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The culture of cmmi

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An attempt to make sense out of CMMI implementations in several cultures around the world. How large is the influence of the US and DoD culture?
And an attempt to using principles from exegesis and hermeneutics to interpret CMMI correctly.

Veröffentlicht in: Seele & Geist, Technologie
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The culture of cmmi

  1. 1. The Culture of CMMI Understanding and implementing CMMI in different cultures
  2. 2. Contents Experience Hofstede Application to CMMI Analysis of text Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Experience Netherlands Estimation Sheet Germany Estimation Model Sweden Consensus USA Quick decisions South Korea Truth in pub only India Draft Findings Presentation 3
  4. 4. Contents Experience Hofstede Application to CMMI Analysis of text Conclusions 4
  5. 5. even an iPhone app! 5
  6. 6. The Five Dimensions PDI Power Distance IND Individuality MAS Masculinity UAI Uncertainty Avoidance LTO Long Term Orientation 6
  7. 7. Power Distance • How much the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. • In cultures with small power distance (e.g. Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand), people expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decisions of those in power. In cultures with large power distance (e.g. Malaysia), the less powerful accept power relations that are autocratic or paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others based on their formal, hierarchical positions. • Thus, Small vs. Large Power Distance does not measure or attempt to measure a culture's objective, "real" power distribution, but rather the way people perceive power differences.. 7
  8. 8. Individuality • How much members of the culture define themselves apart from their group memberships. • In individualist cultures, people are expected to develop and display their individual personalities and to choose their own affiliations. In collectivist cultures, people are defined and act mostly as a member of a long-term group, such as the family, a religious group, an age cohort, a town, or a profession, among others. This dimension was found to move towards the individualist end of the spectrum with increasing national wealth 8
  9. 9. Masculinity • The value placed on traditionally male or female values (as understood in most Western cultures). In so-called 'masculine' cultures, people (whether male or female) value competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions. In so- called 'feminine' cultures, people (again whether male or female) value relationships and quality of life. • This dimension is often renamed by users of Hofstede's work, e.g. to Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life 9
  10. 10. Uncertainty avoidance • What is different is dangerous • How much members of a society are anxious about the unknown, and as a consequence, attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. In cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance, people prefer explicit rules (e.g. about religion and food) and formally structured activities, and employees tend to remain longer with their present employer. In cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance, people prefer implicit or flexible rules or guidelines and informal activities. Employees tend to change employers more frequently 10
  11. 11. Long Term Orientation • A society's "time horizon," or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. In long term oriented societies, people value actions and attitudes that affect the future: persistence/perseverance, thrift, and shame. In short term oriented societies, people value actions and attitudes that are affected by the past or the present: normative statements, immediate stability, protecting one's own face, respect for tradition, andreciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts. 11
  12. 12. 110 Some numbers 83 55 28 0 PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO Netherlands Spain Portugal France Germany Russia Great Britain United States 12
  13. 13. CMMI is an american model 13
  14. 14. and Portugal? 14
  15. 15. Contents Experience Hofstede Application to CMMI Analysis of text Conclusions 15
  16. 16. Analysis of text Lessons from philosophy and theology 16
  17. 17. Interpreting texts • ex·e·ge·sis • to explain, interpret • What it meant – in the original context • her·me·neu·tic • 1: the study of the methodological principles of interpretation (as of the Bible) 2 : a method or principle of interpretation • What it means – in the current context 17
  18. 18. Exegesis and hermeneutics Perception Choices Perception Choices World view Intentions World view Intentions Reality Adoption Author Reader Exegesis Hermeneutics “what did it mean?” “what does it mean?” 18
  19. 19. Exegesis and hermeneutics American culture • plan driven Perception Choices World view Intentions • hierarchy Defence • few, large projects • safety Reality • embedded software Author CMMI Team • experience Exegesis • frustrations “what did it mean?” 19
  20. 20. Exegesis and hermeneutics What is my vision on Perception Choices mature organisations? World view Intentions • positive experience • education What is my “political” Reality aspiration? Author • CMU faculties • personal ambitions •… Exegesis “what did it mean?” 20
  21. 21. Exegesis and hermeneutics Dutch culture Perception Choices World view Intentions • anti-authoritarian • consensus Services-economy • smaller projects Adoption Personal experience Reader • matrix organisation • leadership Hermeneutics • drop back in level “what does it mean?” 21
  22. 22. Perception Choices World view Intentions Achieve business goals • better, faster, cheaper • better work environment • learning organisation Adoption Reader Level hunting Carier for SPI officer Hermeneutics Revenue for SPI consultant “what does it mean?” 22
  23. 23. A worked example • PMC SP 1.6 - Conduct Progress Reviews • Regularly communicate status on assigned activities and work products to relevant stakeholders. … • Review the results of collecting and analyzing measures for controlling the project. … • Identify and document significant issues and deviations from the plan. • Document change requests and problems identified in any of the work products and processes. • Document the results of the reviews. • Track change requests and problem reports to closure. 23
  24. 24. Exegesis and hermeneutics Perception Choices Perception Choices World view Intentions World view Intentions Reality Adoption Author Reader Exegesis Hermeneutics “what did it mean?” “what does it mean?” 24
  25. 25. Exegesis and hermeneutics Perception Choices American culture World view Intentions • plan driven • individualistic • Large, multi-site project • No automatic overview Reality Author Meetings and reports are really needed Exegesis “what did it mean?” 25
  26. 26. Exegesis and hermeneutics What is my vision on Perception Choices mature organisations? World view Intentions • positive experience • education What is my “political” Reality aspiration? Author • CMU faculties • personal ambitions •… Exegesis “what did it mean?” 26
  27. 27. Exegesis and hermeneutics Perception Choices Dutch culture World view Intentions • frequent informal meetings • open door policy • limited hierarchy • feminine culture Adoption Reader • Small projects: 3 man, 1 room • running list of action Hermeneutics “what does it mean?” points 27
  28. 28. Perception Choices World view Intentions Achieve business goals • better, faster, cheaper • better work environment • learning organisation Adoption Reader Level hunting Carier for SPI officer Hermeneutics Plug my tracker tool “what does it mean?” 28
  29. 29. Contents Experience Hofstede Application to CMMI Analysis of text Conclusions 29
  30. 30. Conclusions • Models compensate for cultural patterns • Be aware when transferring models across cultures 30
  31. 31. In one sentence Something is not true because it is in CMMI, but something is in CMMI because it is true in the original context 31

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