SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 81
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
Characteristics and products
Algae
IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF ALGAE
Characteristics
• Range in size from microscopic to single celled
organisms to large seaweed
• Autotrophic
• Form the reproductive structures –
gametangia or gamete chambers
• Aquatic and have flagella at some point in life
• Often contain pyrenoids, organelles that
synthesis and store starch
BODY CHARACTERISTICS
Size and Shape :
Algae are range in size, from the invisible (microscopic) to the visible (macroscopic)
•Solitary unicellular algae
Their shape are round, oval, or pear-shaped algae
of this group.
The example is Chlorella
STRUCTURE
• Thallus (haploid)
• Four types of algae
–Unicellular
–Colonial
–Filamentous
–multicellular
THALLUS
•Multicellular algae
There are forms of thread,
filament, and sheet-like
multicellular algae.
The example is Oedogonium
which have filament shape
body.
•Unicellular algae in colony
Cells are dependent on one another for their
survival. The protoplast of each cell is
connected to another by pores on the cell wall.
The colony shape is like a disc, a ball, or net.
The example is Hydrodictyon which have shape
like a net
CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAE
• SEVEN PHYLUM BASED ON
– COLOR
– TYPE OF CHLOROPHYLL
– FOOD-STORAGE SUBSTANCE
– CELL WALL COMPOSITION
ALGAE
EUGLENOPHYTA
PYRROPHYTA Fire
CHLOROPHYTA Green
CHRYSOPHYTA Golden
PHAEOPHYTA Brown
RHODOPHYTA Red
CYANOPHYTA Green blue
BODY STRUCTURE
All algae are eukaryotic organisms, their contain chloroplast. There are many shape of
chloroplast . Spherical, bowl-shaped, and belt-shaped.
The main pigments in algae is chlorophyll.
ADDITIONAL PIGMENTS
Carotene Phycobilin
Fucoxanthin
(Brownish)
Xantophylls
(Golden)
Phycocyanin
(Bluish)
Phycoerythrin
(Reddish)
GREEN ALGAE CHLOROPHYTA
Phylum Chlorophyta
• Green algae
• 7000 diverse species
• Biologist reason that green algae give rise to
land plants.
• Both green algae and land plants have
chlorophyll a and B as well as carotenoids and
store food as starch
• Both have walls made of cellulose
SPYROGYRA
- POPULATING THE PONDS
RED ALGAE
- SOURCE OF AGAR
RHODOPHYTA
Phylum Rhodophyta
• 4000 species of RED Algae
• Most are marine
• Smaller than brown algae and are often found
at a depth of 200 meters.
• Contain chlorophyll a and C as well as
phycobilins which are important in absorbing
light that can penetrate deep into the water
• Have cells coated in carageenan which is used
in cosmetics, gelatin capsules and some
cheeses
BROWN ALGAE
- SOURCE OF ALGIN
Phylum Phaeophyta
• 1500 species of Brown algae
• Mostly marine and include
seaweed and kelp
• All are multicellular and large
(often reaching lengths of 147
feet)
• Individual alga may grow to a
length of 100m with a holdfast,
stipe and blade
• Used in cosmetics and most ice
creams
BLUE GREEN ALGAE
Nostoc, Anabaena
Cyanophyta
Phylum Euglenophyta
• 1000 species of
Euglenoids
• Have both plantlike and
animal-like
characteristics
• Fresh water
Other Phylum Representatives
Diatoms – used in detergents, paint
removers, toothpaste
Dinoflagellates – red tides
Important in the
formation of
petroleum
products
Golden algae
PLANTS THAT SWIM
- CHLAMYDOMONAS
OSCILLATARIA
AN
EXCEPTONAL
BEAUTY
- PEDIASTRUM
A Multiproduct Opportunity
Algae
AgricultureNutrition
Pharmaceu. FuelAquaculture CO2 Seques.
Several macroalgae are also the source of hydrocolloids such as
agar-agar and carrageenan which are widely used in the food
industry as stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents.
AGAR
- MEDICINE FROM RED ALGAE
FROM BROWN
ALGAE
Product Algae Function Food
Carageenan Rhodophyta Stabilizer, Milk, yogurt, ice
cream, soup,
cream,pudding
Agar Gelidium
amansii (Red
algae)
Stabilizer,
thickener
Freeze food,
processed
cheeses
Mayonnaise
Alginate Brown algae thickener Ice cream, milk
products,
sauces,
Confectionery,
etc
KELP
- A RICH SOURCE OF IODINE
Green Polymers
Co-products from algae, including green
polymers, chemicals and animal feed, will play
a decisive role in the success of established
and emerging algae production ventures.
• Algae are good source of vitamins minerals, proteins,
• Different colors, flavors, textures
• Nutraceuticals
• Omega-3 supplements and food ingredients
• Protein powders
• Totally unique omega-3 products contain both EPA and DHA.
Highly valued, plant-based, vegetarian, nutritional
supplements unlike mercury-contaminated fish oil.
• Future: carotenoids; lutein, zeaxanthin, fucoxanthin, and
astaxanthin — potent antioxidants that reduce cell damage
and fight disease; fluorescent dyes (natural dyes that can
replace synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics)
Nutrition
• Algae yield omega-3 fatty acids, proteins and oils at more
profitable margins than other methods of production.
• Common species of nutritional supplements include Spirulina,
Chlorella and Duniella
• Algae extracts are used for health supplements, pharmaceuticals,
soaps, lotions, protein bars, shakes, and beauty products.
Omega 3
Markets
• Market demands for omega-3 fatty acids exceed current
industry production capacity:
• Current world demand = $4.6 billion U.S.
• 2011 estimate = $8.2 billion U.S.
• Many current market suppliers of omega-3s are
experiencing over 20 percent annual revenue growth for
algae-based ingredients in food and nutritional products
— with premium prices paid for the purest products
CHONDRUS
- USED IN
PUDDINGS AND
JELLIES
CHLORELLA
- RICH IN PROTEINS AND
VITAMINS
- A CHINESE DELICACY
LAMINARIA
- FODDER
Nutraceuticals per Kilo
According to BioCentric, which has invested $600,000
in its line of algae nutraceuticals:
• Haemaotoccocus has a current market value of $341
per kilogram,
• Chlorella clocks in at $44 per kilo and
• Spirulina sells for $20 per kilo
Algae as Protein
• According to the FAO, the world protein consumption is set to
increase 74 percent by 2050, surpassing the replenishment of
wild and farm-raised fish and livestock populations.
• Algae can provide high-concentration EPA oils and protein
extracts, and low-cost fish meal for aquaculture facilities.
• Algae production systems will play an important role in
addressing the growing worldwide demand for protein and
Omega-3 fatty acids while reducing overfishing.
• Spirullina, Chlorella
Foods from algae
• Algae have been used as human food for thousands of years in all
parts of the world.
• The most commonly consumed macroalgae include the red algae
Porphyra (nori, kim, laver), Asparagopsis taxiformis (limu),
Gracilaria, Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and Palmaria palmata
(dulse), the kelps Laminaria (kombu), Undaria (wakame) and
Macrocystis, and the green algae Caulerpa racemosa, Codium and
Ulva.
• These algae are either harvested from wild populations or are
farmed.
• These algae usually are eaten either fresh, dried or pickled.
• Algae are used in soups, salads and sushi.
• Sea lettuce (Ulva lactura)
• Other foods: Funori, Hijiki, Arame.
Foods from algae
Nori Kombu Wakame
•Soil enhancers for increasing large scale agricultural
production
•Natural fumigants
An algae-based system to increase terrestrial crop
production by:
• Increased bioavailability of macro and micro nutrients
• Enhanced soil organics and water-holding capabilities
• Increased soil porosity
• Replacement of chemical fumigants
Agriculture
SEA WEEDS….
….AS MANURE
• Ultra-pure pharmaceuticals
• Therapeutics
• Scientific reagents
• Bioactive peptides, replacement proteins, immune system
stimulators and suppressants, diagnostic proteins and
enzymes
Pharmaceuticals
• Algae are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically
active natural products and nutraceuticals. While
nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline
algae strain is very small, current market values for
these products are extremely high.
• The major products currently being commercialized or
under consideration for commercial extraction include
carotenoids, phycobilins, fatty acids, polysaccharides,
vitamins, sterols, and biologically active molecules for
use in human and animal health.
The pharmaceutical industry is growing at a CAGR of
around 8% while the global pharmaceutical market is
forecasted to reach US$ 1043.4 billion in 2012.
Use of algae, especially cyanobacteria based active
compounds, has received ever-increasing interest as:
• Antimicrobials, Antivirals & Antifungals
• Neuroprotective Products
• Therapeutic proteins
• Drugs
CHLORELLA
- YIELDS CHLORELLIN
•Shrimp, fish, and mollusk feeds
•Products for Asian and Pacific food markets
• Natural feed for fish, shrimp, and mollusk larvae
• Whole and defatted algae powders for fish,
shrimp, and mollusks
• Fresh macroalgae (sea veggies) for the
Pacific and Asian food markets
Aquaculture
•Biofuels (biodiesel, alcohols)
•Lubricants for diesel fuel
•Biodegradable plastics
Fuel
Today, this ancient life-giver reappears as the core topic of
commercial and environmental interest in salvaging our
energy economy and our planetary future - our hope for
abundant fuel, medicine, food and carbon sequestration.
Algae Financial Forecast
In August, 2010, Global Information released a new market
research report, Algae Biofuels Production Technologies
Worldwide, in which they project that the total algae biofuels
production technologies market (including cultivation
technology sales, harvesting, extraction and fuels production
facilities) will reach $1.6 billion in 2015.
The Fuel of the Future?
• Algae produce 100 times more oil per acre than traditional food oilseed
crops such as soy etc. Algae produces 4,000 -15,000 gallons of oil per
acre per year versus 50 gallons per acre for soy, or approximately 26
gallons per hectare
• Algae eat CO2, the major Global Warming Gas, and produce oxygen.
• Algae require only sunshine and water, and thrive on waste and polluted
waters
• Algae do not compete with food crops for either agricultural land or fresh
water.
“If we were to replace all of the diesel that we use in the
United States, with an algae derivative, we could do it
on an area of land less than one half of 1% of the
current farm land that we now use.”
Douglas Henston, Pres. Solix Algae Fuels
Diesel Fuel
Inputs - Outputs
ExxonMobil: $600 Million
• On July 15, 2009, Exxon announced a 600 million dollar
investment into algae biofuel research. The research facility
is based at partner Synthetic Genomics headquarters, and
opened on July 14, 2010 in La Jolla, California.
http://gigaom2.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/exxonsynthetictestsite54.jpg
Solazyme: $125 Million
August 9, 2010: Seven-year-old Solazyme announced that it has
raised $52 million in Series D financing from investors including
Braemer Energy Ventures, Morgan Stanley, and Chevron Technology
Ventures, the VC arm of the oil giant. Including this round, Solazyme
has now raised over $125 million.
Algenol: 2013
• Algenol’s Biofields project begins
construction this year, and
Biofields continues to guide the
markets to expect commercial
capacity by 2013 in the 250
million gallons per year range.
• Algenol CEO Paul Woods
expressed to the Biofuel Digest
last year that he would regard the
achievement of only 300 Mgy in
capacity by mid-decade as a
“disappointment”.
http://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/bto/20080612/algenol_270x292.GIF
Aurora Algae: 2013
• Sept 2010 - Aurora Algae CEO Greg Bafalis forecasted the
company could reap $100,000 in gross revenue per acre, and
plans to be in large commercial production within 30 months,
quickly scaling up to 1,000-plus acres. The company is
constructing a first demonstration facility in Australia. “In
about two and a half years we’ll be cash flow positive,”
Bafalis predicted. “We’ll be tackling private equity and
venture capital in the next year.” The company has raised $40
million to date, with its third round in March, 2010, yielding
$15 million. http://venturebeat.com/2010/09/13/aurora%E2%80%99s-rebranding-bets-on-protein-bars-and-lotion-not-biofuel/
Carbon credits for sale to non-CleanTech industries
• Sequestration of CO2 directly from:
• Existing power generation facilities (coal and oil)
• Existing manufacturing facilities
• Production of off-setting carbon credits that can be sold to
other companies or industries based on the 2.5 to 1 ratio
of CO2 incorporation into algae biomass
CO2 Sequestration and environmental issues
NOSTOC AND…
… ANABAENA
- NITROGEN FIXATION
Algae Cultivation Process
Simple Process: Fuel and Biomass
Simple Process
Integration & Multi-Products
Fermentation Process
Algae Photo-Reactors
Acrylic Tubes
Vertical Plastic Bags
Flexible Tubing
Seambiotic, an Israeli firm, uses raceway/paddle-wheel
open-pond algae cultivation growth fed by C02 flue-gas
from a nearby power plant.
Raceway and Paddle Wheel
Photoreactor Yields
• Production w Closed System
• High Nutrient Input or Waste Stream
• Single Species in Controlled Environment:
30,000 -100,000 gallons per year per acre
Industry Pursuing Full Range of Algae
Products
2013 Survey
ABO Members
Producers
Only
Vegetable oils for use in
food products 5% 11%
Feeds (fish and/or farm) 35% 35%
Bioplastics 4% 5%
Chemicals 11% 10%
Nutritional products or
nutraceuticals 30% 28%
Fuels 33% 29%
Fertilizers 21% 18%
Biomass for energy or
other uses 37% 36%
Other 9% 9%
ABO: Algae Biomass Organization
Capacity Continues to Expand
• 25% of producers reported they
would be expanding in 2013 at an
existing facility
• 22% said they would expand with
new facilities
• 20% reported expansion and both
new and existing facilities.
Most Critical Challenges
#1: cost-efficient production
systems
#2: harvesting and extraction
systems

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...
The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...
The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...iosrjce
 
Seaweeds cultivation and utilization
Seaweeds cultivation and utilizationSeaweeds cultivation and utilization
Seaweeds cultivation and utilizationBhagbat Prasad Nayak
 
Mollusca of India and need for conservation
Mollusca of India and need for conservationMollusca of India and need for conservation
Mollusca of India and need for conservationAshish sahu
 
Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...
Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...
Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...Jean Dhont
 
Biofloc Technology in aquaculture
Biofloc Technology in aquacultureBiofloc Technology in aquaculture
Biofloc Technology in aquacultureGovinda007
 
Importance of yeast
Importance of yeastImportance of yeast
Importance of yeastELAM
 
Significance of microorganisms in food production and fermentation
Significance of microorganisms in food production and fermentationSignificance of microorganisms in food production and fermentation
Significance of microorganisms in food production and fermentationBahauddin Zakariya University lahore
 
Role of fungi in industry
Role of fungi in industryRole of fungi in industry
Role of fungi in industryNafeesaSafdar1
 
Ediable microorganisms
Ediable microorganismsEdiable microorganisms
Ediable microorganismsali alshahrani
 
Bioenrichment in rotifers4
Bioenrichment in rotifers4Bioenrichment in rotifers4
Bioenrichment in rotifers4vishu3962
 
Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...
Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...
Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...Umay Habiba
 
Yeast and mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant Professor
Yeast and  mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant ProfessorYeast and  mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant Professor
Yeast and mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant Professoralka1909
 
Sea food seafty and additives
Sea food seafty and additivesSea food seafty and additives
Sea food seafty and additivesJoynalAbedin20
 
Mold and yeast ppt
Mold and yeast pptMold and yeast ppt
Mold and yeast pptjeanne56
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...
The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...
The Growth of Microalgae in Shrimp Hatchery: Impact of Environment on Nutriti...
 
Seaweeds cultivation and utilization
Seaweeds cultivation and utilizationSeaweeds cultivation and utilization
Seaweeds cultivation and utilization
 
Seaweed Faming
Seaweed FamingSeaweed Faming
Seaweed Faming
 
Mollusca of India and need for conservation
Mollusca of India and need for conservationMollusca of India and need for conservation
Mollusca of India and need for conservation
 
Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...
Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...
Introducing the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Ghent U...
 
Biofloc Technology in aquaculture
Biofloc Technology in aquacultureBiofloc Technology in aquaculture
Biofloc Technology in aquaculture
 
Importance of yeast
Importance of yeastImportance of yeast
Importance of yeast
 
Preservation methods
  Preservation methods  Preservation methods
Preservation methods
 
Significance of microorganisms in food production and fermentation
Significance of microorganisms in food production and fermentationSignificance of microorganisms in food production and fermentation
Significance of microorganisms in food production and fermentation
 
Role of fungi in industry
Role of fungi in industryRole of fungi in industry
Role of fungi in industry
 
Food microbiology
Food microbiologyFood microbiology
Food microbiology
 
Ediable microorganisms
Ediable microorganismsEdiable microorganisms
Ediable microorganisms
 
Kartik
KartikKartik
Kartik
 
Bioenrichment in rotifers4
Bioenrichment in rotifers4Bioenrichment in rotifers4
Bioenrichment in rotifers4
 
yeasts
yeastsyeasts
yeasts
 
Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...
Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...
Role of Microorganisms in Preparation of Certain Foods, in Spoilage of Food, ...
 
Yeast and mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant Professor
Yeast and  mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant ProfessorYeast and  mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant Professor
Yeast and mold- By Alka Kumari, Assistant Professor
 
Sea food seafty and additives
Sea food seafty and additivesSea food seafty and additives
Sea food seafty and additives
 
Mold and yeast ppt
Mold and yeast pptMold and yeast ppt
Mold and yeast ppt
 
ENTOMOPHAGY
ENTOMOPHAGYENTOMOPHAGY
ENTOMOPHAGY
 

Ähnlich wie Algas usos

Ähnlich wie Algas usos (20)

Health promoting properties of seaweeds
Health promoting properties of seaweedsHealth promoting properties of seaweeds
Health promoting properties of seaweeds
 
Algae aka Kingdom Thallophyta!
Algae aka Kingdom Thallophyta! Algae aka Kingdom Thallophyta!
Algae aka Kingdom Thallophyta!
 
Role of marine algae in human welfare
Role of marine algae in human welfareRole of marine algae in human welfare
Role of marine algae in human welfare
 
Characteristics of algea and lichens and their ecological importance
Characteristics of algea and lichens and their ecological importanceCharacteristics of algea and lichens and their ecological importance
Characteristics of algea and lichens and their ecological importance
 
Chapter 7 multicellular plants
Chapter 7 multicellular plantsChapter 7 multicellular plants
Chapter 7 multicellular plants
 
Characteristics of algae
Characteristics of algaeCharacteristics of algae
Characteristics of algae
 
Algae economic importance
Algae economic importanceAlgae economic importance
Algae economic importance
 
Algae
AlgaeAlgae
Algae
 
Algae Economic Importance
Algae Economic ImportanceAlgae Economic Importance
Algae Economic Importance
 
Algae as food
Algae as foodAlgae as food
Algae as food
 
Ecological and economic importance of algae
Ecological and economic importance of algae Ecological and economic importance of algae
Ecological and economic importance of algae
 
Sea weeds by products
Sea weeds by productsSea weeds by products
Sea weeds by products
 
Single cell protein
Single cell proteinSingle cell protein
Single cell protein
 
Eco imp of algae.pptx
Eco imp of algae.pptxEco imp of algae.pptx
Eco imp of algae.pptx
 
Algae
AlgaeAlgae
Algae
 
seaweed
seaweedseaweed
seaweed
 
Algae ii
Algae iiAlgae ii
Algae ii
 
Algae ii
Algae iiAlgae ii
Algae ii
 
Algae
AlgaeAlgae
Algae
 
Algae
AlgaeAlgae
Algae
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxIntroduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxMedical College
 
CHROMATOGRAPHY PALLAVI RAWAT.pptx
CHROMATOGRAPHY  PALLAVI RAWAT.pptxCHROMATOGRAPHY  PALLAVI RAWAT.pptx
CHROMATOGRAPHY PALLAVI RAWAT.pptxpallavirawat456
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxjana861314
 
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdfKDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdfGABYFIORELAMALPARTID1
 
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Chiheb Ben Hammouda
 
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfcomplex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfSubhamKumar3239
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinNathan Cone
 
HEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cells
HEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cellsHEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cells
HEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cellsSachinSuresh44
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Sérgio Sacani
 
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptxDETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx201bo007
 
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...Chayanika Das
 
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of CancerAdvances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of CancerLuis Miguel Chong Chong
 
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPirithiRaju
 
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGiovaniTrinidad
 
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girlsbonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girlshansessene
 
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive starsObservational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive starsSérgio Sacani
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptxIntroduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx
 
CHROMATOGRAPHY PALLAVI RAWAT.pptx
CHROMATOGRAPHY  PALLAVI RAWAT.pptxCHROMATOGRAPHY  PALLAVI RAWAT.pptx
CHROMATOGRAPHY PALLAVI RAWAT.pptx
 
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of AlkaloidsIntroduction Classification Of Alkaloids
Introduction Classification Of Alkaloids
 
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptxRole of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
Role of Gibberellins, mode of action and external applications.pptx
 
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdfKDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
KDIGO-2023-CKD-Guideline-Public-Review-Draft_5-July-2023.pdf
 
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
Efficient Fourier Pricing of Multi-Asset Options: Quasi-Monte Carlo & Domain ...
 
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdfcomplex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
complex analysis best book for solving questions.pdf
 
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig BobchinThink Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
Think Science: What Are Eclipses (101), by Craig Bobchin
 
HEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cells
HEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cellsHEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cells
HEMATOPOIESIS - formation of blood cells
 
Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.Interferons.pptx.
Interferons.pptx.
 
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
Observation of Gravitational Waves from the Coalescence of a 2.5–4.5 M⊙ Compa...
 
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptxDETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
DETECTION OF MUTATION BY CLB METHOD.pptx
 
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
 
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES REQUIRED FOR ESTABLISHING FOUR TYPES OF BIOSAFETY LABORATO...
 
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of CancerAdvances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
Advances in AI-driven Image Recognition for Early Detection of Cancer
 
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPRPests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
Pests of Sunflower_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR
 
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptxGas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
Gas-ExchangeS-in-Plants-and-Animals.pptx
 
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girlsbonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
bonjourmadame.tumblr.com bhaskar's girls
 
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive starsObservational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
Observational constraints on mergers creating magnetism in massive stars
 
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTXPLASMODIUM. PPTX
PLASMODIUM. PPTX
 

Algas usos

  • 2.
  • 3. IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF ALGAE
  • 4. Characteristics • Range in size from microscopic to single celled organisms to large seaweed • Autotrophic • Form the reproductive structures – gametangia or gamete chambers • Aquatic and have flagella at some point in life • Often contain pyrenoids, organelles that synthesis and store starch
  • 5. BODY CHARACTERISTICS Size and Shape : Algae are range in size, from the invisible (microscopic) to the visible (macroscopic) •Solitary unicellular algae Their shape are round, oval, or pear-shaped algae of this group. The example is Chlorella
  • 6. STRUCTURE • Thallus (haploid) • Four types of algae –Unicellular –Colonial –Filamentous –multicellular
  • 8. •Multicellular algae There are forms of thread, filament, and sheet-like multicellular algae. The example is Oedogonium which have filament shape body. •Unicellular algae in colony Cells are dependent on one another for their survival. The protoplast of each cell is connected to another by pores on the cell wall. The colony shape is like a disc, a ball, or net. The example is Hydrodictyon which have shape like a net
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAE • SEVEN PHYLUM BASED ON – COLOR – TYPE OF CHLOROPHYLL – FOOD-STORAGE SUBSTANCE – CELL WALL COMPOSITION
  • 10. ALGAE EUGLENOPHYTA PYRROPHYTA Fire CHLOROPHYTA Green CHRYSOPHYTA Golden PHAEOPHYTA Brown RHODOPHYTA Red CYANOPHYTA Green blue
  • 11. BODY STRUCTURE All algae are eukaryotic organisms, their contain chloroplast. There are many shape of chloroplast . Spherical, bowl-shaped, and belt-shaped. The main pigments in algae is chlorophyll. ADDITIONAL PIGMENTS Carotene Phycobilin Fucoxanthin (Brownish) Xantophylls (Golden) Phycocyanin (Bluish) Phycoerythrin (Reddish)
  • 13. Phylum Chlorophyta • Green algae • 7000 diverse species • Biologist reason that green algae give rise to land plants. • Both green algae and land plants have chlorophyll a and B as well as carotenoids and store food as starch • Both have walls made of cellulose
  • 15. RED ALGAE - SOURCE OF AGAR RHODOPHYTA
  • 16. Phylum Rhodophyta • 4000 species of RED Algae • Most are marine • Smaller than brown algae and are often found at a depth of 200 meters. • Contain chlorophyll a and C as well as phycobilins which are important in absorbing light that can penetrate deep into the water • Have cells coated in carageenan which is used in cosmetics, gelatin capsules and some cheeses
  • 18. Phylum Phaeophyta • 1500 species of Brown algae • Mostly marine and include seaweed and kelp • All are multicellular and large (often reaching lengths of 147 feet) • Individual alga may grow to a length of 100m with a holdfast, stipe and blade • Used in cosmetics and most ice creams
  • 19. BLUE GREEN ALGAE Nostoc, Anabaena Cyanophyta
  • 20. Phylum Euglenophyta • 1000 species of Euglenoids • Have both plantlike and animal-like characteristics • Fresh water
  • 21. Other Phylum Representatives Diatoms – used in detergents, paint removers, toothpaste Dinoflagellates – red tides Important in the formation of petroleum products Golden algae
  • 22. PLANTS THAT SWIM - CHLAMYDOMONAS
  • 26.
  • 27. Several macroalgae are also the source of hydrocolloids such as agar-agar and carrageenan which are widely used in the food industry as stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents.
  • 28. AGAR - MEDICINE FROM RED ALGAE
  • 30. Product Algae Function Food Carageenan Rhodophyta Stabilizer, Milk, yogurt, ice cream, soup, cream,pudding Agar Gelidium amansii (Red algae) Stabilizer, thickener Freeze food, processed cheeses Mayonnaise Alginate Brown algae thickener Ice cream, milk products, sauces, Confectionery, etc
  • 31. KELP - A RICH SOURCE OF IODINE
  • 32. Green Polymers Co-products from algae, including green polymers, chemicals and animal feed, will play a decisive role in the success of established and emerging algae production ventures.
  • 33. • Algae are good source of vitamins minerals, proteins, • Different colors, flavors, textures • Nutraceuticals • Omega-3 supplements and food ingredients • Protein powders • Totally unique omega-3 products contain both EPA and DHA. Highly valued, plant-based, vegetarian, nutritional supplements unlike mercury-contaminated fish oil. • Future: carotenoids; lutein, zeaxanthin, fucoxanthin, and astaxanthin — potent antioxidants that reduce cell damage and fight disease; fluorescent dyes (natural dyes that can replace synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics) Nutrition
  • 34. • Algae yield omega-3 fatty acids, proteins and oils at more profitable margins than other methods of production. • Common species of nutritional supplements include Spirulina, Chlorella and Duniella • Algae extracts are used for health supplements, pharmaceuticals, soaps, lotions, protein bars, shakes, and beauty products. Omega 3
  • 35. Markets • Market demands for omega-3 fatty acids exceed current industry production capacity: • Current world demand = $4.6 billion U.S. • 2011 estimate = $8.2 billion U.S. • Many current market suppliers of omega-3s are experiencing over 20 percent annual revenue growth for algae-based ingredients in food and nutritional products — with premium prices paid for the purest products
  • 37. CHLORELLA - RICH IN PROTEINS AND VITAMINS
  • 38. - A CHINESE DELICACY
  • 40. Nutraceuticals per Kilo According to BioCentric, which has invested $600,000 in its line of algae nutraceuticals: • Haemaotoccocus has a current market value of $341 per kilogram, • Chlorella clocks in at $44 per kilo and • Spirulina sells for $20 per kilo
  • 41. Algae as Protein • According to the FAO, the world protein consumption is set to increase 74 percent by 2050, surpassing the replenishment of wild and farm-raised fish and livestock populations. • Algae can provide high-concentration EPA oils and protein extracts, and low-cost fish meal for aquaculture facilities. • Algae production systems will play an important role in addressing the growing worldwide demand for protein and Omega-3 fatty acids while reducing overfishing. • Spirullina, Chlorella
  • 42. Foods from algae • Algae have been used as human food for thousands of years in all parts of the world. • The most commonly consumed macroalgae include the red algae Porphyra (nori, kim, laver), Asparagopsis taxiformis (limu), Gracilaria, Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and Palmaria palmata (dulse), the kelps Laminaria (kombu), Undaria (wakame) and Macrocystis, and the green algae Caulerpa racemosa, Codium and Ulva. • These algae are either harvested from wild populations or are farmed. • These algae usually are eaten either fresh, dried or pickled. • Algae are used in soups, salads and sushi. • Sea lettuce (Ulva lactura) • Other foods: Funori, Hijiki, Arame.
  • 43. Foods from algae Nori Kombu Wakame
  • 44. •Soil enhancers for increasing large scale agricultural production •Natural fumigants An algae-based system to increase terrestrial crop production by: • Increased bioavailability of macro and micro nutrients • Enhanced soil organics and water-holding capabilities • Increased soil porosity • Replacement of chemical fumigants Agriculture
  • 47. • Ultra-pure pharmaceuticals • Therapeutics • Scientific reagents • Bioactive peptides, replacement proteins, immune system stimulators and suppressants, diagnostic proteins and enzymes Pharmaceuticals
  • 48. • Algae are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, current market values for these products are extremely high. • The major products currently being commercialized or under consideration for commercial extraction include carotenoids, phycobilins, fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins, sterols, and biologically active molecules for use in human and animal health.
  • 49. The pharmaceutical industry is growing at a CAGR of around 8% while the global pharmaceutical market is forecasted to reach US$ 1043.4 billion in 2012. Use of algae, especially cyanobacteria based active compounds, has received ever-increasing interest as: • Antimicrobials, Antivirals & Antifungals • Neuroprotective Products • Therapeutic proteins • Drugs
  • 50.
  • 52. •Shrimp, fish, and mollusk feeds •Products for Asian and Pacific food markets • Natural feed for fish, shrimp, and mollusk larvae • Whole and defatted algae powders for fish, shrimp, and mollusks • Fresh macroalgae (sea veggies) for the Pacific and Asian food markets Aquaculture
  • 53. •Biofuels (biodiesel, alcohols) •Lubricants for diesel fuel •Biodegradable plastics Fuel
  • 54. Today, this ancient life-giver reappears as the core topic of commercial and environmental interest in salvaging our energy economy and our planetary future - our hope for abundant fuel, medicine, food and carbon sequestration.
  • 55.
  • 56. Algae Financial Forecast In August, 2010, Global Information released a new market research report, Algae Biofuels Production Technologies Worldwide, in which they project that the total algae biofuels production technologies market (including cultivation technology sales, harvesting, extraction and fuels production facilities) will reach $1.6 billion in 2015.
  • 57. The Fuel of the Future? • Algae produce 100 times more oil per acre than traditional food oilseed crops such as soy etc. Algae produces 4,000 -15,000 gallons of oil per acre per year versus 50 gallons per acre for soy, or approximately 26 gallons per hectare • Algae eat CO2, the major Global Warming Gas, and produce oxygen. • Algae require only sunshine and water, and thrive on waste and polluted waters • Algae do not compete with food crops for either agricultural land or fresh water.
  • 58. “If we were to replace all of the diesel that we use in the United States, with an algae derivative, we could do it on an area of land less than one half of 1% of the current farm land that we now use.” Douglas Henston, Pres. Solix Algae Fuels Diesel Fuel
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 62. ExxonMobil: $600 Million • On July 15, 2009, Exxon announced a 600 million dollar investment into algae biofuel research. The research facility is based at partner Synthetic Genomics headquarters, and opened on July 14, 2010 in La Jolla, California. http://gigaom2.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/exxonsynthetictestsite54.jpg
  • 63. Solazyme: $125 Million August 9, 2010: Seven-year-old Solazyme announced that it has raised $52 million in Series D financing from investors including Braemer Energy Ventures, Morgan Stanley, and Chevron Technology Ventures, the VC arm of the oil giant. Including this round, Solazyme has now raised over $125 million.
  • 64. Algenol: 2013 • Algenol’s Biofields project begins construction this year, and Biofields continues to guide the markets to expect commercial capacity by 2013 in the 250 million gallons per year range. • Algenol CEO Paul Woods expressed to the Biofuel Digest last year that he would regard the achievement of only 300 Mgy in capacity by mid-decade as a “disappointment”. http://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/bto/20080612/algenol_270x292.GIF
  • 65. Aurora Algae: 2013 • Sept 2010 - Aurora Algae CEO Greg Bafalis forecasted the company could reap $100,000 in gross revenue per acre, and plans to be in large commercial production within 30 months, quickly scaling up to 1,000-plus acres. The company is constructing a first demonstration facility in Australia. “In about two and a half years we’ll be cash flow positive,” Bafalis predicted. “We’ll be tackling private equity and venture capital in the next year.” The company has raised $40 million to date, with its third round in March, 2010, yielding $15 million. http://venturebeat.com/2010/09/13/aurora%E2%80%99s-rebranding-bets-on-protein-bars-and-lotion-not-biofuel/
  • 66. Carbon credits for sale to non-CleanTech industries • Sequestration of CO2 directly from: • Existing power generation facilities (coal and oil) • Existing manufacturing facilities • Production of off-setting carbon credits that can be sold to other companies or industries based on the 2.5 to 1 ratio of CO2 incorporation into algae biomass CO2 Sequestration and environmental issues
  • 70. Simple Process: Fuel and Biomass Simple Process
  • 77. Seambiotic, an Israeli firm, uses raceway/paddle-wheel open-pond algae cultivation growth fed by C02 flue-gas from a nearby power plant. Raceway and Paddle Wheel
  • 78. Photoreactor Yields • Production w Closed System • High Nutrient Input or Waste Stream • Single Species in Controlled Environment: 30,000 -100,000 gallons per year per acre
  • 79. Industry Pursuing Full Range of Algae Products 2013 Survey ABO Members Producers Only Vegetable oils for use in food products 5% 11% Feeds (fish and/or farm) 35% 35% Bioplastics 4% 5% Chemicals 11% 10% Nutritional products or nutraceuticals 30% 28% Fuels 33% 29% Fertilizers 21% 18% Biomass for energy or other uses 37% 36% Other 9% 9% ABO: Algae Biomass Organization
  • 80. Capacity Continues to Expand • 25% of producers reported they would be expanding in 2013 at an existing facility • 22% said they would expand with new facilities • 20% reported expansion and both new and existing facilities.
  • 81. Most Critical Challenges #1: cost-efficient production systems #2: harvesting and extraction systems