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Presentationvariationandchangeintens

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Intensifiers.
Intensifiers.
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Presentationvariationandchangeintens

  1. 1. Intensifier- an adverb that adds emphasis to some element within a sentence. <ul><li>positive: boosters or amplifiers </li></ul><ul><li>They were really old. (S/Y/M) </li></ul><ul><li>negative: downtoners </li></ul><ul><li>He was quite young. (V/Y/F) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Method <ul><li>Intensified adjectives (based on B ä cklund’s claim that the majority of intensifiers used with adjectival heads) </li></ul><ul><li>Excluding: </li></ul><ul><li>negative sentences </li></ul><ul><li>contexts that do not permit intensification (which describe the kind of quality, rather than the degree of quality: </li></ul><ul><li>I convinced my peerie brother to get- go with me. (V/Y/F) </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence constructions with superlatives, comparatives , or items like too or so when not used as intensifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Coz I was too young, the first time, so. (E/Y/F) </li></ul><ul><li>I think he is planning on extending it more so it 's lyke a bigger dance hall . (S/Y/M) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>negative sentence tokens- since these may function as downtoners </li></ul><ul><li>Erm, I 'm not too sure when the next... (E/Y/F) </li></ul><ul><li>Did na really hae a clue which one I wanted to go into. (J/Y/M) </li></ul>External factors examined: age & gender. Selected 8 speakers from Shetland corpus: 4 female & 4 male, both young and old. Internal factors examined: expansion to different types of adjectives (emotional vs. nonemotional; positive vs. negative) and different types of predication
  4. 4. Previous research <ul><li>Rika Ito & Sali Tagliamonte- York corpus : frequency of intensification increasing from older to younger speakers; most frequent intensifiers: very, really & so; most of the intensifiers used by all age groups; really used more prequently by young speakers, while very by old speakers; both really & very occur more frequently with predicative than with attributive adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Sali Tagliamonte- Toronto corpus: the most frequent intensifier is really , then very , so , and pretty - all of them occuring in both predication types, but distributed differently among age groups; really most frequent among young speakers, while very among old speakers; so most frequent with emotional adjectives, really collocates widely with both, while very with nonemotional; young women leading in the use of so and pretty ; there are sex differences for really in the younger generation and for very in the older </li></ul><ul><li>Sali Tagliamonte & Chris Roberts- Friends tv series scripts : the scripts claimed to be influencing real corpus data; most frequent intensifires: so, really, very, pretty; so tied to emotional adjectives, partcularly among female speakers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intensifiers in Shetland data Overall frequency of intensification Intensification by gender
  6. 6. Most frequent intensifiers
  7. 7. Distribution of most frequent boosters by age
  8. 8. Distribution of most frequent intensifiers by gender and age
  9. 9. Distribution by type of predication
  10. 10. Distribution by adjective type
  11. 11. Conclusions <ul><li>Female speakers tend to use intensifiers more frequently than male speakers </li></ul><ul><li>However, male speakers use downtoners more often than they use boosters </li></ul><ul><li>All types of intensifiers present among all the age groups and genders </li></ul><ul><li>Younger speakers tend to use really as a most frequent booster, while older speakers use awful and very </li></ul><ul><li>All the most frequent boosters used more often as predicatives, however, so seems not to be used as an sttributive </li></ul><ul><li>So used more often with emotional adjectives than any other most frequent booster </li></ul><ul><li>Really , very and awful almost always used with nonemotional adjectives, while so almost equally with both </li></ul>

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