“The Kinetic Model of
Matter is anything that has a mass and
takes up a space.
It is everything around us.
What is Matter:
Physical STATES OF MATTER
There are 5 states of matter:
Solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, Bose-Einstein
These different states (phases) have different
States of Matter
1. The molecules of solid are locked in a rigid
structure and can only vibrate. (Add thermal energy
and the vibrations increase.)
A solid has definite volume and shape.
* Some solids are crystalline, like table
salt (NaCl), in which the atoms are
arranged in a repeating pattern.
2. A liquid is in general incompressible, so it has a
definite volume but no definite shape,
if you pour a liter of juice into several
glasses, the shape of the juice has
changed but the total volume hasn’t.
3. A gas is easily compressed. It has
neither definite shape nor definite
volume, If a container of CO2 is
opened, it will diffuse throughout the
4. *A plasma is an ionized gas and is the
most common form of matter in the
universe, since the insides of stars are
Another example of plasma is a
“neon sign”. Just like fluorescent
lights, neon signs are glass
tubes filled with gas. When the
light is turned on, the electricity
flows through the tube. The
electricity charges (ionizes) the
gas and creates plasma inside of
the tube. The plasma glows a
special color depending on what
kind of gas is inside.
5. * BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE
Particles are extremely
Particles barely move.
Only found at extremely
cold temperatures (close
to absolute zero)
Lowest energy of the
5 states of matter
The term fluid refers to gases and liquids.
Gases and liquids have more in common with
each other than they do with solids, since gases
and liquids both have particles that are free to
move around. They are not locked in place as
they are in a solid.
The hotter the fluid, the faster its molecules
move, and the more space the fluid will occupy.
Also, unlike solids, fluids can flow.
Does Heat Affect Matter?
Yes, it changes the state of matter.
Phase (state) Changes
Evaporation: Liquid Gas
Condensation: Gas Liquid
Melting: Solid Liquid
Freezing: Liquid Solid
*Sublimation: Solid Gas
* Examples of sublimation:
• Dry ice (frozen CO2) goes directly from the solid to the
gaseous state (it sublimates). This creates an eerie.
• Comets are very small objects containing frozen gases that
sublimate when the comet get close enough to the sun. This
creates the characteristic tail the can be millions of miles long.
* Deposition occurs when a gas
becomes a solid without going through
the liquid state of matter. Those who
live close to the earth poles can see
frost on winter mornings. Those little
frost crystals on plants build up when
water vapor from the air becomes a
solid on the leaves of plants.
Also known as
“The Kinetic Model of Matter”
• Kinetic Theory states that the tiny
particles in all forms of matter are in
3 Principles of Kinetic Theory:
• All matter is made up of tiny particles.
• These particles are in constant motion.
• The collisions of particles (with each other or
with the container), are perfectly elastic.
Brownian motion (movement)
The irregular motion of the minute particles of
matter suspended in a fluid.
It was named for the Scottish botanist Robert
Brown, who observed (1827) the movement of
plant spores floating in water.
This is due to the constant
irregular motion of the
molecules of the fluid,
kicking the small particles
Fast Facts about Heat
The boiling point is the temperature at which
a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
How does it happen?
When a liquid is heated,
its particles move faster
and faster until they break
the bonds with other
particles and escape
from the liquid.
The freezing point is the temperature at
which a substance changes from a liquid
to a solid.
How does this happen?
Particles loose energy,
they move slower, then
they become closer
together and solidifies
(forms a solid).
Release Heat Energy
Absorb Heat Energy
(from plasma to gas)
(from gas to plasma)
Phase changes that release energy are exothermic. Phase changes
that absorb energy are endothermic.
Notice that the freezing point and melting point are at the same
temperature. Condensation and boiling occur at the same
* Exothermic and Endothermic
* Pressure & Freezing
It’s easier to freeze most liquids if they’re
subjected to very high pressures.
In order to turn a liquid into a solid, the
molecules must get close enough together.
High pressure can force the molecules
closer together, to freeze the liquid, even if
it’s not cold enough.
Water is an exception to
this because, due to its
molecular shape, it
expands upon freezing.
So, squeezing water
makes freezing it harder.
The pressure on ice due
to a passing skater can
actually melt a small
amount of the ice.
* Pressure & Boiling
The lower the pressure on a liquid, the easier
it is to make it boil.
Water, for example, boils at temperatures
below 100ºC up in the mountains where
the air pressure is lower.
It takes longer to cook food in boiling
water at high altitudes; because the boiling
water is not as hot as it usually is.
In a vacuum water will boil at any
temperature since there is no pressure at the
surface to prevent the water from vaporizing…
It’s harder for a liquid to vaporize when it is
subjected to high pressure, since gases take
up more space than liquids.
At high pressure, water boils at a
high temp. In a pressure-cooker
water can remain liquid up to
120 ºC, and the hotter water
can cook food faster.
*… Pressure & Boiling
*Freezing of Solutions
The freezing point of a solution, such as salty
water, is lower than the freezing point for the
solvent by itself (pure water).
The higher the concentration of the solute
(salt), the more the freezing point is lowered.
This is because the “foreign” molecules or
atoms of a solute interfere with the molecules
of the solvent.
boiling vs. evaporation
Evaporation takes place only at the surface of
a liquid or solid, while boiling takes place
throughout the liquid.
Boiling occurs at the
place at any temperature.
Particles that have
“higher kinetic energy”
escape and become
Gases and the Kinetic theory
• The kinetic theory of gases describes a gas
as a large number of small particles
(atoms or molecules), all of which are in
constant, random motion. The rapidly moving
particles constantly collide with each other
and with the walls of the container.
• In 1662 Robert Boyle discovered that
“In constant temperature, pressure and volume
of a given amount of gas are inversely
• A given amount of gas means a fixed mass or
number of molecules.
Boyle's Law Formula is expressed symbolically as
Another way to express Boyle's Law Formula is
P is pressure of the gas
V is volume of the gas
k is a constant, it’s units are Pa*m3 , or N*m
Boyle's Law Problems
Question 1: A sample of gaseous nitrogen in a 65.0 L
automobile air bag has a pressure of 700 mm Hg. If this
sample is transferred to a 25.0 L bag at the same
temperature. what is the pressure of the gas in the 25.0 L
Question 2: A sample of neon (Ne) occupies 4.00L at a
pressure of 5.00 × 104 Pa and a temperature of 273K.
Determine the volume of the sample at 100KPa?
Answers: (1) P1 = 1820 mm Hg, (2) V2 = 2 L
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