pharmacy pharmacology drug anatomy and physiology biology dopamine acetylcholine blood coagulation medical science catecholamines 1. epithelial tissue 2. connective tissue 3. muscu vasodilation functions cytoplasm nucleus cytology digestive system zoology cellular pathology drug addiction plasma proteins binding of drug blood brain barri biological membrane pharmacological antagonism: competitive and non  ion channels receptor  g-protein coupled recept  ionic bond.  vander wal forces  hydrogen bond parenteral 1. inhalational 2. intravenous 3. intra paracetamol toxicology pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics catecholamine extrapyramidal symptoms carbidopa levodopa pilocarpine muscarinic physostigmine nicotinic insulin discovery metabolism distribution absorption elimination cone cells myocardial infarction blood pressure mao ssri tcas mood suicidal thoughts depression apathy guilt neurotransmitter serotonin noradrenaline bipolar affective disorders unipolar affective disorders cognition excitement mania cognitive emotional affective disorders organs system body parts physical form infrastructure microscopy cell organelles microscope human cells cell wall eukaryotic cell animal cells plasma membrane eukaryotic cells kingdom biosynthesis living organisms head injury opium antitussive codeine morphine opioids narcotic antagonists vasoconstriction alpha and beta receptors neurotransmitters adrenergic blockers sympatholytic drugs adrenaline and noradrenaline competitive antagonists and nora adrenaline fight-or-flight salbutamol amphetamine sympathetic division adrenergic receptors sympathomimetic in silico in vitro in vivo instrument msbte diploma pharmaceutical stomach esophagus mouth chyme food bolus atp energy lipids fats carbohydrate simple food complex food accessary plasma proteins bindin gastrointestinal alimentary canal digestion blood clotting haemostatics hematinics hemorrhage hemostasis dihydrofolic acid reductase combination chemotherapy haematuria synergistic sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim hypersensitivity reactions stevens-johnson syndrome antimicrobial protozoal infections sulfanilamide crystalluria cotrimoxazole bacteria purine dihydrofolate folic acid paba sulfonamides ductless gland pancreas adrenal gland growth hormone thyroid gland messenger endocrine gland hormone pituitary gland hypothalamus a. heparin and derivative substances thromboplastin fibrin herudin enoxaparin coumarin warfarin pulmonary emboli deep vein thrombosis embolism thrombosis heparin clotting skeletal and cardiac muscle. smooth a) simple squamous epithelium b) simple cuboidal e histology scope and opportunities of pharmacy hospital pharmacist etc. drugs controller you can take up job roles like - drugs inspector pharmacovigilance etc. as a pharma graduate medical marketing manufacturing research the demand for pharma graduates is high in sectors salmeterol allergic reaction anaphylaxis bronchial asthma and its management bronchospasm hypotension oedema increased capillary permeability itching histamine: flushing flare and wheal triple response of histamine flush ranitidine diphenhydramine h2 receptor antagonist cimetidine h1 receptor antagonist mepyramine allergic inflammatory reaction oedema and swelling blood vessels (vasodilation) bronchioles (bronchospasm) intestines ( increase git motility) and release of histamine location synthesis histamine location dna nucleic acids structure lysosomes cell membrane ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum golgi apparatus mitochondria cell organelle typical animal cell mice rat rabbit guinea pig rabbits therapeutic experimental animal species toxicity testing animals study of drugs nervous system respiratory system chemical level human body body cavities homeostasis organization tissue physiology anatomy cyclopentolate spasm of accomodation miosis miotics drugs acting on eye cycloplegia photophobia mydriasis mydriatics muscarinic antagonists. scopolamine anticholinergics parasympatholytics atropine antispasmodics carbachol bethanecol impulse indirectly acting directly acting drugs acting on parasympathetic system organophospharus cholinesterase cholinergic dependence drug habituation fentanyl/ droperidol ketamine sevoflurane methoxyflurane desflurane enflurane isoflurane loss of consciousness respiratory paralysis intercostal muscle surgical anesthesia excitement stages body reflexes surgery amnesia analgesia anesthesiologist unconsciousness general anesthesia nsaids aspirin inflammatory mediators prostaglandins anti inflammatory antipyretics analgesic sleep apnoea hyposomnia parasomnia alprazolam diazepam phenobarbital barbiturates benzodiazepines dreams nrem sleep rem sleep hypnosis anxiety insomnia drowsiness sedation glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption tubul biotransformation bioavailability bioequivalence first pass metabolism • physical state of drug • particle size of drug • passive diffusion facilitated diffusion active tr weakly acidic drugs weakly basic drugs • ph of gi fluid and the blood • presence of food factors affecting drug absorption endocytosis disintegration deaggregation dissolution movement excretion receptors protein potency ability efficacy int drug antagonism stimulation depression irritation replacement chem receptors potency affinity efficacy agonist anta drug receptor interaction principles of drug action mechanisms of action enzymes and ion channels therapeutic index specific target proteins like receptors biochemical and physiological effects of drugs etc. drug dependence drug tolerance drug combination drug cumulation time of drug administration route of drug administration etc. • drug related factors: physical state of a d psychological state pathological state environmental state genetic variation drug allergy presence of food body weight gender • patient related factors: age introduction clinical pharmacology routes of drug administration local parenteral enteral rectal sublingual oral united state adopted names (usan) council trade name proprietary name generic name common name clinical pharmacology chemical name brand name 1. plant sources 2. animal sources 3. mineral/ ear development pharmacoepidemiology nursing dentistry pharmacogenetics pharmacoeconomics pharmacogenomics pharmacovigilance therapeutics physiological effects dose hypertensive crisis monoamine oxidase tyrosine products milk dairy tyramine antibiotics broad spectrum probiotics diarhoea ampicillin pediatric malnutrition acidophilus lactobacillus tremors dyskinesia akinesia parkinsonian parkinson’s neuromuscular junction anticholinesterase organophospharos myasthenia gravis parasympathetic neurotransmission air sacs (alveoli) carbon dioxide oxygen exchange inhalation and exhalation intercostal muscles lungs breathing respiration hyperglycemia diabetes resistance fda approval nda ind preclinical clinical trials optimization lead molecule the movement of drug active transport passive diffusion bioavailability plasma protein binding lymphocyte drain lymph node spleen lymph girdle thorax appendicular axial bones osteology implantation fertilization renal system life organelle auditory ossciles tear cataract bipolar neuron phroreceptors iris pupil cornea eye ball choroid sclera rod cell retina vision olfaction and nose skin ears eyes mechanism of breathing physiology of breathing pleural cavity bronchial asthma residual volume bronchial tree tidal volume exhalation bronchi and lungs. trachea larynx pharynx nose artery circulatory system angina pectoris atherosclerosis hypertension heart attack ecg stroke volume pulse rate heart rate cardiac output myocardial contraction cardiac cycle portal circulation systemic circulation valves heart cardiovascular hemoglobin rh factor blood groups polycythemia anemia plasma leukocytes white blood cells phagocytosis platelets red blood cells blood components
Mehr anzeigen