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Expectancy Theory

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Part of my Motivation Series, this presentation explains what Expectancy Theory is and how you can effectively apply it in your own life or in the lives of those you manage. It helps take a potentially "soft" topic and turn it into actionable steps.

Expectancy Theory

  1. 1. Motivation Series Expectancy Theory
  2. 2. Expectancy Theory
  4. 4. Expectancy Theory What is the question you answer by using Expectancy Theory!
  5. 5. Expectancy Theory Correct!
  6. 6. Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory has three different elements which each influence effort.
  7. 7. Expectancy Theory Expectancy“If I really try hard, can I do this job?”
  8. 8. Expectancy Theory Expectancy Instrumentality“If I do this job well, will I be rewarded?”
  9. 9. Expectancy Theory Expectancy Instrumentality Valence“How much do I value the reward?”
  10. 10. Expectancy Theory Expectancy These elements have a multiplicative effect with each other. Instrumentality Effort Valence
  11. 11. Expectancy Theory E I V Effort
  12. 12. Expectancy Theory To understand how that works, think of each element as a separate probability from 0 to 1. E I V Effort
  13. 13. Expectancy Theory E I V Effort 1 1 1 100% Effort 1 1 .9 90% Effort 1 .9 .9 81% Effort 1 .9 .2 18% Effort
  14. 14. Expectancy Theory Because they multiply, if any individual element is zero, effort will also be zero. E I V Effort 1 1 0 0% Effort 1 0 1 0% Effort 0 1 1 0% Effort
  15. 15. Expectancy Theory You may be thinking to yourself, “How on earth am I going to measure something like valence?” E I V Effort
  16. 16. Expectancy Theory Don’t worry about it. E I V Effort
  17. 17. Expectancy Theory Exact probabilities are not nearly as important as the idea behind them. E I V Effort
  18. 18. Expectancy Theory Just thinking about it in terms of “Bad, Okay, Great” is fine. E I V Effort
  19. 19. An Example
  20. 20. An Example Let’s try a simple example.
  21. 21. An Example We’ll look at making an effort to network in order to find a new job.
  22. 22. An Example ExpectancyRemember that Expectancy asks, “If I really try hard, can I do this job?”
  23. 23. An Example ExpectancyYou might ask, “If I try really hard, will I be good at networking?”
  24. 24. An Example Expectancy InstrumentalityRemember that Instrumentality asks, “If I do this job well, will I be rewarded?”
  25. 25. An Example Expectancy InstrumentalityYou might ask, “If I can network well, will that help me build the contactsthat will lead to a full-time job offer?”
  26. 26. An Example Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Remember that Valence asks,“How much do I value the reward?”
  27. 27. An Example Expectancy Instrumentality ValenceYou might ask, “How muchdo I really want a new job?”
  28. 28. An Example Expectancy If you don’t expect to be good atnetworking even if you work really hard… 0 1 1 0% Effort
  29. 29. An Example Expectancy Instrumentality…or if you don’t expect to buildcontacts and get an offer evenif you’re great at networking… 1 0 1 0% Effort
  30. 30. An Example Expectancy Instrumentality Valence…or if you don’t really want a new job… 1 1 0 0% Effort
  31. 31. An Example …if any one of those is zero, your effort to network will be zero. 0% Effort
  32. 32. Using E.T.
  33. 33. Using E.T. “Expectancy Theory”
  34. 34. Using E.T. Not me.
  35. 35. Using Expectancy Theory But a manager might ask, “How on earth does this Expectancy mumbo jumbo help?” Instrumentality Valence
  36. 36. Using Expectancy Theory Well, it helps you know how to react to problems with effort.
  37. 37. Using Expectancy Theory Usually, if a manager sees a problem with effort, he’ll use phrases like…
  38. 38. Using Expectancy Theory Expectancy “lacks initiative” “no commitment” Instrumentality “insufficient dedication” Valence “bad attitude”
  39. 39. Using Expectancy Theory Those don’t really help.
  40. 40. Using Expectancy Theory I know. Earth shattering.
  41. 41. Using Expectancy Theory Expectancy Problem? Instrumentality Problem? Valence Problem? But using Expectancy Theory, you can look at the problem area…
  42. 42. Using Expectancy Theory Coaching, Expectancy Training Tie rewards to Instrumentality performance Choose more Valence meaningful rewards…and then crafta smart solution.
  43. 43. A Caveat
  44. 44. A Caveat Expectancy Instrumentality ValenceExpectancy Theory is all about self-perceptions and effort.
  45. 45. A Caveat Expectancy Meaning, for example, that it Instrumentality doesn’t matter if rewards are tied to performance if people don’t think that they’re tied to performance. Valence
  46. 46. A Caveat Expectancy Instrumentality ValenceKeep that in mind as you craft solutions.
  47. 47. A Caveat Expectancy Good Instrumentality Performance ValenceAlso, remember that you could be putting in 100% effort, but if you suck at what you do, the results will still be poor.
  48. 48. Conclusion
  49. 49. Conclusion Expectancy Theory deals with what influences effort Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence all shape effort These three elements have a multiplicative effect on effort Expectancy Theory is useful in creating specific solutions to effort issues For Expectancy issues, coach or train individuals For Instrumentality issues, better tie rewards to performance For Valence issues, choose more meaningful rewards Expectancy Theory is all about self-perception, not necessarily reality If you’re not skilled, all the effort in the world won’t create positive results
  50. 50. Motivation Series Expectancy TheoryDaniel Larsen - http://www.linkedin.com/pub/daniel-larsen/19/8b8/910