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• A variety of neoplasms may arise in the ventricular system.
• According to the lesion size and location, patients may be...
• Many of these lesions have similar patterns of signal
intensity and contrast enhancement at imaging.
The location of the...
• Lesion totally confined within the ventricle with
• Dilated ipsilateral ventricle
• Absence of brain edema
• Take the co...
• Ependymomas account for 3%–5% of
intracranial neoplasms.
• They are generally well circumscribed
glial tumors with epend...
•Ependymomas can occur in any age
group but are more common in
younger patients.
•Occur in the posterior fossa are
more co...
• Ependymomas are the third most
common brain neoplasm in children,
behind medulloblastoma (primitive
neuroectodermal tumo...
•Intraventricular ependymomas
are associated with a small risk of
spread throughout the CSF.
Therefore, imaging of the ent...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Soft "plastic" tumor squeezes out through 4th ventricle foramina into cisterns
○ Heterogeneous de...
• Medulloblastomas are the most common
malignant brain tumor of childhood.
• They most commonly present as midline
masses ...
• Moderate male predilection with a M:F ratio of
2:1
• Usually present in childhood with 77% of cases
before the age of 19...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Most common: Round, dense 4th ventricle mass
CT MRI
• NECT
○ Solid mass in 4th ventricle
– 90% hy...
Ependymoma Medulloblastoma
• Extrudes through 4th ventricle foramina
/foramen magnum
• Heterogeneous (Ca++, hemorrhage mor...
• Subependymomas account for 0.2%–0.7% of
intracranial neoplasms.
• Most of these lesions occur in the fourth
ventricle (5...
• Male predominance (male-to-female ratio, 2.3:1)
• 82% occur in patients older than 15 years.
• Most patients (60%) are a...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ T2-hyperintense, lobular, nonenhancing, intraventricular mass
CT MRI
• NECT
○ Iso- to hypodense
i...
• The term central neurocytoma is reserved for
neurocytomas that occur in the ventricular
system
• Central neurocytomas ac...
• The mean patient age is 29 years, but a wide
age range is reported, from 8 days to 67
years; there is no gender predilec...
• Best diagnostic clue
"Bubbly" mass in frontal horn or body of lateral ventricle
CT MRI
NECT
○ Usually mixed solid and
cy...
•SGCT is the most common cerebral
neoplasm in patients with tuberous
sclerosis (TS).
•Developing in up to 16% of cases
•Pr...
• SGCT is considered pathognomonic for
TS, but there have been rare reports of
SGCT in patients without manifestations
of ...
• There is a wide age range for presentation,
from birth to the 5th decade (mean age, 11
years).
• These lesions arise nea...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Enlarging, enhancing foramen of Monro mass in patient with TSC
CT MRI
NECT
○ Hypo- to isodense;
h...
• Are an uncommon, benign neuroepithelial
intraventricular tumour which can occur
mainly in paediatric age group.
• The tu...
• Significant hydrocephalus is very
common - it is seen in over 80% of
cases.
• Although the exact mechanism
remains uncer...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Child with strongly enhancing lobulated (cauliflower-like) intraventricular mass
CT MRI
NECT
○ In...
• Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a
malignant neoplasm arising from the
choroid plexus.
• Choroid plexus carcinomas occu...
• As is the case with choroid plexus
papillomas, presentation usually is as a
result of hydrocephalus.
• Symptoms include ...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Child (< 5 years) with enhancing intraventricular mass and ependymal
invasion
○ Differentiation f...
Rare cases of CPC in adults have been reported;
however, whenever this potential diagnosis is
raised in an adult patient, ...
• Intraventricular meningiomas account for
0.5%– 3.7% of intracranial meningiomas
• The most common location for
intravent...
• Like meningiomas elsewhere, they are most
common in females (female-to-male ratio, 2:1)
with a peak age range of 30–60 y...
• These neoplasms usually reach a large size
before patients become symptomatic;
• Patients typically present with signs o...
CT MRI
NECT
CT reveals a well-defined, iso- to
hyperattenuating globular mass, ±
calcification
CECT
○ Heterogeneous, stron...
• Chordoid glioma is a WHO grade II, slow-growing glial neoplasm
involves the region of the anterior third ventricle and t...
• Given the location, patients typically present with hypothalamic
dysfunction, homonymous hemianopsia, or increased intra...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Well-delineated, homogeneously enhancing anterior 3rd ventricular
mass
MR Findings
• T1WI
○ 3rd v...
• RGNT is a recently described WHO grade I, rare primary brain tumor.
• It was included as a distinct glioneuronal neoplas...
• RGNTs typically occur in young adults (mean age, 31.5 years),
demonstrate indolent behavior,
• Do not tend to recur afte...
• Patients usually present with signs of increased intracranial pressure
or ataxia
• There is a female predominance (femal...
• Best diagnostic clue
○ Midline cerebellar mass with solid-cystic appearance without
edema in young/middle-aged adult
CT ...
• Intraventricular metastases account for
0.9%– 4.6% of cerebral metastases.
• In adults, renal, colon, and lung carcinoma...
• Intraventricular metastases are most
common in the lateral ventricles but
may also occur in the third ventricle and
very...
• Best diagnostic clue:
○ "Unusual" mass in patient with known
systemic primary neoplasm
• Avid enhancement is usually see...
Known case of RCC
Choroid plexus metastasis
Known case of lung CA
Intraventricular metastasis
Known case of lung CA
Intraventricular metastasis
• MRI shows a large, heterogeneously enhancing mass with lobulated margins, centered within the
atrium of the right latera...
• Differential Diagnosis
▶ Choroid plexus papilloma/ Choroid Plexus Carcinoma (CPC)
▶ Atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor
▶ E...
Diagnosis
•Choroid Plexus Carcinoma (CPC)
• Imaging cannot differentiate between CPC and papilloma, but
extraventricular i...
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS
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IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS

  1. 1. • A variety of neoplasms may arise in the ventricular system. • According to the lesion size and location, patients may be asymptomatic with the mass found as an incidental finding at cross sectional imaging • May present with headaches signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, or a focal neurologic deficit. • In addition, neoplasms involving the fourth ventricle may result in ataxia or paresis.
  2. 2. • Many of these lesions have similar patterns of signal intensity and contrast enhancement at imaging. The location of the lesion in the ventricular system along with knowledge of the patient’s age, gender, and underlying conditions will help narrow the differential diagnosis
  3. 3. • Lesion totally confined within the ventricle with • Dilated ipsilateral ventricle • Absence of brain edema • Take the configuration of the ventricle
  4. 4. • Ependymomas account for 3%–5% of intracranial neoplasms. • They are generally well circumscribed glial tumors with ependymal differentiation that arise from the ependymal cells of the ventricular wall. • These lesions can occur either supratentorially (40% of cases) or within the posterior fossa (60%)
  5. 5. •Ependymomas can occur in any age group but are more common in younger patients. •Occur in the posterior fossa are more common in children (mean age, 6 years), whereas the mean age for supratentorial lesions is 18– 24 years
  6. 6. • Ependymomas are the third most common brain neoplasm in children, behind medulloblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor) and astrocytic tumors. • Presenting symptoms depend on the location: Those that occur in the fourth ventricle typically manifest with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure due to obstruction, ataxia, or paresis
  7. 7. •Intraventricular ependymomas are associated with a small risk of spread throughout the CSF. Therefore, imaging of the entire neuroaxis should be performed to assess for CSF dissemination
  8. 8. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Soft "plastic" tumor squeezes out through 4th ventricle foramina into cisterns ○ Heterogeneous density, signal intensity ○ ± indistinct interface with floor of 4th ventricle CT MRI • NECT ○ 4th ventricle mass ○ Ca++ common (50%); ± cysts, hemorrhage ○ Hydrocephalus common • CECT ○ Variable heterogeneous enhancement T1WI ○ Heterogeneous, usually iso- to hypointense ○ Cystic foci slightly hyperintense to CSF ○ Hyperintense foci (Ca++, blood products) common • T2WI ○ Heterogeneous, usually iso- to hyperintense ○ Hyperintense cystic foci • FLAIR ○ Can show sharp interface between tumor, CSF • DWI ○ No restriction (relatively low cellularity) • T1WI C+ ○ Enhancement – Varies from none to mild/moderate
  9. 9. • Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. • They most commonly present as midline masses in the roof of the 4th ventricle with associated mass effect and hydrocephalus. • Account for 12-25 % of all pediatric CNS tumors, and 30-40% of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. • They are also seen in adults, but only account for 0.4-1.0% of adult brain tumors
  10. 10. • Moderate male predilection with a M:F ratio of 2:1 • Usually present in childhood with 77% of cases before the age of 19. The median age of diagnosis is 9 years. • Growth of these very cellular tumours is often rapid and accounts for their relatively rapid clinical manifestation. • Typically, presentation occurs over a few weeks with features that are dominated by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure as a result of obstructive hydrocephalus. • In approximately 40% of patients there is evidence of CSF seeding at the time of diagnosis
  11. 11. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Most common: Round, dense 4th ventricle mass CT MRI • NECT ○ Solid mass in 4th ventricle – 90% hyperdense – Ca++ (up to 20%), hemorrhage rare – Small intratumoral cysts/necrosis in 40-50% ○ Hydrocephalus common (95%) • CECT ○ > 90% enhance – Relatively homogeneous – Occasionally patchy (may fill in slowly) T1WI ○ Hypointense to gray matter (GM) • T2WI ○ Near GM intensity, or slightly hyperintense to GM • FLAIR ○ Hyperintense to brain ○ Good differentiation of tumor from CSF in 4th ventricle • DWI ○ Restricted diffusion, low ADC • T1WI C+ > 90% enhance ○ Often heterogeneous
  12. 12. Ependymoma Medulloblastoma • Extrudes through 4th ventricle foramina /foramen magnum • Heterogeneous (Ca++, hemorrhage more common) • Higher ADC values (less cellular) • Hyperdense on NECT • Homogeneous mass • Arises from roof of 4th ventricle • More distinct interface with floor • Low ADC, high cellularity Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Differentiation of Cerebellar Tumors in Children 1.Z. Rumboldta, D.L.A. Camachoc, D. Lakea, C.T. Welshb and M. Castilloc
  13. 13. • Subependymomas account for 0.2%–0.7% of intracranial neoplasms. • Most of these lesions occur in the fourth ventricle (50%–60%) and lateral ventricles (30%–40%). • Rarely, they may arise from other intraventricular sites or within the central canal of the spinal cord
  14. 14. • Male predominance (male-to-female ratio, 2.3:1) • 82% occur in patients older than 15 years. • Most patients (60%) are asymptomatic; in those who are symptomatic, the symptoms are most commonly related to hydrocephalus. • The majority are less than 2 cm in size, but symptomatic lesions tend to be 4 cm or greater in size • The classic scenariois a middle-aged man with an incidental finding of an intraventricular neoplasm at imaging.
  15. 15. • Best diagnostic clue ○ T2-hyperintense, lobular, nonenhancing, intraventricular mass CT MRI • NECT ○ Iso- to hypodense intraventricular mass ○ Cysts or Ca++ may be seen in larger lesions ○ Rarely hemorrhage • CECT ○ No or mild enhancement typical T1WI ○ Intraventricular mass, hypo- or isointense to white matter ○ Typically homogeneous solid mass • T2WI ○ Hyperintense intraventricular mass ○ Heterogeneity related to cystic changes; blood products or Ca++ may be seen in larger lesions ○ No edema seen in adjacent brain parenchyma • FLAIR ○ Hyperintense intraventricular mass • T1WI C+ ○ Variable enhancement, typically none to mild
  16. 16. • The term central neurocytoma is reserved for neurocytomas that occur in the ventricular system • Central neurocytomas account for 0.25%–0.5% of intracranial tumors • Central neurocytomas occur in the lateral ventricle with or without extension into the third ventricle and arise from the septum pellucidum or ventricular wall
  17. 17. • The mean patient age is 29 years, but a wide age range is reported, from 8 days to 67 years; there is no gender predilection. • Patients typically present with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure.
  18. 18. • Best diagnostic clue "Bubbly" mass in frontal horn or body of lateral ventricle CT MRI NECT ○ Usually mixed solid and cystic (iso-/hyperdense) ○ Ca++ common (50-70%) ○ Hydrocephalus common ○ Rarely complicated by hemorrhage • CECT ○ Moderate heterogeneous enhancement T1WI ○ Heterogeneous, mostly isointense to gray matter ○ Cysts are hypointense ○ Prominent flow voids may be seen ○ Hemorrhage is rare • T2WI ○ Heterogeneous, hyperintense bubbly appearance ○ Associated hydrocephalus is common ○ Ca++ often hypointense ○ Prominent flow voids may be seen • FLAIR ○ Heterogeneous, predominantly hyperintense mass • T1WI C+ Moderate to strong heterogeneous enhancement
  19. 19. •SGCT is the most common cerebral neoplasm in patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS). •Developing in up to 16% of cases •Previously been referred to as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
  20. 20. • SGCT is considered pathognomonic for TS, but there have been rare reports of SGCT in patients without manifestations of TS
  21. 21. • There is a wide age range for presentation, from birth to the 5th decade (mean age, 11 years). • These lesions arise near the foramen of Monro, and it has been proposed that SGCTs arise from a subependymal nodule. • They are slow-growing lesions, and due to their location they commonly manifest with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure from obstructive hydrocephalus
  22. 22. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Enlarging, enhancing foramen of Monro mass in patient with TSC CT MRI NECT ○ Hypo- to isodense; heterogeneous ○ Ca++ variable ○ Hydrocephalus • CECT ○ Heterogeneous, strong enhancement ○ Presence of interval growth suggests SGCA ○ Initially tumor is typically > 1 cm T1WI ○ Hypointense to isointense to gray matter (GM) ○ ± Ca++ (hyperintense to hypointense) • T2WI ○ Heterogeneous – Isointense to hyperintense ○ Ca++ foci hypointense ○ Hydrocephalus FLAIR ○ Heterogeneously hyperintense ○ Periventricular interstitial edema from ventricular obstruction • DWI ○ Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values are less than parenchymal hamartomas of TS • T1WI C+ ○ Robust enhancement ○ Enlarging, enhancing foramen of Monro mass > 1.2 cm suggests SGCA
  23. 23. • Are an uncommon, benign neuroepithelial intraventricular tumour which can occur mainly in paediatric age group. • The tumours account for approximately 1% of all brain tumours, 2-6% of all paediatric brain tumours and 0.5% of the adult brain tumours. • Approximately 85% of all choroid plexus papillomas occur in children under the age of 5 years
  24. 24. • Significant hydrocephalus is very common - it is seen in over 80% of cases. • Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, it is believed to be due to a combination of CSF overproduction and decreased arachnoid granulation resorption.
  25. 25. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Child with strongly enhancing lobulated (cauliflower-like) intraventricular mass CT MRI NECT ○ Intraventricular lobular mass ○ 75% iso- or hyperattenuating ○ Ca++ in 25% ○ Hydrocephalus – Overproduction of CSF → obstruction • CECT ○ Intense, homogeneous enhancement – Heterogeneous enhancement suggests choroid plexus carcinoma ○ No or minimal parenchymal invasion • T1WI ○ Well-delineated iso- to hypointense lobular mass • T2WI ○ Iso- to hyperintense mass ○ ± internal linear and branching vascular flow voids – Extensive invasion suggests CPCa ○ Hydrocephalus common • FLAIR ○ Bright periventricular signal – Periventricular interstitial edema due to ventricular obstruction common – Asymmetric ipsilateral T2 hyperintensity may suggest invasion and CPCa • T1WI C+ ○ Robust homogeneous enhancement ○ Occasional cysts and small foci of necrosis ○ Look for CSF dissemination
  26. 26. • Choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is a malignant neoplasm arising from the choroid plexus. • Choroid plexus carcinomas occurs predominantly in children, typically in the first 5 years of life, representing only 1-4%
  27. 27. • As is the case with choroid plexus papillomas, presentation usually is as a result of hydrocephalus. • Symptoms include increasing head circumference and headaches. • Papilloedema may be visible on fundoscopy. • In addition, choroid plexus carcinomas have a tendency to invade adjacent brain and thus may present with focal neurological dysfunction
  28. 28. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Child (< 5 years) with enhancing intraventricular mass and ependymal invasion ○ Differentiation from choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is histologic, not radiologic CT MRI NECT ○ Iso- to hyperattenuating mass with irregular contours ○ Necrosis, cysts, and hemorrhage common ○ Hydrocephalus common ○ Calcification (Ca++) in 20-25% • CECT ○ Heterogeneous, strong enhancement ○ Peritumoral edema ○ ± CSF tumor seeding T1WI ○ Iso- to hypointense intraventricular mass ○ Lobulated or irregularly marginated, papillary appearance ○ Heterogeneous (necrosis, cysts, hemorrhage) • T2WI ○ Mixed signal mass, hypo-/iso-/hyperintense ○ Heterogeneous related to necrosis, cysts, hemorrhage, Ca++ ○ ± prominent flow voids ○ Many invade brain and cause edema • FLAIR ○ Heterogeneous intraventricular mass ○ Periventricular white matter edema suggests invasion ○ Transependymal CSF flow from hydrocephalus • DWI ○ Low ADC values in solid portions of tumor • T1WI C+ ○ Heterogeneous enhancement, ± CSF seeding Best diagnostic clue ○ Child (< 5 years) with enhancing intraventricular mass and ependymal invasion ○ Differentiation from choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) is histologic, not radiologic
  29. 29. Rare cases of CPC in adults have been reported; however, whenever this potential diagnosis is raised in an adult patient, it is imperative that metastatic carcinoma to the choroid plexus be ruled out, as these two entities may appear similar at histologic analysis and metastasis is far more common. Intraventricular Neoplasms: Radiologic Pathologic Correlation, 2013 • radiographics
  30. 30. • Intraventricular meningiomas account for 0.5%– 3.7% of intracranial meningiomas • The most common location for intraventricular meningiomas is in the atrium of the lateral ventricles. • Less commonly, they may arise in the third ventricle and rarely in the fourth ventricle
  31. 31. • Like meningiomas elsewhere, they are most common in females (female-to-male ratio, 2:1) with a peak age range of 30–60 years. • Meningiomas can also rarely affect the pediatric age group, accounting for less than 3% of intracranial neoplasms in this population. • However, the intraventricular form accounts for 17% of pediatric meningiomas. • No gender predilection is seen in the pediatric age group,
  32. 32. • These neoplasms usually reach a large size before patients become symptomatic; • Patients typically present with signs of increased intracranial pressure but may also present with contralateral sensory or motor deficits
  33. 33. CT MRI NECT CT reveals a well-defined, iso- to hyperattenuating globular mass, ± calcification CECT ○ Heterogeneous, strong enhancement • MR imaging demonstrates a mass that is iso- to hypointense on T1-weighted images and iso- to hyperintense on T2- weighted images, and avid enhancement is seen on contrast- enhanced images. • Local or diffuse ventricular dilatation may be present, depending on the degree of obstruction of CSF flow. • Periventricular edema may be seen. • Reduced diffusion may be seen in some meningiomas, possibly reflecting high cellular density in approximately 50% of cases
  34. 34. • Chordoid glioma is a WHO grade II, slow-growing glial neoplasm involves the region of the anterior third ventricle and the hypothalamus. • These are rare lesions and therefore demographic information is limited • Female predominance (female-to-male ratio, 2:1 to 3:1) and a mean age of 46 years are reported
  35. 35. • Given the location, patients typically present with hypothalamic dysfunction, homonymous hemianopsia, or increased intracranial pressure
  36. 36. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Well-delineated, homogeneously enhancing anterior 3rd ventricular mass MR Findings • T1WI ○ 3rd ventricular mass isointense to brain ○ Hydrocephalus in 10-15% of cases • T2WI ○ Iso-/hyperintense 3rd ventricular mass • T1WI C+ ○ Strong uniform enhancement
  37. 37. • RGNT is a recently described WHO grade I, rare primary brain tumor. • It was included as a distinct glioneuronal neoplasm in the 2007 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system. • These neoplasms demonstrate glial and neuronal differentiation, and it has been suggested that they arise from progenitor pluripotential cells of the subependymal plate
  38. 38. • RGNTs typically occur in young adults (mean age, 31.5 years), demonstrate indolent behavior, • Do not tend to recur after surgical resection
  39. 39. • Patients usually present with signs of increased intracranial pressure or ataxia • There is a female predominance (female-to-male ratio, 1.75:1). • RGNTs were originally described as solely occurring in the fourth ventricle, but a recent case report describes an RGNT attached to the septum pellucidum
  40. 40. • Best diagnostic clue ○ Midline cerebellar mass with solid-cystic appearance without edema in young/middle-aged adult CT MRI CT Findings • NECT ○ Midline posterior fossa cystic/solid mass ○ Variable Ca++, hemorrhage MR Findings • T1WI ○ Iso-/hypointense mass • T2WI ○ Hyperintense, heterogeneous • T2* GRE ○ Hemorrhage common • T1WI C+ ○ Variable enhancement (none to heterogeneous)
  41. 41. • Intraventricular metastases account for 0.9%– 4.6% of cerebral metastases. • In adults, renal, colon, and lung carcinoma are the most common causes; • In children, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, and retinoblastoma are most common. • Renal cell carcinoma is remarkable in its ability to produce solitary metastases up to 50 years after identification of the primary lesion
  42. 42. • Intraventricular metastases are most common in the lateral ventricles but may also occur in the third ventricle and very rarely in the fourth ventricle
  43. 43. • Best diagnostic clue: ○ "Unusual" mass in patient with known systemic primary neoplasm • Avid enhancement is usually seen on contrast-enhanced images, and vasogenic edema may be seen in the adjacent brain parenchyma.
  44. 44. Known case of RCC Choroid plexus metastasis
  45. 45. Known case of lung CA Intraventricular metastasis
  46. 46. Known case of lung CA Intraventricular metastasis
  47. 47. • MRI shows a large, heterogeneously enhancing mass with lobulated margins, centered within the atrium of the right lateral ventricle. ▶ There is focal T1 hyperintensity within the tumor (black arrow), likely representing intratumoral hemorrhage. There is a fluid–fluid level within the lateral ventricle due to dependent hemorrhage (white arrows). ▶ There is T2 hyperintensity and enhancement possibly within the cerebral parenchyma along the tumor margins consistent with parenchymal invasion.
  48. 48. • Differential Diagnosis ▶ Choroid plexus papilloma/ Choroid Plexus Carcinoma (CPC) ▶ Atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor ▶ Ependymoma ▶ Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma ▶ Central neurocytoma ▶ Metastasis
  49. 49. Diagnosis •Choroid Plexus Carcinoma (CPC) • Imaging cannot differentiate between CPC and papilloma, but extraventricular invasion and CSF spread favor CPC.
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IMAGING OF INTRAVENTRICULAR TUMORS

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