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EMPLOYEE’S RIGHT TO UNION<br />By,<br />Dhanya N. Menon<br />
Pigors and Myers write: <br />"Unionism springs from the basic aspirations of those employees who become convinced that they can gain more through membership in a union than by going at it alone."<br />
Good staff relations<br />Effective negotiations<br />Redressing the employee grievance<br />Improve employee welfare<br />Pressurize the authorities to become liberal<br />Better security, liberty and courage<br />
ORIGIN OF THE RIGHT<br />Constitution of India<br />Fundamental Right: Article 19(1)(c)<br />Right to form association to all citizen<br />Subject to restriction <br />
LABOUR CLASSIFICATION<br />The Indian labor markets consist of 3 sectors:<br /> - The rural workers, who constitute about 60% of the workforce.<br /> - Organized sector, which employs 8 % of workforce, and<br /> - The urban informal sector which constitutes the rest 32% of the workforce<br />At present there are twelve Central Trade Union Organizations in India<br />
OBJECTIVES OF EMPLOYEES UNIONS<br />To acquaint the authorities with the point of view of the employees<br />To provide an opportunity to the authorities to know the opinion of the employees on any given issue.<br />The organization belongs to the employees<br />The associations meet the social expectations of the members<br />
TRADE UNIONS <br />Formed to protect and promote the interests of their members <br />Primary function is to protect the interests of workers against discrimination and unfair labor practices <br />
HISTORY-TRADE UNIONISM IN INDIA<br />generally divided on political lines<br />trade unions had a combined membership of 24,601,589 (Approximately)<br />11 Central Trade Union Organizations<br />Contd…<br />
Indian trade union movement - divided into three phases.<br />The first phase (1850 to1900)<br /> - inception of trade unions took place<br /> - the working and living conditions of the labor were poor <br /> - working hours were long<br /> - wages were also low <br /> - Indian Factories Act was enacted in 1881<br /> - employment of child labor was prohibited<br />Contd…<br />
The second phase (1900 to 1946)<br /> - development of organized trade unions & political movements of the working class<br /> - In 1920, the First National Trade union organization (The All India Trade Union Congress) was established. <br /> - In 1926, Trade union law came up <br /> - During 1928, All India Trade Union Federation was formed.<br />Contd…<br />
The third phase in 1947<br /> -1949: 4 central trade union organizations<br />The All India Trade Union Congress,<br /> The Indian National Trade Union Congress,<br /> The Hindu MazdoorSangh, and<br /> The United Trade Union Congress <br /> - The working class movement was politicized<br />INTUC: trade union arm of the Congress Party<br /> AITUC: trade union arm of the Communist Party of India<br />- Besides workers supervisors and managers are also organized by the trade unions<br />
Trade Union: Section 2(h)<br />Any combination - temporary or permanent<br />Formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between:<br /> workmen and employers <br /> workmen and workmen <br /> employers and employers <br />Or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business<br />includes any federation of two or more trade unions<br />
IMPORTANCE OF TRADE UNIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL PEACE<br />Decisions taken through the process of collective bargaining and negotiations between employer and unions are more influential <br />Effective communication between the workers and the management <br />Settlement of Industrial Dispute in rational manner <br />Greater Bargaining Power/Platform for self expression <br />Minimize Discrimination <br />Sense of Security <br />Sense of Belongingness/ Sense of Participation <br />
September 2009: Whether an employee of the Jet<br />Airways has the right to organize an union or not? <br />The constitution, under Article 19 (1) (C) grants<br />fundamental right to all citizens to form associations or<br />unions. The constitution does not restrict this right to a<br />workman as had been claimed by Jet Airways.<br />TirumalaTirupatiDevasthanam v. Commissioner of Labour (1995) Supp(3) SSC 653 <br />Any group of employee may be registered as a trade union under the Act.<br />