Parts of Speech
Adjectives= Characteristics of nouns
Adverbs= How things are done
Prepositions= Describe a relationship between other
words in a sentence
Conjunctions= Connect parts of a sentence
Interjections= Used to exclaim, protest or command.
6. It is important to know the function
of words in a sentence in order to use
7. Noun/Verbs Confusion
Some nouns and verbs share the same form (e.g project,
record) but usually they are different. Many nouns end
in 'tion' or 'cion', 'ment' or 'ing'.
The group were able to identity the most
serious academic problem
(Incorrect use of noun: should be the
verb form, identify)
At present, there is a lot of compete for
(Incorrect use of verb: should be the
noun form, competition)
8. Noun/Adjective Confusion
In a sentence, the qualifying adjective usually comes
directly before the noun or noun phrase.
As the members were aged from 15 to 55, it was a difficulty
task to design a game to suit everyone
(Incorrect use of noun: should be the adjectival form,
The company demonstrated a great deal of successful in
developing client relationships
(Incorrect use of adjective: should be the noun form, success)
The important of the case was emphasized
(Incorrect use of adjective: should be the noun form,
9. A good business person should be proactively
(Incorrect use of adverb: should be the adjectival form,
She ready agreed to give her presentation
(Incorrect use of adjective: should be the adverbial form,
An adjective is a word that qualifies or tells us more
about a noun or pronoun. An adverb is a word that
qualifies or tells us more about a verb.
10. Gerunds Confusion
Nouns based on verbs can end in either 'ing' (the
gerund) or another ending such as 'tion' or 'ment'.
If there is an object in the sentence, the gerund form is
Development a high quality product is of paramount importance
Developing a high quality product is of paramount importance.
Manufacture clothing in China is very cost effective.
Manufacturing clothing in China is very cost effective.
11. Same Root
She decided to move into a new flat to start a new living.
She decided to move into a new flat to start a new life.
(The first sentence has a gerund meaning ' means of
earning' or 'way of life' instead of the correct noun form
All employees have been notified that their are to be
All employees have been notified that they are to be
The MD has seen the contracts and he wants it
The MD has seen the contracts and he wants them
S is a function which is realized by a nominal group.
Computer chips use this battery of info, don’t they?
Loewi was obsessed by the idea. – passive
The idea obsessed Loewi. – active
‘Dummy subjects’‘empty’ S.
… it was a mystery why some nerves stimulate an
organ and othersdepress it.
Encodes primary tense and person or the
He is eating the puff. – is present
Did you eat the puff. – did past
He will eat the puff. – will event will take place sometime
after the talk
He could eat all the puffs. – could opinion about ability
17. The rest of the verbal group which carries the meaning.
F and P are often combined in a single word: obsessed
She might have been writing the letter.
Other nominal groups may be regarded as C because
they complete the argument set up in the clause.
A C is the part of a sentence which answers the question “Who
or what?” after the verb.
Loewi awoke in the night.
Loewi woke in the night with an idea.
He awoke his wife
Adverbial groups, nominal groups and prepositional
phrases which acted as Circumstances for the
(*) Conjunctions are not included in the sentence analysis, so they are not
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a
subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the
following simple sentences, subjects are in blue, and verbs are in
Some to study in the mornings.
football every afternoon.
to the library and every day
21. Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a
coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a
In the following compound sentences, subjects are in blue, verbs are in
green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in
to speak Spanish to speak
22. Complex Sentence
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or
more dependent clauses.
A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as
because, since, after, although, or when (and many others) or a relative
pronoun such as that, who, or which.
In the following complex sentences, subjects are in blue, verbs are
in green, and the subordinators and their commas are in red.
his homework the
teacher the last page.
the homework the
24. S1. Particularly interesting for researchers in physics is the new
feature, named X, for calculating velocity.
S2. Physics now has a new feature, named X, for calculating velocity.
S3. Velocity can now be calculated with a new feature, named X,
which is particularly interesting for physicists.
S4. X is a new feature for calculating velocity. It is particularly
interesting for physicists.
Choose the most relevant subject and
put it at the beginning of the sentence
25. Don’t make the impersonal it the
subject of the sentence
Don’t use a pronoun (it, they) before you
introduce the noun (i.e. the subject of the
sentence) that the pronoun refers to
27. Keep the subject and verb as close
as possible to each other
S1. *A gradual decline in germinability and vigor of the resultant
seedling, a higher sensitivity to stresses upon germination, and
possibly a loss of the ability to germinate are recorded in the
literature [5, 8, 19].
S2. *People with a high rate of intelligence, an unusual ability to
resolve problems, a passion for computers, along with good
communication skills are generally employed by such companies.
S3. There is generally a gradual decline in germinability and of the
resultant seedling, followed by a higher sensitivity to stress upon
germination, and possibly a loss of the ability to germinate [5, 8,
S4. Such companies generally employ people with a high rate of ...
31. How to choose where to
locate an adverb
(a)Immediately before the main verb.
Dying neurons do not usually exhibit these biochemical changes.
The mental functions are slowed, and patients are often confused.
(b) Immediately before the second auxiliary when there are two
Language would never have arisen as a set of bare arbitraryterms if …
Late complications may not always have been notified.
(c) After the present and past tenses of ‘to be’
The answer of the machine is always correct.
32. Put adjectives before the noun they
describe, or use a relative clause
S1. This is an interesting paper.
S2. *This is a paper particularly interesting for PhD students.
S3. This paper is particularly interesting for PhD students.
S4. This is a paper that is particularly interesting for PhD
S5. *We examined a patient, 30 years old, to investigate
S6. We examined a patient, who was 30 years old, to
investigate whether …
S7. We examined a 30-year-old patient to investigate
33. Parts of Speech Confusion. Retrieved from:
Zila6350. (2008, December 8). Scribd. Retrieved from Systemic Functional
Advanced Composition for Non-Native Speakers of English. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Sentences: Simple, Compound, and Complex: http://eslbee.com/sentences.htm