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GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING
COLLEGE BHAVNAGAR
 Subject : Mechanical Measurement & Metrology
 Topic : Types of Errors
 Branch : 4th Mechanical
 Prepared By :
 Amit ...
 Types of Errors :
(1) Gross Error
(2) Systematic Error
(3) Instrument Error
(4) Environmental Error
(5) Observation Erro...
GROSS ERROR :
 These errors occur due to human mistakes such
as careless reading, mistake in recording
observation, incor...
SYSTEMATIC ERROR :
 These error include calibration errors, error due to
variation in the atmospheric condition, variatio...
INSTRUMENT ERROR :
 These errors are due to design and construction of
instruments that limits the accuracy of
measuremen...
ENVIRONMENTAL ERROR :
 An environmental error is an error in calculations
that are being a part of observations due to
en...
OBSERVATION ERROR :
 When human factors involved in measurement, the
capabilities of individual observers effects the
acc...
ALIGNMENT ERROR :
 This error based on Abbes principle of alignment
which states that the line of measurement of the
meas...
ELASTIC DEFORMATION :
 Long bars due to improve support or due to self
weight may undergo deflection or may bend.
 As sh...
DIRT ERROR :
 Sometimes, dirt particles can enter in the
inspection room through the door and the windows.
 These partic...
CONTACT ERROR :
 The ring as shown in fig whose thickness is to be
measured.
 If the jaws of the instrument are placed a...
PARALLAX ERROR :
 Parallax is a displacement or difference in
the apparent position of an object viewed along two
differe...
RANDOM ERROR :
 These errors are caused due to variation on
position of setting standard and work piece.
 Due to Displac...
Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)
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Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)

Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM) Engineering
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Types of Error in Mechanical Measurement & Metrology (MMM)

  1. 1. GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE BHAVNAGAR
  2. 2.  Subject : Mechanical Measurement & Metrology  Topic : Types of Errors  Branch : 4th Mechanical  Prepared By :  Amit H. Makwana ( 140210119064 )  Dharmesh D. Baraiya ( 140210119005 )
  3. 3.  Types of Errors : (1) Gross Error (2) Systematic Error (3) Instrument Error (4) Environmental Error (5) Observation Error (6) Alignment Error (7) Elastic Deformation (8) Dirt Error (9) Contact Error (10) Parallax Error (11) Random Error
  4. 4. GROSS ERROR :  These errors occur due to human mistakes such as careless reading, mistake in recording observation, incorrect applications of a correction, improper application of instruments.  These errors can not be treated mathematically.  They can be avoided only by taking care in reading and recording the measurement data.
  5. 5. SYSTEMATIC ERROR :  These error include calibration errors, error due to variation in the atmospheric condition, variation in contact pressure etc.  If properly analysed, these errors can be determined and reduced hence also called controllable errors.  These errors results from irregular procedure that are consistent in action.
  6. 6. INSTRUMENT ERROR :  These errors are due to design and construction of instruments that limits the accuracy of measurements.  Example : Improper selection of instruments, poor maintenance, loading effects, etc.  Can be avoided by : Selecting suitable instruments, applying correction factors, etc.
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL ERROR :  An environmental error is an error in calculations that are being a part of observations due to environment.  Any experiment performing anywhere in the universe has its surroundings, from which we cannot eliminate our system.  The environmental errors have different causes, which are widening with the passage of time, as the research works telling us, including; temprature, humidity, magnetic field, constantly vibrating earth surface, wind and improper lightening.
  8. 8. OBSERVATION ERROR :  When human factors involved in measurement, the capabilities of individual observers effects the accuracy of measurement.  The observation errors occur due to poor capabilities and carelessness of operators.  Example : Wrong reading, wrong calculations, wrong conversion, wrong recording data, etc.  These errors eliminates by using modern instrument having digital display.
  9. 9. ALIGNMENT ERROR :  This error based on Abbes principle of alignment which states that the line of measurement of the measuring component should coincide with the measuring scale or axis of the measuring instrument.  Cosine errors will be developed generally while measurement of a given job is carried out using dial gauge or steel rule.
  10. 10. ELASTIC DEFORMATION :  Long bars due to improve support or due to self weight may undergo deflection or may bend.  As shown in fig due to less or high distance between the support, A long bar tends to deform.
  11. 11. DIRT ERROR :  Sometimes, dirt particles can enter in the inspection room through the door and the windows.  These particles can create small dirt errors at the time of measurement.  These errors can be reduced by making dust proof laboratories.
  12. 12. CONTACT ERROR :  The ring as shown in fig whose thickness is to be measured.  If the jaws of the instrument are placed as shown in fig, the error developed, which is because of poor contact only.
  13. 13. PARALLAX ERROR :  Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
  14. 14. RANDOM ERROR :  These errors are caused due to variation on position of setting standard and work piece.  Due to Displacement of level joints of instrument, due to backlash and friction, these error are induced.  Random errors in experimental measurements are caused by unknown and unpredictable changes in the experiment. These changes may occur in the measuring instruments or in the environmental conditions.

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