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Pharmacology - Parkinsonism

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Pharmacology - Parkinsonism

  1. 1. Parkinsonism By: Aditya Arya
  2. 2. Parkinsonism: <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinsonism is a progressive neurological disorder of muscle movement as a clinical syndrome consisting of 4 cardinal features: </li></ul><ul><li>bradykinesia (slowness of movement) and, in extreme cases, a loss of physical movement (akinesia) </li></ul><ul><li>muscular rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>resting tremor (which usually disappears during voluntary movement) </li></ul><ul><li>impairment of postural balance leading to disturbances of gait and falling </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Idiopathic Parkinson's disease </li></ul><ul><li>Idiopathic Parkinson's disease - or Parkinson's - is the most common type of parkinsonism. Unlike some other forms which have specific causes it is not known why idiopathic Parkinson's occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>The main symptoms of idiopatic Parkinson's are tremor, rigidity and slowness of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms and the rate at which the condition progresses vary from person to person. This can make diagnosis difficult. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vascular Parkinsonism: <ul><li>Vascular parkinsonism is one of the atypical forms of parkinsonism. </li></ul><ul><li>The most likely causes of vascular parkinsonism are hypertension and diabetes. A stroke (cerebrovascular accident), cardiac disease or carotid artery pathology (another form of stroke) may also be involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of vascular parkinsonism may include difficulty speaking, making facial expressions or swallowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Other signs can include problems with memory or confused thought, cognitive problems and incontinence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Drug Induced Parkinsonism <ul><li>A small number (around 7%) of people diagnosed with parkinsonism have developed their symptoms following treatment with particular medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs - known as neuroleptic drugs - used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders block dopamine. These drugs are thought to be the biggest cause of drug-induced parkinsonism. </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine is a chemical in the brain which allows messages to be sent to the parts of the brain that co-ordinate movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms of Parkinson's appear when the level of dopamine falls. </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms of drug-induced parkinsonism tend to be static. Only in rare cases do they change in the manner that the symptoms of Parkinson's do. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people will recover within months, and often within hours or days, of stopping the drug that caused the dopamine block. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dementia with Lewy bodies: <ul><li>Dementia with Lewy bodies is similar, in some ways, to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms differ slightly from Parkinson's and include problems with memory and concentration, attention, language and the ability to carry out simple actions. </li></ul><ul><li>People who have dementia with Lewy bodies commonly experience visual hallucinations and some Parkinson's-type symptoms, such as slowness of movement, stiffness and tremor. </li></ul><ul><li>Dementia with Lewy bodies is also a progressive condition, which means that the symptoms can become worse over time. Currently, there is no cure or treatment for the condition. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Inherited Parkinson's <ul><li>There is no conclusive evidence that Parkinson's is a hereditary condition that can be passed on within families, apart from in exceptionally rare cases. </li></ul><ul><li>It is thought that although it is not directly inherited, some people may have genes that increase the possibility of developing Parkinson's. </li></ul><ul><li>People who have genes that are prone to Parkinson's may be more likely to develop the condition when combined with other factors, such as environmental toxins or viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>At present, it is estimated that up to 5% of people with Parkinson's may have a genetic cause. </li></ul><ul><li>The role genetics may play in the development of Parkinson's is currently the subject of much research. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Juvenile Parkinson's: <ul><li>Juvenile Parkinson's is a term used when the condition affects people under the age of 20. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Causes of parkinsonism: </li></ul><ul><li>Idiopathic PD: </li></ul><ul><li>- Due to loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra </li></ul><ul><li>- Progressive loss of dopamine-containing neurons is a feature of normal aging; however, most people do not lose the 70% to 80% of dopaminergic neurons required to cause symptomatic PD </li></ul><ul><li>- Death frequently results from complications of immobility, including aspiration pneumonia or pulmonary embolism </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary PD: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., following stroke, and intoxication with dopamine-receptor antagonists as antipsychotics and antiemetics. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Treatment of parkinsonism <ul><li>Aim of treatment is to enhance dopaminergic pathway or inhibit cholinergic pathway in the brain </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Dopamine itself does not cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore has no CNS effects. However, levodopa, as an amino acid , is transported into the brain by amino acid transport systems, where It is converted to dopamine by the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (1) <ul><li>Levodopa is (the most effective drug used in the treatment of parkinsonism) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry: </li></ul><ul><li>It is the metabolic precursor of dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action: </li></ul><ul><li>In the brain, levodopa is converted to dopamine by decarboxylation primarily within the presynaptic terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the stratium (by action of L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase). The dopamine produced is responsible for the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug in PD; after release, it is either transported back into dopaminergic terminals by the presynaptic uptake mechanism or metabolized by the actions of MAO and catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) . </li></ul>
  13. 15. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (2) <ul><li>If levodopa is administered alone, the drug is largely decarboxylated by enzymes in the peripheral sites so that little unchanged drug reaches the cerebral circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, dopamine release into the circulation by peripheral conversion of levodopa produces undesirable effects, </li></ul>
  14. 16. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (3) <ul><li>In practice, levodopa is administered in combination with a peripherally acting inhibitor of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, such as carbidopa, that do not penetrate into the CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of peripheral decarboxylase markedly increases the fraction of administered levodopa that crosses the blood-brain barrier and reduces the incidence of peripheral side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>The most commonly prescribed form of carbidopa/levodopa is the 25/100 form, containing 25 mg carbidopa and 100 mg levodopa. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (4) <ul><li>Adverse effects: </li></ul><ul><li>A) Central: </li></ul><ul><li>long-term therapy leads to &quot;wearing off&quot; phenomenon: each dose of levodopa improves mobility for 1 to 2 hours, but rigidity and akinesia return at the end of the dosing interval. Increasing the dose and frequency of administration can improve this situation, but this often is limited by the development of dyskinesias (excessive and abnormal involuntary movements). Patients may fluctuate between being &quot;off,&quot; having no beneficial effects from their medications, and being &quot;on&quot; but with dyskinesias, a situation called the on/off phenomenon. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (5) <ul><li>2) Mental effects </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, delusions, hallucinations, euphoria </li></ul><ul><li>3) Dyskinesias (excessive and abnormal involuntary movements) as chorea and tremor </li></ul>
  17. 19. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (6) <ul><li>Peripheral: </li></ul><ul><li>Due to formation of dopamine peripherally </li></ul><ul><li>The most common peripheral side effects are anorexia, nausea, and vomiting (likely due to dopamine’s stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the medulla oblongata). </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular side effects in the form of orthostatic hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupt withdrawal of levodopa may precipitate the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (7) <ul><li>Drug Interactions: </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) enhance the extracerebral metabolism of levodopa and prevent its therapeutic effect unless a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor is also taken. </li></ul><ul><li>Levodopa should not be given to patients taking monoamine oxidase A inhibitors or within 2 weeks of their discontinuance, because such a combination can lead to hypertensive crises. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 1- Levodopa (7) <ul><li>Contraindications </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic patients </li></ul><ul><li>Angle-closure glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac disease </li></ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul>
  20. 22. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 2- Dopamine receptor agonists (1) <ul><li>Four orally administered dopamine-receptor agonists are available for treatment of PD: </li></ul><ul><li>Ergot derivatives: as bromocriptine or pergolide </li></ul><ul><li>Non ergot derivatives as ropinirole </li></ul>
  21. 23. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 2- Dopamine receptor agonists (2) <ul><li>Adverse effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Central: </li></ul><ul><li>Dyskinesias , mental Disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral: </li></ul><ul><li>A) Gastrointestinal Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia and nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>B) Cardiovascular effects: </li></ul><ul><li>postural hypotension </li></ul><ul><li>cardiac arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>peripheral vasospasm (with ergot derivatives) </li></ul>
  22. 24. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 2- Dopamine receptor agonists (3) <ul><li>Contraindications </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic patients </li></ul><ul><li>Angle-closure glaucoma </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac disease </li></ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral vascular disease (ergot derivatives). </li></ul>
  23. 25. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 3- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (1) <ul><li>Two types of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have been distinguished. Monoamine oxidase (A) metabolizes norepinephrine and serotonin; monoamine oxidase (B) metabolizes dopamine. </li></ul><ul><li>Selegiline: </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action: </li></ul><ul><li>Selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (retards the breakdown of dopamine). Given alone, it has a weak action. It is therefore used as adjunctive therapy for patients with a declining response to levodopa. </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects: </li></ul><ul><li>May cause insomnia when taken later during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug interactions: </li></ul><ul><li>It should not be taken by patients receiving tricyclic antidepressants, or serotonin reuptake inhibitors because of the risk of acute toxic interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>The adverse effects of levodopa may be increased by selegiline. </li></ul>
  24. 26. COMT inhibitors Periphery CNS (striatum) 3-O-Methyldopa L-DOPA Dopamine L-DOPA Dopamine DOPAC 3-Methoxy tyramine MAO-B COMT COMT AAD AAD carbidopa x tolcapone x tolcapone x selegiline x -
  25. 27. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 3- Catechol O methyl transferase inhibitors (1) <ul><li>Tolcapone </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit c atechol O methyl transferase (COMT) which is responsible for the conversion of dopa into methyl dopa. Elevated levels of methyldopa decreases the response to levodopa, because methyldopa competes with levodopa for an active carrier mechanism that governs its transport across the blood-brain barrier. </li></ul><ul><li>prolong the action of levodopa by diminishing its peripheral metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>These agents may be helpful in patients receiving levodopa to reduce dose and decrease fluctuations in response </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects are similar to levodopa </li></ul>
  26. 28. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 4- Amantadine (1) <ul><li>Amantadine, an antiviral agent. Its mode of action in parkinsonism is unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Use </li></ul><ul><li>Amantadine is less potent than levodopa and its effects disappear after only a few weeks of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Central nervous system effects </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral edema </li></ul><ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>Heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>postural hypotension </li></ul><ul><li>urinary retention </li></ul><ul><li>gastrointestinal disturbances (eg, anorexia, nausea, constipation, and dry mouth). </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindications </li></ul><ul><li>Amantadine should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures or heart failure. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Drugs used in the treatment of parkinsonism 5- Acetylcholine blocking drugs (1) <ul><li>Benztropine </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Use </li></ul><ul><li>Antimuscarinic drugs may improve the tremor and rigidity of parkinsonism but have little effect on bradykinesia. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Adverse Effects </li></ul><ul><li>1) Central nervous system effects, including drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, agitation, hallucinations, and mood changes. Dyskinesias occur in rare cases </li></ul><ul><li>2) Atropine – like actions: dryness of the mouth, blurring of vision, urinary retention, nausea and vomiting, constipation, tachycardia, palpitations, and cardiac arrhythmias. </li></ul><ul><li>withdrawal should be gradual in order to prevent acute exacerbation of parkinsonism. </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindications </li></ul><ul><li>Prostatic hyperplasia, </li></ul><ul><li>Obstructive gastrointestinal disease (eg, paralytic ileus) </li></ul><ul><li>Angle-closure glaucoma. </li></ul>
  29. 31. THANK YOU