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  2. Scheme of today’s Lecture  Definitions of Syntax  Generative Grammar  Deep and Surface Structure  Syntactic Structure (Morpheme, Word, Phrases, Clauses and Sentence)  Structural ambiguity
  3. Definitions of Syntax  The word ‘Syntax’ comes originally from the Greek which literally means ‘a putting to gather or arrangement’.  In earlier approaches, there was an attempt to produce an accurate description of the sequence or ordering ‘arrangement’ of elements in the linear structure of sentence.  SUBJECT+ VERB+ OBJECT
  4. SYNTAX  In more recent attempts, to analyze structure, there has been a greater focus on the underlying rule system that we use to produce or generate sentence.  George Yule,  (The Study of Language, 6th Edition)  Syntax deals with the tools available in languages for putting words together in sequences and make sentences. Thus, we could say Syntax is the study of
  5. Syntax  Sentence is opposite to morpheme being the smallest grammatical unit.  American linguist Leonard Bloomfield (1887—1949) defines sentence as ‘  a string of words that express a complete thought and not included in any larger linguistic form’
  6. Syntactic Rules or Generative Grammar  Syntactic rules combine words into phrases and phrases into sentences.  The set of rules a well formed structure is sometimes described as Generative grammar.  English is a Subject +Verb + Object (SVO) Language.  For Example: The Fisherman hung the net on the fence.  The hung fisherman fence on the (ungrammatical)
  7. Deep and Surface Structure  The terms deep structure and surface structure were introduced by Noam Chomsky as a part of his work on transformational grammar.  Deep structure is concerned with meaning.  Surface Structure is concerned with grammar.  a. Ali broke the window.  b. The window was broken by Charlie.
  8. Deep and Surface Structure  Deep structure refers to concepts, thoughts, ideas & feelings.  Whereas surface structure refers to the words / language we use to represent the deep structure.  Have you ever experienced a situation where you felt words were not enough to express what you had in mind?  Deep structure is what you wish to express.  Surface structure how you express it in with the help of words and sentences.
  9. Deep and Surface Structure  Deep structure is the abstract structure which allows to know what the sentence means.  Surface structure is actually produced structure. It refers to the sentence as it produced or written.  It may then be said that the deep structure express the semantic contents of a sentence.  Whereas the surface structure of determines its phonetic form.  Some linguists, particularly Noam Chomsky , state that drive from a common deep surface structure (meaning)
  10. Syntactic Analysis  Syntactic units are grammatical items. Words, morphemes, phrases, clauses and sentences are grammatical units in a language.  Morphemes Words Phrases Clauses Sentences  This is the order from the smallest structure to the longest structure in a language.
  11. Morpheme  It is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.  For Example  Unkindness = Un+ Kind + ness Word Three Morphemes Un = not Kind = soft hearted ness = added to adjectives to form nouns that refer to a quality or a condition
  12. Words & Phrases Word: It is the combination letters.  a. A phrase is group of words which cannot convey a complete thought.  b. It does not contain a Subject and Predicate Combination.  For Example:  Ali teaches (not a phrase)  My Cousin Ali eats cakes daily (phrase)
  13. Kinds of phrases 1. Noun Phrase: Acts like a Noun in a sentence 2. Noun+ other associated words which modifies Noun or Pronoun. For Example: A woman in the window shouted for help Noun + Phrase She bought a decent black shirt
  14. Phrasal Verb  It is consist of an action verb plus an adverb or preposition or both an adverb and a preposition.  For Example:  Please sit down  Come back and see us sometime.  She blew out the candles of her birthday cake.  The horse suddenly broke into a gallop
  15. Clause  A clause is a group of words .  It contains a Subject and Predicate combination  It conveyed a complete thought by itself.  For Example:  Aafan graduated last year  Subject + Predicate
  16. Kinds of Clauses  Two kinds of a clause.  1. Independent 2. Dependent Clause  Independent Clause: without or with coordinating conjunctions  FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but , or ,yet , so).  It could stand itself.  Does not need any other clause for its existence.  i.e. You may sit.  I Believe yet.
  17. Dependent Clause  With subordination conjunction and other connectors (if, when, because etc)  It could not stand itself . It depends upon independent clause  It doesn’t give complete thought.  i.e. You may sit whenever you may like  Independent + Dependent Clause
  18. Sentence  It is combination of clauses together.  There are four types of sentences  1. Simple Sentence ( one independent clause) i.e. I bought a new home.  2. Compound Sentence (two or more independent Clause)  i.e. I helped him and he got happy  Independent + Independent Clause  3. Complex Sentence (one indep, clause +at least one dependent clause)  i.e. He is wearing a shirt which is awesome  Independent Clause + Dependent Clause
  19. Sentence  4. Compound Complex Sentence  (one independent clause and at least one dependent clause)  i.e.  Although he was sick, he scored well in examinations  Dependent clause + Independent Clause
  20. Structural Ambiguity  A single stretch of speech or writing can have two or more than two distinct meanings.  For Example:  The ambassador is one who lies abroad for the good of his country.  1. The ambassador is one who serves his country by living his life out of his motherland.  2. The ambassador is one who tell lies to other countries for the benefit of his own motherland.