Definition Of Measurement , Assessment and
Measurement Process Involves Four Steps
Considerations When Taking Measurements
Objective of Measurements
Steps Involved In Making An Evaluation
The Purposes Of Evaluation
Types Of Evaluation
Definition Of Norms And Its Types
Reliability And Validity
According to Norman E Ground
“Measurement is the process of
obtaining a numarical description of the
degree to which an individual possesses a
According to Ebel & Frisbie (1991):
“Measurement is the process of
assigning numbers to individuals or their
characteristics according to specified rules.”
According to Murry Print (1993):
“Assessment involves the
interpretation of measurement data .It
makes sense of the data collected on
According to Dictionary of
“Assessment is the process
whereby one attempts to measure the
quality and quantity of learning and
teaching using various assessment
“A systematic process of
determining what the actual
outcomes are but it also involves
judgment of desirability of whatever
outcomes are demonstrated.”
“ The process of delineating,
obtaining and providing useful
information for judging decision
alternatives” (Stufflebeam et al
What is Test?
“Test is an instrument or
activity and systematic
procedure for measuring a
sample of behavior.”
(How well does the
1. Define the characteristics that you want to
2. Select the appropriate test. This may also mean
to select the appropriate testing instrument.
3. Administer the test. If an instrument is involved
in the testing, this also means to use the
4. Collect and record the measurement from the
Involves Four Steps
1.Remember that you are measuring a
characteristic of the person—you are not
measuring the person themselves; thus, make no
judgments about the person.
2.Make no comical remarks regarding the
3.Have a high ethical standards when collecting
Types of Measurements
An objective measurement is one that cannot be
interpreted differently because of numerical
A subjective measurement is one that can
possibly be interpreted differently.
The Purposes of Evaluation
According to Oguniyi (1984)
To determine the relative effectiveness of the programme
in terms of students’ behavioural output;
To make reliable decisions about educational planning;
To identify studaents’ growth or lack of growth in acquiring
desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes and societal values;
To help teachers determine the effectiveness of their
teaching techniques and learning materials;
To help motivate students
To identify problems
To predict the general trend in the development of the
Types Of Evalaution
Steps Involved in Making an
Define the objective or the purpose of the test.
Measure the performance or administer the test.
Find or develop a standard.
Compare a person’s performance on the test to a
Make the evaluation then discuss and distribute
the results in the most appropriate manner.
Advantages of Formative Evaluation
Formative evaluation enables the teacher to:
Draw more reliable inference about his students than an
external assessor, although he may not be as objective as
Identify the levels of cognitive process of his students;
Choose the most suitable teaching techniques and
Determine the feasibility of a programme within the
Determine areas needing modifications or improvement in
the teaching-learning process; and
Determine to a great extent the outcome of summative
evaluation. (ogunniyi, 1984)
1. Its existence (learners will need to be aware of it from the
start) provides motivation and helps create an appropriate
2. Positive results give the trainees a boost in confidence
and can act as a springboard into subsequent behaviour
change back in the workplace.
3. Trainers can identify those areas where results are
consistently lower and can then consider alternative delivery
methods – helping to develop the training for future events.
4. The results provide a measurable way of determining the
success of the training programme, directly comparable from
one intake to the next.
Advantages of Summative
F o r m a t i v e < - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > s u m m a t i v e
I n f o r m a l < - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > f o r m a l
C o n t i n u o u s < - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > f i n a l
P r o c e s s < - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > p r o d u c t
Formative vs Summative
Norms refers to information regarding the group
performance of a particular reference on a
particular measure for which a person can be
Norms mean standardized score. Scores on
psychological test are most commonly interpreted
by reference to norm that represents the test
performance on standardization sample. Norms
always represent the best performance.
Basically there are two purposes of norms:
1. Norms indicate the individual’s relative
standing in the normative sample and thus
permit evaluation of his/her performance in
refer to other persons.
2. Norms provide compared measures that
permitted a direct comparison of the
individual performance on difference test.
Purpose of Norms
Types of Norms
1. Local norm: norms based on a relatively
small group of subjects. Ex: pull-up norms
for 7th grade boys at one school.
2. State norms: norms that are representative
of all similar subjects in the state. Ex: fitness
norms for 7th grade boys.
3. National norms: norms that are
representative of all similar subjects in the
united states. Ex: fitness norms for 7th grade
Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool
produces stable and consistent results.
Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is
purported to measure.
Reliability and Validity
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