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  1. 1. Characteristics and products Algae
  2. 2. IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF ALGAE
  3. 3. Characteristics • Range in size from microscopic to single celled organisms to large seaweed • Autotrophic • Form the reproductive structures – gametangia or gamete chambers • Aquatic and have flagella at some point in life • Often contain pyrenoids, organelles that synthesis and store starch
  4. 4. BODY CHARACTERISTICS Size and Shape : Algae are range in size, from the invisible (microscopic) to the visible (macroscopic) •Solitary unicellular algae Their shape are round, oval, or pear-shaped algae of this group. The example is Chlorella
  5. 5. STRUCTURE • Thallus (haploid) • Four types of algae –Unicellular –Colonial –Filamentous –multicellular
  6. 6. THALLUS
  7. 7. •Multicellular algae There are forms of thread, filament, and sheet-like multicellular algae. The example is Oedogonium which have filament shape body. •Unicellular algae in colony Cells are dependent on one another for their survival. The protoplast of each cell is connected to another by pores on the cell wall. The colony shape is like a disc, a ball, or net. The example is Hydrodictyon which have shape like a net
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAE • SEVEN PHYLUM BASED ON – COLOR – TYPE OF CHLOROPHYLL – FOOD-STORAGE SUBSTANCE – CELL WALL COMPOSITION
  9. 9. ALGAE EUGLENOPHYTA PYRROPHYTA Fire CHLOROPHYTA Green CHRYSOPHYTA Golden PHAEOPHYTA Brown RHODOPHYTA Red CYANOPHYTA Green blue
  10. 10. BODY STRUCTURE All algae are eukaryotic organisms, their contain chloroplast. There are many shape of chloroplast . Spherical, bowl-shaped, and belt-shaped. The main pigments in algae is chlorophyll. ADDITIONAL PIGMENTS Carotene Phycobilin Fucoxanthin (Brownish) Xantophylls (Golden) Phycocyanin (Bluish) Phycoerythrin (Reddish)
  11. 11. GREEN ALGAE CHLOROPHYTA
  12. 12. Phylum Chlorophyta • Green algae • 7000 diverse species • Biologist reason that green algae give rise to land plants. • Both green algae and land plants have chlorophyll a and B as well as carotenoids and store food as starch • Both have walls made of cellulose
  13. 13. SPYROGYRA - POPULATING THE PONDS
  14. 14. RED ALGAE - SOURCE OF AGAR RHODOPHYTA
  15. 15. Phylum Rhodophyta • 4000 species of RED Algae • Most are marine • Smaller than brown algae and are often found at a depth of 200 meters. • Contain chlorophyll a and C as well as phycobilins which are important in absorbing light that can penetrate deep into the water • Have cells coated in carageenan which is used in cosmetics, gelatin capsules and some cheeses
  16. 16. BROWN ALGAE - SOURCE OF ALGIN
  17. 17. Phylum Phaeophyta • 1500 species of Brown algae • Mostly marine and include seaweed and kelp • All are multicellular and large (often reaching lengths of 147 feet) • Individual alga may grow to a length of 100m with a holdfast, stipe and blade • Used in cosmetics and most ice creams
  18. 18. BLUE GREEN ALGAE Nostoc, Anabaena Cyanophyta
  19. 19. Phylum Euglenophyta • 1000 species of Euglenoids • Have both plantlike and animal-like characteristics • Fresh water
  20. 20. Other Phylum Representatives Diatoms – used in detergents, paint removers, toothpaste Dinoflagellates – red tides Important in the formation of petroleum products Golden algae
  21. 21. PLANTS THAT SWIM - CHLAMYDOMONAS
  22. 22. OSCILLATARIA
  23. 23. AN EXCEPTONAL BEAUTY - PEDIASTRUM
  24. 24. A Multiproduct Opportunity Algae AgricultureNutrition Pharmaceu. FuelAquaculture CO2 Seques.
  25. 25. Several macroalgae are also the source of hydrocolloids such as agar-agar and carrageenan which are widely used in the food industry as stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents.
  26. 26. AGAR - MEDICINE FROM RED ALGAE
  27. 27. FROM BROWN ALGAE
  28. 28. Product Algae Function Food Carageenan Rhodophyta Stabilizer, Milk, yogurt, ice cream, soup, cream,pudding Agar Gelidium amansii (Red algae) Stabilizer, thickener Freeze food, processed cheeses Mayonnaise Alginate Brown algae thickener Ice cream, milk products, sauces, Confectionery, etc
  29. 29. KELP - A RICH SOURCE OF IODINE
  30. 30. Green Polymers Co-products from algae, including green polymers, chemicals and animal feed, will play a decisive role in the success of established and emerging algae production ventures.
  31. 31. • Algae are good source of vitamins minerals, proteins, • Different colors, flavors, textures • Nutraceuticals • Omega-3 supplements and food ingredients • Protein powders • Totally unique omega-3 products contain both EPA and DHA. Highly valued, plant-based, vegetarian, nutritional supplements unlike mercury-contaminated fish oil. • Future: carotenoids; lutein, zeaxanthin, fucoxanthin, and astaxanthin — potent antioxidants that reduce cell damage and fight disease; fluorescent dyes (natural dyes that can replace synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics) Nutrition
  32. 32. • Algae yield omega-3 fatty acids, proteins and oils at more profitable margins than other methods of production. • Common species of nutritional supplements include Spirulina, Chlorella and Duniella • Algae extracts are used for health supplements, pharmaceuticals, soaps, lotions, protein bars, shakes, and beauty products. Omega 3
  33. 33. Markets • Market demands for omega-3 fatty acids exceed current industry production capacity: • Current world demand = $4.6 billion U.S. • 2011 estimate = $8.2 billion U.S. • Many current market suppliers of omega-3s are experiencing over 20 percent annual revenue growth for algae-based ingredients in food and nutritional products — with premium prices paid for the purest products
  34. 34. CHONDRUS - USED IN PUDDINGS AND JELLIES
  35. 35. CHLORELLA - RICH IN PROTEINS AND VITAMINS
  36. 36. - A CHINESE DELICACY
  37. 37. LAMINARIA - FODDER
  38. 38. Nutraceuticals per Kilo According to BioCentric, which has invested $600,000 in its line of algae nutraceuticals: • Haemaotoccocus has a current market value of $341 per kilogram, • Chlorella clocks in at $44 per kilo and • Spirulina sells for $20 per kilo
  39. 39. Algae as Protein • According to the FAO, the world protein consumption is set to increase 74 percent by 2050, surpassing the replenishment of wild and farm-raised fish and livestock populations. • Algae can provide high-concentration EPA oils and protein extracts, and low-cost fish meal for aquaculture facilities. • Algae production systems will play an important role in addressing the growing worldwide demand for protein and Omega-3 fatty acids while reducing overfishing. • Spirullina, Chlorella
  40. 40. Foods from algae • Algae have been used as human food for thousands of years in all parts of the world. • The most commonly consumed macroalgae include the red algae Porphyra (nori, kim, laver), Asparagopsis taxiformis (limu), Gracilaria, Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and Palmaria palmata (dulse), the kelps Laminaria (kombu), Undaria (wakame) and Macrocystis, and the green algae Caulerpa racemosa, Codium and Ulva. • These algae are either harvested from wild populations or are farmed. • These algae usually are eaten either fresh, dried or pickled. • Algae are used in soups, salads and sushi. • Sea lettuce (Ulva lactura) • Other foods: Funori, Hijiki, Arame.
  41. 41. Foods from algae Nori Kombu Wakame
  42. 42. •Soil enhancers for increasing large scale agricultural production •Natural fumigants An algae-based system to increase terrestrial crop production by: • Increased bioavailability of macro and micro nutrients • Enhanced soil organics and water-holding capabilities • Increased soil porosity • Replacement of chemical fumigants Agriculture
  43. 43. SEA WEEDS….
  44. 44. ….AS MANURE
  45. 45. • Ultra-pure pharmaceuticals • Therapeutics • Scientific reagents • Bioactive peptides, replacement proteins, immune system stimulators and suppressants, diagnostic proteins and enzymes Pharmaceuticals
  46. 46. • Algae are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, current market values for these products are extremely high. • The major products currently being commercialized or under consideration for commercial extraction include carotenoids, phycobilins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins, sterols, and biologically active molecules for use in human and animal health.
  47. 47. The pharmaceutical industry is growing at a CAGR of around 8% while the global pharmaceutical market is forecasted to reach US$ 1043.4 billion in 2012. Use of algae, especially cyanobacteria based active compounds, has received ever-increasing interest as: • Antimicrobials, Antivirals & Antifungals • Neuroprotective Products • Therapeutic proteins • Drugs
  48. 48. CHLORELLA - YIELDS CHLORELLIN
  49. 49. •Shrimp, fish, and mollusk feeds •Products for Asian and Pacific food markets • Natural feed for fish, shrimp, and mollusk larvae • Whole and defatted algae powders for fish, shrimp, and mollusks • Fresh macroalgae (sea veggies) for the Pacific and Asian food markets Aquaculture
  50. 50. •Biofuels (biodiesel, alcohols) •Lubricants for diesel fuel •Biodegradable plastics Fuel
  51. 51. Today, this ancient life-giver reappears as the core topic of commercial and environmental interest in salvaging our energy economy and our planetary future - our hope for abundant fuel, medicine, food and carbon sequestration.
  52. 52. Algae Financial Forecast In August, 2010, Global Information released a new market research report, Algae Biofuels Production Technologies Worldwide, in which they project that the total algae biofuels production technologies market (including cultivation technology sales, harvesting, extraction and fuels production facilities) will reach $1.6 billion in 2015.
  53. 53. The Fuel of the Future? • Algae produce 100 times more oil per acre than traditional food oilseed crops such as soy etc. Algae produces 4,000 -15,000 gallons of oil per acre per year versus 50 gallons per acre for soy, or approximately 26 gallons per hectare • Algae eat CO2, the major Global Warming Gas, and produce oxygen. • Algae require only sunshine and water, and thrive on waste and polluted waters • Algae do not compete with food crops for either agricultural land or fresh water.
  54. 54. “If we were to replace all of the diesel that we use in the United States, with an algae derivative, we could do it on an area of land less than one half of 1% of the current farm land that we now use.” Douglas Henston, Pres. Solix Algae Fuels Diesel Fuel
  55. 55. Inputs - Outputs
  56. 56. ExxonMobil: $600 Million • On July 15, 2009, Exxon announced a 600 million dollar investment into algae biofuel research. The research facility is based at partner Synthetic Genomics headquarters, and opened on July 14, 2010 in La Jolla, California. http://gigaom2.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/exxonsynthetictestsite54.jpg
  57. 57. Solazyme: $125 Million August 9, 2010: Seven-year-old Solazyme announced that it has raised $52 million in Series D financing from investors including Braemer Energy Ventures, Morgan Stanley, and Chevron Technology Ventures, the VC arm of the oil giant. Including this round, Solazyme has now raised over $125 million.
  58. 58. Algenol: 2013 • Algenol’s Biofields project begins construction this year, and Biofields continues to guide the markets to expect commercial capacity by 2013 in the 250 million gallons per year range. • Algenol CEO Paul Woods expressed to the Biofuel Digest last year that he would regard the achievement of only 300 Mgy in capacity by mid-decade as a “disappointment”. http://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/bto/20080612/algenol_270x292.GIF
  59. 59. Aurora Algae: 2013 • Sept 2010 - Aurora Algae CEO Greg Bafalis forecasted the company could reap $100,000 in gross revenue per acre, and plans to be in large commercial production within 30 months, quickly scaling up to 1,000-plus acres. The company is constructing a first demonstration facility in Australia. “In about two and a half years we’ll be cash flow positive,” Bafalis predicted. “We’ll be tackling private equity and venture capital in the next year.” The company has raised $40 million to date, with its third round in March, 2010, yielding $15 million. http://venturebeat.com/2010/09/13/aurora%E2%80%99s-rebranding-bets-on-protein-bars-and-lotion-not-biofuel/
  60. 60. Carbon credits for sale to non-CleanTech industries • Sequestration of CO2 directly from: • Existing power generation facilities (coal and oil) • Existing manufacturing facilities • Production of off-setting carbon credits that can be sold to other companies or industries based on the 2.5 to 1 ratio of CO2 incorporation into algae biomass CO2 Sequestration and environmental issues
  61. 61. NOSTOC AND…
  62. 62. … ANABAENA - NITROGEN FIXATION
  63. 63. Algae Cultivation Process
  64. 64. Simple Process: Fuel and Biomass Simple Process
  65. 65. Integration & Multi-Products
  66. 66. Fermentation Process
  67. 67. Algae Photo-Reactors
  68. 68. Acrylic Tubes
  69. 69. Vertical Plastic Bags
  70. 70. Flexible Tubing
  71. 71. Seambiotic, an Israeli firm, uses raceway/paddle-wheel open-pond algae cultivation growth fed by C02 flue-gas from a nearby power plant. Raceway and Paddle Wheel
  72. 72. Photoreactor Yields • Production w Closed System • High Nutrient Input or Waste Stream • Single Species in Controlled Environment: 30,000 -100,000 gallons per year per acre
  73. 73. Industry Pursuing Full Range of Algae Products 2013 Survey ABO Members Producers Only Vegetable oils for use in food products 5% 11% Feeds (fish and/or farm) 35% 35% Bioplastics 4% 5% Chemicals 11% 10% Nutritional products or nutraceuticals 30% 28% Fuels 33% 29% Fertilizers 21% 18% Biomass for energy or other uses 37% 36% Other 9% 9% ABO: Algae Biomass Organization
  74. 74. Capacity Continues to Expand • 25% of producers reported they would be expanding in 2013 at an existing facility • 22% said they would expand with new facilities • 20% reported expansion and both new and existing facilities.
  75. 75. Most Critical Challenges #1: cost-efficient production systems #2: harvesting and extraction systems

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