted without a potters wheel. It is rare experience.
  106. 106. Cultural Performance
  107. 107. Festivities of Manipur Music and dance forms an integral part of the lives of the Manipuris. Some of the tribes who live in Manipur are: the Meiteis, the Kukis, the Anals, the Tangkhuls and the Monsangs. The Meiteis and the Tangkhuls are the most ethnic tribes living in the State. Maibas are the traditional priests of Manipur. Cheiraoba - New Year of Manipuris celebrated on the first day of the month of Sajibu. (March- April).This is also known as the Spring Festival. The domestic deity, Sanamahi is worshipped. During the spring festival, people dress up in traditional attire, decorate their houses, prepare delicacies and offer it to the deity Sanamahi. Yaoshang -The main festival celebrated for five days commencing on the full moon day during February- March. During the festival, people perform a folk dance known as Thabal Chongba. Women go from door to door and collect donation for various religious activities. The fervour with which Yaoshang is celebrated is similar to Durga Pooja celebrated in West Bengal.
  108. 108. Kut-Festival Of Kuki-Chin-Mizo - It is an autumn festival of the different tribes of Kuki-Chin-Mizo groups of Manipur. The festival has been variously described at different places amongst different tribes as Chavang Kut or Khodou etc. It is a happy occasion for the villagers whose food stock is bountiful after a year of hard labour. It is observed on the 1st November every year Kang - The Rath Yatra Of Manipur - One of the greatest festivals of the Hindus of Manipur, athis festival is celebrated for ten days in the month of July. Lord Jagannath leaves his temple in a car known as ‘Kang’ in Manipur pulled by devotees who vie with one another for this honour. Heikru Hitongba -Celebrated in the month of September. Long narrow boats are used to accommodate a large number of rowers. Idol of Lord Vishnu is installed before the commencement of the race. Festivities of Manipur
  109. 109. Visual Arts • Tribal instruments(Pena, Pung,Jhal, Sankh Selki & etc.) • Manipuri Dance - Jagoi
  110. 110. Imphal
 Imphal is Manipur’s capital and hence, an important hub of culture and all commercial acitivity. The beautiful city is surrounded by 7 beautiful hill ranges. Khwairamband bazaar: The famous bazaar also known as ‘Ema Keithel’
 will let you have a glimpse of matriarchal set up of Manipur. It is the largest market in the country run by women. You can pick up traditional Manipuri handlooms like shawls, clothes, bags, baskets, household tools, and lot more as souvenirs. A lot tourists shop cane and bamboo handicrafts here.
 War cemetery: The War cemetery remembers the Indian and British soldiers who died during World War II. It looks serene and is very-well maintained portraying brave stories of soldiers.
 Shri Govindajee Temple: The temple possesses simple structure, with twin domes, a courtyard and a huge raised congregation hall. The temple is immensely sacred to Vaisnavites.
  111. 111. Loktak Lake and Sendra Island About 48 km from Imphal, Sendra Island is an elevated hill located in the center of Loktak Lake, the largest fresh water lake in northeast. The scenic island opens up an exquisite panorama of many small islands with glistening blue waters and rich aquatic flora. Loktak is like a small inland sea with glittering stretches of water. It is an ideal place to enjoy water sports like boating, canoeing and others.
  112. 112. Manipur Tourism The word Manipur literally means a 'jeweled town', a name that rightly justifies the small and picturesque land. The people here are very polite and hospitable. Rich in its culture, tradition, and ethnicity, Manipur is one of the seven northeastern states of India. The Raasleelas and the classical dance of Manipur hold a very significant position in the cultural map of India. With sites like the Loktak Lake and the Khonghampat Orchidarium, Manipur is also famous for its natural beauty.
  113. 113. Shree Govindajee Temple is the largest Hindu, Vaishnav temple in Imphal city in Manipur. It is located next to the palace of the former rulers of the then Manipur Kingdom. The temple is simple in design with two gold plated domes, a paved court and a large, raised mantapa or congregation hall. The central chamber of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) has the main deity of Govindaji, stated to be the incarnation of Lord Krishna, and his consort Radha. In the other two chambers of the sanctum, on either side of the main deity, images deified are of Balabhadra and Krishna on one side, and images of Jagannath, Subhadra and Balabhadra on the other side. The temple was originally built in 1846 during the reign of Maharaja Nara Singh and rebuilt by Maharaja Chandrakriti in 187
  114. 114. Sadu Chiru Waterfalls About 25 Kms. from Imphal beside the Tiddim Road (NH150) is a picturesque site famous for its perennial Water Fall in a scenic foot hill. There are three waterfall spots. This is a very popular day-visit place for the locals.
  115. 115. How to Reach By Air: Imphal Tulihal Airport is located about 8km from the heart of the City and is well connected directly from the major cities of India namely Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati and major cities of North Eastern States namely Aizawl, Silchar, Dimapur etc By Rail: Manipur does not have any train service. But there are other northeastern cities like Guwahati, Dimapur, Silchar which have Railway Stations and are serviced by important trains to and from the rest of the country. From these cities one can reach Manipur by road. The nearest railhead to Imphal, the capital of Manipur is Dimapur at a distance of 215 km. The other railway station is the Manipur town of Jiribam, 225 km away. By Road :The road network is quite efficient in Manipur. National Highway 39 connects Manipur with major cities like Guwahati, Dimapur and Kohima; and National Highway 53 connects Manipur to Silchar in the northeastern part on India via Jiribam.
  116. 116. SIKKIM Sikkim is a northeastern state of India. It borders China in its north and east, Bhutan in its east, Nepal in its west and the Indian state of West Bengal in its south. Sikkim is also located close to the Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least populous and second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kanchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. Almost 25% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park
  117. 117. About The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded on the Silk Road by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century. It was ruled by a Buddhist priest-king known as the Chogyal. Once a vassal state of Qing China, it became a princely state of British India in 1890. After the People's Republic of China invaded Tibet, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the dominion and republic of India. It enjoyed the highest literacy rate and per capita income among Himalayan states. In 1975, the Indian military deposed the Sikkimese monarchy. A referendum in 1975 led to Sikkim joining India as its 22nd state.
  118. 118. Geography & Climate Nestling in the Himalayan mountains, the state of Sikkim is characterised by mountainous terrain. Almost the entire state is hilly, with an elevation ranging from 280 metres (920 ft) to 8,586 metres (28,169 ft). The summit of Kangchenjunga—the world's third-highest peak—is the state's highest point, situated on the border between Sikkim and Nepal. For the most part, the land is unfit for agriculture because of the rocky, precipitous slopes. However, some hill slopes have been converted into terrace farms. Numerous snow-fed streams have carved out river valleys in the west and south of the state. These streams combine into the major Teesta River and its tributary, the Rangeet, which flow through the state from north to south. About a third of the state is heavily forested. The Himalayan mountains surround the northern, eastern and western borders of Sikkim. The Lower Himalayas, lying in the southern reaches of the state, are the most densely populated. The state has 28 mountain peaks, more than 80 glaciers,227 high-altitude lakes (including the Tsongmo, Gurudongmar and Khecheopalri Lakes), five major hot springs, and more than 100 rivers and streams. Eight mountain passes connect the state to Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal. Sikkim's hot springs are renowned for their medicinal and therapeutic values. Among the state's most notable hot springs are those at Phurchachu, Yumthang, Borang, Ralang, Taram-chu and Yumey Samdong. The springs, which have a high sulphur content, are located near river banks; some are known to emit hydrogen. Climate The state has five seasons: winter, summer, spring, autumn, and a monsoon season between June and September. Sikkim's climate ranges from sub- tropical in the south to tundra in the north. Most of the inhabited regions of Sikkim experience a temperate climate, with temperatures seldom exceeding 28 °C (82 °F) in summer. The average annual temperature for most of Sikkim is around 18 °C (64 °F).
  119. 119. Specialty Thanka painting Lucky signs Wooden masks Folding tables Pickles
  120. 120. Sikkim is renowned for its dazzling and appealing beauty. The charm of this state is ever enticing and no one can abstain from its allure. The cultural richness of Sikkim is visible in its quality handicrafts. The Government of Sikkim is making constant efforts to keep the arts & crafts alive. Carpet Weaving Sikkimese' practice of weaving is probably the oldest form of carpet weaving in the world. The women of the Bhutia community are said to be expert carpet weavers. The traditional pattern of weaving requires a frame loom. The exclusive manner of weaving, by the hard-working artisans of Sikkim, appears in the designs of striking carpets. Wood Carving The wood carving in Sikkim is symbolic of true art of India. Throughout Sikkim, one can trace monasteries and buildings, festooned with symbols and icons carved in wood. The mask dance of Sikkim is also portrayed in wood carvings. You can find superb masks made out of wood and papier-mâché. Pemayangtse Monastery is a fine specimen of carved wooden sculptures and wood carvings. Thangka Paintings Thangka Paintings are unique to the state of Sikkim. Initially, these paintings were the only medium to preach the highest ideals of Buddhism. 'Thangkas' are usually made on cotton canvas with a frame of silk. These paintings portray images of different Gods, Goddesses and philosophies related to Buddhism. Originally, paintings were made by priests and monks, later the skills got passed from generation to generation. Today, commercialization of this art is helping monasteries and practitioners to earn a living. Handicrafts The native Sikkimese weaves various striking designs and patterns. They weave woolen blankets, bags, shawls and jackets with the reflection of their mastery over the art. The 'thankas' (traditional tapestry), leather works, dolls, multicolored applique work, batiks, a fine collection of dolls and a range of fashionable garments are the additional specialties of Sikkim. To develop and promote such industries, the government has established an institute of cottage industries. The local handicrafts are available here on sale. Choktse Tables Choktse is a kind of foldable table and has become a special product of Sikkim. Choktse Tables are renowned here as well as outside India. These tables are made in different designs and dimensions. Specialty
  121. 121. Cultural Heritage Though Sikkim is predominantly a Buddhist state its spirit is secular and here churches, monasteries, gurdwaras, mosques and temples co-exist peacefully. It could best be called a wonderful mosaic, a unique pattern made beautiful by the unusual harmony in its individually colourful threads. The Lepchas are the natives of Sikkim with very little known about their origin. A theory has it that the Lepchas moved in from the borders of Assam and Burma while another speaks of them migrating from Southern Tibet. But basically they are of mongoloid stock. The tribe were nature worshippers and belonged to the Bon faith. The language of the Bhutias is Sikkimese, a dialect of the Tibetan language and are mostly Buddhists. A predominant Bhutia population inhabits North Sikkim in the villages of Lachung and Lachen.
  122. 122. Folk & Dance Folk dances and songs are an ingrained part of Sikkimese culture. Most of the dances related to the amazing beauty of the natural surroundings, some signifies the harvest season and others are performed for prosperity. Many of the musical instruments that accompany the dances are unique to Sikkim. Almost all the dances are accompanied by the musical instruments. Some of the popular dances are described below : Lu Khangthamo It is dedicated to this day - a day of thanks giving to all Gods and deities of the three worlds, Heaven, Earth and Hell. This age old folk dance is performed regularly by the young and old folk alike in their traditional customs and ornaments accompanied by the pleasing song and music on the occasion like warming and New Year celebrations. It is a Bhutia folk dance. Gha To Kito It is a song cum dance which describes all about the treasures of Sikkim like Mount Khangchendzonga and the snow covered Himalayan ranges, rhododendrons and primulas, holy places, caves ad minerals. It is a Bhutia folk dance. Chi Rimu It is a popular Bhutia folk dance performed in praise of Sikkim by young and old folks. This dance is a regular feature in every happy occasion when Bhutias express reverence to great teachers and sacred places of worship.
  123. 123. • Gnungmala Gnunghey It is a typical Bhutia fold dance performed in praise, by both male and female to the accompaniment of devotional hymns and song of the multi purpose majestic bamboos, describing its use. • Rechungma It is typical Sikkimese dance performed during the happy occasions like childbirth, marriage and other social gatherings, offer paying their sincere thanks to the god for his blessings. • Be Yu Mista It is a popular Bhutia folk dance performed in praise of Sikkim by group of males and females with pleasing songs and prayers. • Tashi Zaldha It is a dance depicting the Bhutia custom of offering scarves, performed by boys and girls. Folk & Dance
  124. 124. Festivities of Sikkim The people of Sikkim celebrate scores of festivals with full gusto and fervor. Since, there are people from diverse religions in Sikkim, so they all have their own festivals to celebrate. However, the mutual harmony amongst dwellers paints the whole state in the colors of festivities. Lhabab Dhuechen Festival Lhabab Dheuchen represents the descent of Lord Buddha from the heaven after teaching his deceased mother, Mahamaya. The literal meaning of 'Dhuechen' is 'festival', whereas 'Lha' means 'heaven' and Bab means 'descent'. The festival has a legend behind its celebration. The festival falls on the 22nd day of the ninth month of Lunar Calendar every year. The Buddhists celebrate this event with all zest and zeal in Sikkim. Losoong Festival The conclusion of harvest season is marked by Losoong. This festival also suggests the end of the 10th month of the Tibetan Year. With the celebration of Losoong, a prayer is sought for good harvest and better prospects for the subsequent crop. During the festival, dance is performed by Chaam at monasteries of Tsu-La-Khang, Phodong and Rumtek. Losoong is also marked by event of archery competition. Losar Festival Losar is celebrated usually in the month of February. Actually, the Sikkimese' share their new year with the Tibetans. The youth mostly comprising Tibetans take out procession in the streets of Sikkim. On the festive day, Yak dance is also observed. People throw sampa, which is a kind of greeting and welcoming the New Year with screams of 'Tashi Delek'. The Tibetan community involves itself in the festivity a week prior to the day.
  125. 125. Guru Rimpoche's Trungkar Tshechu The festival is celebrated to honor Guru Rimpoche, who was the first Sikkimese Buddhist to bless Sikkim. He is considered as the master, who actually enrooted the religion of Buddhism in Sikkim. He introduced 'tantric' Buddhism to the Himalayas, after conquering 'demons' that were hindering the growth of religion in Tibet. It is believed that on this festive day, recitation of mantras brings two-fold benefits to the speaker. Kagyed Dance Festival Kagyed Dance is performed on the 28th and 29th day of the 10th month of the Tibetan Calendar, somewhere in December. The dance portrays the destruction of evil forces and wishing for peace & prosperity in Sikkim. Popular Chaams (Monks) perform this dance in the company of music and chants. The jovial gestures of jokers provide some comic relief to the somber nature of dance. The various dance performances depict several themes from the Buddhist mythology. A sharp effect is produced with smoldering of effigies made out of flour, wood and paper. Kalchakra Puja The literal meaning of Kalchakra is the 'vicious circle'. For the whole life, people crave to leave this circle of life and death and eventually attain 'nirvana' or enlightenment. In the festival, a worship of 'Tantrayana' is offered to the Almighty. This worship depicts the 'tantric' or mystic feature of Buddhism along with complex and obscure rituals. Festivities of Sikkim
  126. 126. Festivals and Events Month Date Festivals Place May 21 Saga Dawa / Sakewa Sikkim August 6 Drukpa Tseshi Sikkim August 8 Tendong Lho Rum Faat Sikkim September 15 Indra Jatra Sikkim September 16 Pang Lhabsol Pemayangtse Monastery, Sikkim October 30 - Nov 1 Lakshmi Puja (Diwali) Sikkim November 20 Lhabab Duchen Sikkkim, Sikkim December 18 Barahimizong Sikkim December 27 Kagyat Dance Rumtek and Ralang monastery, Sikkim December 30 - Jan 3 Losoong Sikkimese Sikkim December 30 Tamu Lhochhar Sikkim December 31 Nyenpa Guzom Sikkim January 13 Maghi Sankranti Sanhamole Sikkim, Sikkim February 27 Losar Tibetan Sonam, Sikkim May 16 Sikkim State Day Sikkim August 13 Guru Rinpoche's Birthday Sikkim Monasteries, Sikkim
  127. 127. Visual Arts • Tribal instrument –Susira • Folk Dances - Lepcha Folk Dances | Bhutia Folk Dances | Nepali Folk Dances
  128. 128. North Sikkim North Sikkim, a land full of unfamiliar experiences is a treat to visitors. The journey starts from Gangtok and as you travel north the landscape changes rapidly on every curve, as your road winds upwards. North Sikkim is one of the most beautiful districts of Sikkim where visitors can travel overland through temperate to alpine landscape and experience the unique preserves of Lachung and Lachen valley. The age old traditions of these valleys have kept intact the pristine beauty of this place
  129. 129. East Sikkim East Sikkim is one of the most popular destinations for visitors to Sikkim. It occupies the south-east corner of the state and the capital Gangtok is located in the heart of the district. This is the  hub of all administrative activity in the state. Apart from the modern urbanization, one will find beautiful natural areas in its surrounding and access to alpine lakes like Tsomgo, the Nathula Indo-china border located at an altitude of 14200 ft and many important Buddhist monasteries.  East district is also the Gateway to North Sikkim, a popular destination for visitors who want to experience the unique cultural landscape of area. The Sikkim Tourism and other important Government establishments are located in Gangtok which facilitates restricted area permits for visitors to places of interests in the districts. Pakyong green field airport located almost 26 km from Gangtok, which is under construction, promises to enhance the connectivity and access to the state