HYDERABAD AT GLANCE
The district takes its name from its headquarters town which is the second biggest city of
Sindh Province. After the 1972 Census of Pakistan whole of Badin and Tando Bago Taluka,
most of Matli Taluka and about half of Tando Muhammad Khan Taluka. The district lies from
24-46 to 26-06 north latitudes and 68-16 to 68-59 east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by
Nawabshah district, in the east by Sanghar and Tharparkar districts, in the south by Badin
District and in the west by Thatta and Dadu districts.The total area of the district is 5,683 sq. km.
Hyderabad district is a part of the Lower Indus plain. The Indus River flows along the
western boundary of the district. It has a uniform land surface formed by the alluvial deposits of
the Indus River. There are no mountains or hills in the district except some small hillocks locally
known as Ganjo Takkar, meaning bald hillocks. They run parallel to the river Indus for about 22
kilometers south of Hyderabad city. The highest point in these hillocks is known as Gaho which
is about 75 metres above sea level.
There are also two small hillocks on the north of Tando Muhammad Khan town. They are named
as Budhaka Takkar. The rest of the district is a fertile plain with an elevation of about 50 metres
above sea level. There are some good reserves of forests in Hala Taluka along the river Indus.
The climate of Hyderabad District, on the whole is moderate. May and June are hottest
months. The temperature sometimes rises to 115 F - the highest recorded temperature being 120
F. There is always a fall in temperature at night. There are occasional showers in the month of
July and the temperature rarely rises to 110 F. In winter, temperature seldom rises above 70 F
during day, but the night temperature falls within a few degrees of the freezing point. Sometimes,
cold waves from Baluchistan make the winter severe. Humidity is variable; it is highest on the
whole at the end of August and much less in May when the air is uncomfortably dry. During
summer, the wind blows in the south-west and in winter north-west direction. During the months
of May and June, hot winds laden with dust blow constantly south-west direction. The district
lies in the rain shadow area, and heavily laden south-west monsoon clouds rising from the
Arabian Sea pass over this area without any showers. In winter, the district gets some rain from
the cyclonic winds, blowing from the Persain Gulf. (See the table 6.1)
ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP.
For the purpose of Provincial Government administration, the district has been divided
into seven talukas, namely, Hyderabad Taluka, Hyderabad City, Latifabad, Tando Allahyar,
Tando Muhammad Khan Hala&Matiari and six sub dividions The local bodies set up include one
Municipal Corporation, three Municipal Committees, Nine Town Committees. At the level of
Union Council, for rural areas, there are 52 Union Councils constituted with 407 dehs and 2028
villages/settlements located within the boundaries of union councils. At present, there are 33
police stations and 170 post offices in district Hyderabad. Table No.1.2 Administrative Break-
up: Sub Division: 6 Taluka 7 Municipal Corporation 1 Municipal Committee 3 Town Committee
9 Union Council 62 Market Committee 4 Deh 407 Village Settlements 2028 Police Station 33
5.4 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
The Hyderabad District is spread over 5519 sq.kms. That is, 4.03% of the total
geographical area of Sindh, but its share in total Population in 1998 accounted for 2840653 souls
or 9.4% of the provincial population. It increased by 38% during 1981-98 intercensal periods in a
span of 17 years at an average annual growth rate of 1.92%. In accordance with the land area of
Hyderabad district i.e. 5683 sq. kms. There is density of 515 persons per sq. km. as compared to
361 persons per sq. kms. In 1981. Out of its total population, 1447957 persons or 51% are settled
in urban areas and remaining 1392696 persons or 49% are located in rural areas. The sex ratio
(male per 100 females) is worked out at 109; this ratio is also constituted of 109 males for rural
and urban areas respectively. Town-wise urban population is depicted in table no. I. According
to 1998 population census, there are total 485967 households in Hyderabad district comprising of
2840653 persons thus giving an average size of six persons per household.
5.5 AGRICULTURE SECTOR
Pakistan's economy has undergone considerable diversification over the years yet the
agriculture sector still constitutes its back-bone. With its present contribution to GDP at 24.87
percent, an agriculture account for half of the total employed labor force and is the largest source
of foreign exchange earnings while it serves as the base sector for the country's major industries
like textiles and sugar.
The economic development of Sindh is largely dependent on the progress and growth of
Agriculture sector. Sindh province contributes significantly towards over-all national agriculture
with 26% of the cultivated area, 17% of the cropped area and 16% of the irrigated area, 19% of
the total forest area, 43% of the total production of rice, 25% of cotton, 14% wheat, 30% sugar
cane, 22% other food grains, 59% of marine fish, 60% of inland fish and 28% of the live stock
production originates in Sindh. Lower productivity levels per hectare continue to be problem No.
1 of crop production. Over the last ten years period, most insignificant increases are noticeable in
yield of major crops in view of efforts undertaken to eradicate water-logging and Salinity,
provision of new seed varieties, increased use of fertilizer, pesticides, provision of agriculture
extension services and on-farm water management practice and close co-ordination among
farmers and agricultural field staff. Achievements of self sufficiency in major crop production
must, therefore, address to the key issue bottlenecks. The enhancement of yields in the shortest
possible time needs to be taken by reviewing existing programmed by involving farming
community in co-operative manners reducing reliance on extension staff.
5.6 LAND UTILIZATION.
The pattern of land use in a region determines crop production. Soil & climate play an
important role in the management of cropping pattern of a region. Crop area used for food and
cash crops can be taken as an index of the type of land system and the economic use for these
crops. Land use data for latest five years are given in table No.1. The reported area in Hyderabad
increased from just over 532.9 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to about 551.3 thousand hectares in
1997-98. However, not all of this area is cultivable. 28.8% was reported "uncultivable" though
its share was 27.0% in 1993-94.
The share of cultivated area (in the area reported) decreased from 73.0% in 1993-94 to about
71.2% in 1997-98. It, however, is much higher as compared to over all Sindh reflecting higher
cropping intensities. From the data given in table No.1, the cropping intensities have been
increasing since many years, and an acre of land in Hyderabad district is almost being cropped
fully once in a year with 97.5% cropping intensity. Moreover, the cropped area increased from
362.9 thousand hectares in 1993-94 to 382.4 thousand hectares in 1997-98.
The cropped area increased by about 4.7% likewise the cultivated area also slightly increased by
0.9% during the period of five years. A small part of the area about 1.7% is being used for
grazing or forest and remaining land is lying unused due to unfavourable condition or lack of
It is noted that the pressure of total rural population on cultivated area has increased considerably
since last many years. The ratio of cultivated area per person decreased from 0.21 in 1993-94 to
0.14 in 1997-98.
5.7 CROP POSITION
There are two main crop seasons; "Kharif" and "Rabi" in Hyderabad District. The Kharif
season starts from April-May and ends in October-November while the Rabi starts from
November-December and ends in April-May. However due to regional variation in temperature,
several factors i.e varieties, availability of water, soil texture etc determine the crop pattern,
sowing and harvesting time. The Crops are further categorized into major and minor crops.
Wheat, Cotton, Rice, Sugar-cane are the major crops of the district. Barely, bajra, jowar, maize,
gram, rapeseed, mustard, oil seeds and fall in the category of minor crops.
Wheat is also a staple food crop of the people of Hyderabad district. Thus it occupies the
majority of cultivated land under wheat. Its share in total cropped area was recorded at 72.7%.
The area and production of wheat for the year 1997-98 were estimated at 114.1 thousand
hectares and 264.0 thousand tones respectively. The yield, however, was recorded at 2313 kgs.
The area under wheat significantly declined by 8.1% during the year 1994-95. However, it
recovered the area by 16.0% in the next year. The production situation generally remained
satisfactorily over the last five years and it grew at the rate of 7.2% due to favorable whether
condition at sowing times.
Cotton is not only an export earning crop but it also provides raw material to local textile
industries in Hyderabad as well as Sindh. Its share in production stands at 9.6% in Sindh. The
latest estimates of area and production for the year 1997-98 for Hyderabad district were recorded
at 60.5 thousand hectares and 223.8 thousand bales representing an increase in area by 0.4% and
decrease in production by 5.1% over the previous year. However, the yield per hectare decreased
by 9.0% from 665 kgs. per hectare in 1996-97 to 629 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98 as the crop was
suffered heavily on account of leaf curl virus in the cotton growing areas of Hyderabad district.
Rice is an important food as well as highly valued cash crop that earn substantial foreign
exchange for the country. Despite the relative price having favored the high yielding varieties,
farmers traditionally grow the IRRI, and other varieties in district Hyderabad. (Table No.2)
The area under rice decreased by 15.0% from 16.9 thousand hectares in 1996-97 to 14.3
thousand hectares in 1997-98. Besides, the production of rice also went down significantly by
22.0% from 40.6 thousand tones to 31.6 thousand tones. Similarly yield per hectare also
decreased by 8.3% from 2405 kgs. to 2206 kgs
5.7.4 SUGAR CANE.
Sugar production in the Sindh province depends mostly on sugarcane crop. Keeping in
view its importance, great deal of attention has been paid to increase both the area and
production of sugarcane. It was reported that during the year 1997-98 the sugarcane area and
production up surged by 3.9% & 29.0% respectively Similarly, the yield per hectare which
increased by 24.2% from 52.4 metric tons per hectares in 1996-97 to 65.0 metric tons per hectare
5.8 EXISTING MANUFACTURING UNITS (MEDIUM & LARGE SCALE).
The manufacturing establishments in district Hyderabad were reported as 95 units during
census of manufacturing Industries (CMI) 1997-98. By comparing with the previous census that
took place in 1990-91, under which 89 units were reported, it shows that 6 units have been
increased. The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98 is given in table 6.2.
January 24.2 10.1 4.0 July 37.5 27.5 68.0
February 28.4 12.8 5.0 August 36.1 26.5 44.0
March 34.2 17.7 1.0 September 38.8 25.1 15.0
April 39.4 22.2 2.0 October 37.1 21.5 3.0
May 42.3 25.9 4.0 November 32.3 16.2 1.0
June 40.6 27.9 6.0 December 26.4 11.8 2.0
Table 9: Data on temperature and precipitation mean temperature (c)
Source: Meteorological Department, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad 1981
S.N0 INDUSTRY UNITS
1 Cotton Textile 72
2 Sugar 75
3 Fabricated 116
4 Roller flour mills 67
5 Pharmaceutical 38
6 Cement 49
7 Glass industries 1510
8 Cotton ginning 611
9 Other 20
TABLE 10: The leading order of the manufacturing groups during 1997-98
5.8.1 INDUSTRIAL ESTATES (SMALL SCALE) IN HYDERABAD
Industrial Estate established under Sindh Small Industries Corporation in Hyderabad
district is located in District Headquarter Hyderabad. There are 22 Small Industrial Units
functioning as self-employment schemes and 51 units are functioning under Small Industrial
Estates. Also 5 projects with 312 employees capacity are under process.
The detail of industrial groups as under self Employment Schemes:
Cotton Textile 2
Vegetable Ghee 1
Ice Factories 5
Rice Mill 1
Dull Mill 1
5.8.2 UNDER SMALL INDUSTRIAL ESTATES:
Steel Mill 4
Building Material 1 M.P.G.(R.C.C. Pipe)
Ice Factory 2
Vegetable Ghee 21
Dull Mill 1.
5.9 MINERAL PRODUCTION.
Hyderabad district with mountainous area of the Sindh province inherits rich mineral resources.
Table No.4.3 shows ten types of minerals giving details of production from 1993-94 to 1997-98.
The lease for mining of the following minerals has been issued as per following details during
Flint stone has been granted lease on about 5000 acres producing approximately 440 tones.
Lease for quarrying Lime-stone has been granted on about 1000 acres. Production is shown
5.10 ROAD NETWORK
The District of Hyderabad is agriculturally and industrially one of the most important
areas in the Province of Sindh and therefore requires adequate communication facilities. It is
presently connected on all sides with the important places of the country both by roads and
railways. The National Highway from Peshawar to Karachi passes through the area entering at
about six miles north of Saeedabad town, running in a southerly direction along the river and
leaving it at Kotri. Besides, there are some inter-district roads which connect Hyderabad with
Mirpurkhas district in the East, Badin in the South, Sanghar in the North East, Nawabshah in the
North, Dadu in North West and Thatta in the South West. Hyderabad is also connected with
Karachi by the Super Highway which has reduced the distance between these two cities and
provided a special link for the heavy traffic flow to and from Karachi. The road has been
developed into 2 carriageways which has substantially reduced travel time. The internal
communications in the area are also fairly good; there are a number of metalled roads which link
the taluka and other important towns with each other and with the district headquarters. The
Farm to Market Roads and link roads connect the taluka headquarters, agricultural farms and
hinterland. The provision of farm to market roads is inadequate to cater the ever increasing
requirement of metalled road and the farmers’ experience difficulties in bringing their agriculture
produce to the towns.
The district is served with three railway lines of Pakistan Railways which connect
Hyderabad with Karachi and Peshawar, Mirpurkhas and Badin Railway Station facilities are
provided at all important places. A daily service of Pakistan International Airlines also operates
through Hyderabad, connecting it with many important cities of Province and the Country.
5.12 ROAD STANDARDS
For identifying the development gaps, there are certain standards about adequacy of roads
which are as under.
0.5 of Pucca road per 1 sq. km. of geographic area.
Road density based on cultivable area. (2. Kms. per 1 Sq. Km.).
Road density based on cropped area.(1. Km. per 1 Sq. Km.). iv Road network connecting
settlements of 1000+ and above 500+ population.
Road length per 10,000 population
Movement of persons goods and services.
The available international standard related to agriculture postulates that there should be at least
2 Kms. of road for every sq.Km. of cultivated area. Modification of this standard appears
necessary from two angles. Firstly, this standard includes other katcha roads as well whereas we
would like to evolve a standard in terms of metalled road only. Secondly, the standard is related
to cultivated area which is invariably greater than cropped area. We should better adopt the
standard of 1 Km. of metalled road per sq. km. of cropped area. From one angle, cropped area
standard is also misleading as in irrigated zone it will be much higher than in deserted and hill
torian areas. Hence the standard based on Geographical area is most suited (0.5 km. of pucca
Road per 1 sq. km. of geographical area).
5.13 WATER SUPPLY & DRAINAGE/SEWERAGE
Potable Water Supply is a pre-requisite for the health of people. Lack of proper drinking
Water Supply and Sanitation in rural as well urban areas has caused wide spread water borne
diseases of which diarrhea (among small children) happens to be a major killer. The diseases are
transmitted by water and poor sanitation which deplete human energy resulting in sickness
reducing there by the productivity of the people.
5.14 URBAN WATER SUPPLY
All Urban localities in district Hyderabad are covered with water supply through a piped
water system. Besides non-mechanized source of water supply like hand pumps/wells etc. are
also used by the people. Hyderabad has at present 40 MGD water provided through various
schemes while a number of twenty one water supply schemes have also been completed up to the
year 1997-98 in other urban areas of the district Hyderabad.
5.15 URBAN DRAINAGE
So far provision of urban drainage facility in Hyderabad district is concerned, all the
urban localities are covered with drainage/sewage system or open pucca drains. The Drainage
facilities are available in city's municipal areas, and town committees. A number of drainage
schemes are also under implementation in Hyderabad city. In other urban areas of the district, a
number of 12 Drainage Schemes have been completed upto the year 1997-98 while two schemes
at estimated cost of Rs.47.145 million are on-going during the current year to meet the increased
5.16 RURAL WATER SUPPLY
The water supply facility in the rural areas of Sindh through a piped water system is to be
provided according to the criteria which gives priority to "A rural settlement with population of
1000 and above preferably having brackish ground water". In Hyderabad district, 327 rural
settlements having population upto 1000 are categorised into 3 types of settlements in
descending order according to their size of population taking into account the quality of ground
water.8.5 presently, out of 109 rural settlements having population 2000 and above, 50
settlements have been covered by the water supply facility. In second category which includes 80
settlements with population ranging between 1500 to 1999, 15 rural settlements have been
facilitated by water supply schemes while in the third category out of 138 rural settlements 17
have been covered by such facility. Thus, out of total 327 rural settlements 82 settlements are
covered with the required facility of water supply as reported up to June 1997.