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Communication and health education amany

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communication skills used in health education, methods of health education, uses,qualification of educator

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Communication and health education amany

  1. 1. AMANY R. ABO-EL-SEOUD Prof. of Community Medicine Zagazig University, EGYPT
  2. 2. Define communication, health education, knowledge, attitudes, belief and behavior. Describe the communication process Plan a session of health education
  3. 3.  Communication: It is a requirement for life in any society. It is the process in which feelings or ideas are expressed as messages: sent, received and comprehended.  The process of communication is dynamic, continuous, irreversible and transactional.
  4. 4.  Health education: To raise awareness of people to prevent disease and to improve knowledge, attitude and practice of individuals for healthy living.  Knowledge: confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose. ‫المعرفة‬
  5. 5. Attitude: positive, negative or neutral view of a person, behavior or event. ‫موقف‬ Belief: a subjective mental interpretation derived from perception, reasoning or communication. ‫اعتقاد‬ Behavior: actions or reaction of a person in relation to certain circumstances. ‫تصرف‬
  6. 6.  Human communication is the process of creating meaning between two or more people.  It is to transfer Ideas - Information - Norms ‫-نماذج‬ Values - Attitudes through message to another party so that it can be understood and acted upon.
  7. 7. The importance of communication:  To make people understand us and to understand others.  To make us accepted.  To undertake something.  To strengthen the human relationships and social links.  To spread the human spirit of friendship and cooperation.
  8. 8.  To improve patient compliance  To improve patient satisfaction  To improve health outcomes for patients  To improve the accuracy and efficiency of the consultation and hence is more rewarding for the doctor
  9. 9. Elements of communication The Sender Who Sends the message: doctor, nurse, parents, actor, teacher The Message What Ideas, Information, Feelings, Emotions. Can be at personal hygiene, nutrition guide, safe motherhood, risk factors etc The Channel How Means of message transmission. Face-face, group discussion, radio, newspaper, conference, T.V,internet. The Receptor To whom The person to whom we talk or the one who receives the message. Illiterate or highly educated, culture, habits, traditions, language. The Feedback With What Effects The information or the reaction given to the receptor
  10. 10. 1- At the source or sender level  Does not know or convinced with others  cannot communicate the message.  Does not formulate clearly the objectives or the message.  Does not choose the suitable language of the receptor.  Does not change the tone. The communicator must : CLEAR= C: Clarify L: Listen E: Encourage A: Appreciate R: Reassure Do not give orders. Do not attack. Do not be aggressive or ridiculous.
  11. 11. 2- At the message level  Difficult words.  Is not of interest to the receiver.  Is not related to the stated objectives.  Unclear, confusing. 3- At the channel level  Noise.  Not adapted to the message transmission.  Not accessible to the receptor.
  12. 12. 4- At the receptor level  Indifferent to the message.  Could not decode (understand) the message.  Cannot receive the message.  Poor listening conditions. 5- At the feedback level  Feedback not well prepared.  Limited time.  Selection of those who respond.  Question poorly formulated.
  13. 13. Verbal: By saying or writing words e.g. talk, discussion, conferences, or Presentation, books, newspapers. Non–verbal: Intentional (signs and movements). Unconscious (Feelings) as way of client’s walking, sitting, hand movements, facial expression, vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate).
  14. 14. (1) Skills of history taking  Welcome the patient, stand up, shack hands.  Call him/her with his/her name  Asking in voice tone showing your care  Asking one question every time.  Giving open questions.  During the client's answer, help him/her to continue.  Asking the question in different ways to be sure that the client is understanding.
  15. 15. (2) Skills of communication in Counseling  Definition: Counseling is not guiding, recommending, persuading, instructing and advising. Counseling is helping one person at one time or several together in a group or family to live in more satisfying and resourceful way i.e. counseling is helping a person (or a group) to develop self-help and self-care abilities.
  16. 16.  Counseling is valuable at any age, in health and in illness, whenever adaptation to physical psychological changes is required. It is helpful to the elderly and their care giver, as well as to children and their parents, to women at all their life stages, e.g. puberty and child bearing, motherhood and menopause. It is also helpful for women undergoing hysterectomy, mastectomy, or seeking treatment for infertility.
  17. 17. I- Preparing For a Counseling Session  Physical Setting: The ideal context is a quiet, calm, setting in which there is little chance of being interrupted.  Timing: The maximum time allowed for each session ranges between 45-60 minutes. The best timing is when the counselee is more likely attentive not sleepy or in pain.
  18. 18. II- During the Interaction:  To be able to help the counselee to talk, disclose, reflect, think and take decisions. The counselor should master the following skills namely:  Ability to build trust  Ask questions  Respond therapeutically  Listen attentively
  19. 19. Counselingimpliesthefollowing4steps: 1-Helpingthecounselee 2-Helpingthecounselee 3-Encouragingthecounselee 4-Helpingthecounselee Toidentifywhatistheproblem Todiscoverwhyitistheproblem Tolookatpossiblesolution Tochooseanappropriatesolution
  20. 20.  Any crisis situation- breaking bad news.  Bereavement or grief.  Terminal illness / palliative care.  Marital problems. Family problems.  Sexual dysfunction. Infertility.  Chronic pain.  Anxiety and stress. Depression.  Intellectual handicap in child.  Any disease or illness, especially severe illness.  Sexual abuse/ child abuse. Domestic violence.  Insomnia and other sleep disturbances.
  21. 21.  H.E.is translation of what is known about health to desirable behavior by means of educational process.  H.E. is the process by which people learn to behave in healthy manner  H.E. is subject concerned with methods, that facilitate voluntary adaptation of behavior that are conductive to health.
  22. 22. Definition: Is planned opportunities for people to learn about health and make changes in their behavior Steps: to know (knowledge) to feel importance to health(attitude) to change (practice) KAP
  23. 23.  Improvement of quality of life  Restore state of good health  Make the best of remaining health i.e. in health promotion, prevention of hazards, control of disease and complications and in rehabilitation. i.e. in physical, mental, social health it is life long process.
  24. 24.  Either to give new information (unknown before) or change old wrong knowledge.  Health education covers all the levels of community medicine, in health promotion (to give information to people how to be healthy) in prevention of health hazards (give information about vaccination, smoking hazards) in control of disease (to take treatment according to doctor advice) and in rehabilitation (to use the remaining health capabilities).  Health education is concerned with physical, mental and social wellbeing  It is life long process  It can be directed to individual, family or community
  25. 25.  Health education improves the health status of individuals, families, communities, states, and the nation.  Health education enhances the quality of life for all people.  Health education reduces premature deaths.  By focusing on prevention, health education reduces the costs (both financial and human) that individuals, employers, families, insurance companies, medical facilities, communities, the state and the nation would spend on medical treatment.
  26. 26.  Some people specialize in health education (trained and/or certified health education specialists).  Others perform selected health education functions as part of what they consider their primary responsibility (medical treatment, nursing, social work, physical therapy, oral hygiene, etc.).  Lay workers learn on the job to do specific, limited educational tasks to encourage healthy behavior.
  27. 27.  The educator  The message  The target group  The methods  Feedback
  28. 28.  "who says what and when to whom by which channel" therefore we should consider the following: the message, sender, recipient, method, barriers, evaluation
  29. 29. * Pre and post testing: for the same group or for 2 groups Every thing should be evaluated (the educator, message, method and the persons who are educated) * Increased number of good behaviors * Change in the morbidity & mortality rates
  30. 30.  Brief introduction, aim and gentle asking for co-operation  Simple language, direct questions  Not ask for 2 things in the same q.  Don’t use negative negative q.  Short answers, closed q.  Not too long questionnaire  It must be reliable, valid
  31. 31.  2 types of questions:  Qualitative (Likert’s scale) for attitude or yes/no  Quantitative: giving % or number  Multiple choices are easier