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Curriculum Development Module 2 lesson 1-3

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Curriculum Development Module 2 lesson 1-3

  1. 1. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Module 2 Crafting the Curriculum Prepared by: Christy C. Ador
  2. 2.  The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in the personal social competence. ( Daniel Tanner, 1980)
  3. 3. CURRICULUM DESIGN MODELS  Objective: › This lesson will present the different design models curriculum and; › This will guide to discover that curricula are organized.
  4. 4.  This model focuses on the content of the curriculum.  The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject.
  5. 5. EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN  Subject design → is the oldest and the most familiar design for teacher, parents and other laymen.  Discipline design → refers to the specific knowledge learned through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields.
  6. 6. EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN  Correlation design → this comes from the core, correlated curriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation.
  7. 7. EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN  Broad field design/interdisciplinary → this design was made to prevent the compartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other.
  8. 8.  centered on certain aspects of the learner’s themselves.  the learner is the center of the educative process.
  9. 9. EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN  Child-centered design ( John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel) › the curriculum design is anchored on the needs and interests of the child. › the learner is not considered as a passive individual but as one who engages with his/her environment.
  10. 10. EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN  Experience-centered design › experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum, thus the school environment is left open and free.
  11. 11. EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN  Humanistic design ( Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers) › the development of self is the ultimate objective of learning. › it stresses the whole person and integration of thinking, feeling and doing.
  12. 12.  draws on social problem, needs, interests and abilities of the learners.  content cuts across the subject boundaries and must be based on the needs, concerns and abilities of the students .
  13. 13. EXAMPLES OF THE PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN  Life-situation design › it uses the past and present experiences of the of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living. › the pressing immediate problem of the society and the students’ existing concerns are utilized.
  14. 14. EXAMPLES OF THE PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN  Core design › it centers on the general education and the problem are based on the common human activities. › the central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, concerned of the learners.
  15. 15. DIMENSIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DESIGN  Objective: › this lesson will allow us to consider some of the dimensions and provide some principles in its use in curriculum development.
  16. 16. ● Scope › defines as all the content, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan.
  17. 17. Scope › provides boundaries in curriculum as it applies to the different educational levels. › it should include time, diversity and maturity of the learners, complexity of content, and level of education.
  18. 18. ● Sequence › contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner, where the basis can either be logic of the subject or on the developmental patterns of growth of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.
  19. 19. (Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
  20. 20. Simple to Complex learning › content and experiences are organized from simple to complex, from concrete to abstract, form easy to difficult. Prerequisite learning › it means that there are fundamental things to be learned ahead.
  21. 21.  Whole to part learning › the meaning can very well be understood if everything will be taken as a whole.  Chronological learning › the order of events is made as a basis of sequencing the content and the experiences. This can be arranged from the most recent to the distant past or vice versa.
  22. 22. (Posner and Rudnitsky 1957)
  23. 23. a. Space - spatial relation will be the basis for the sequence. b. Time - the content is based from the earliest to the more recent. c. Physical attributes - this principles refers to the physical characteristics of the phenomena.
  24. 24. a. Class relation - refers to the group or set of things that share common practices. Teaching the characteristics of the class ahead of the member of the class. b. Proportional relations - a statement that asserts something. Sequence are arranged so that the evidence presented ahead before proposition.
  25. 25. - this is based on the scientific method of inquiry. Based on the process of generating, discovering and verifying knowledge, content and experiences are sequence logically and methodically.
  26. 26. a. Empirical prerequisites - sequence is primarily based on empirical study where the prerequisite is required before learning the next level. b. Familiarity - prior learning is important in sequence. What is familiar should be taking up first before the unfamiliar.
  27. 27. c. Difficulty - easy content is taken ahead than the difficult one. d. Interest - contents and experiences that stimulate interest are those that are novel. These can arouse curiosity and interest of learners.
  28. 28. ● Continuity - this process enables learners strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. Gerome Bruner called this “ spiral curriculum” where the content is organized according to the interrelationship between the structure of the basis ideas of a major discipline.
  29. 29. ● Integration “ Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging themes.” - organization is drawn from the world themes from real life concerns.
  30. 30. ● Articulation ● Vertical Articulation - the contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in the lower level is connected to the next level. ● Horizontal Articulation - happens when the association is among or between elements that happen at the same time.
  31. 31. ● Balance - equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to establish balance is needed in curriculum design.
  32. 32. APPROACHES TO THE CURRICULUM  Objective › this lesson will bring the various phases of designing a curriculum. › identify the commonly used approaches in the design of curriculum. › enhance and integrate the experiences and observations based on the features and characteristics of the different approaches.
  33. 33. 1. Who teaches? -- the Teacher → Good teachers bring a shining light into the learning environment, and are needed to sort out the knowledge from the information but more important, excellent teachers are needed to sort the wisdom from the knowledge.
  34. 34. 2. Who do the teachers teach? -- the Learners → the learners are at the center stage in the educative process. They are the most factors in the learning environment. There is no teaching without them. → they come from different sectors of the society.
  35. 35. 3. What do the teachers teach? -- knowledge, skills, values “to help the learners cope with the rapid changes to understand and to succeed in the new work in the work place, we must design a curriculum oriented to tomorrow.”
  36. 36. 4. How do teachers teach? -- Strategies and Methods Teachers should select teaching methods, learning activities and instructional materials or resources appropriate to learners and aligned to the objective of the lesson. Situations should be creative to encourage learners to use higher order thinking skills.
  37. 37. 5. How much of the teaching was learned? -- Performance These learning outcomes indicate the performance of both teachers and the learners. Learning outcomes are the product performance of the learners as the result of teaching. Performance is the feature of a curriculum that should be given emphasis.
  38. 38. 6. With whom do we teach? -- Community Partners “ Teaching is a collaborative undertaking” Partnership is the means not an end to be pursued in itself. Society changes, teachers will have a new beginning, an opportunity to recast their role in their communities, to change their attitude to their community, to change the attitude of their communities and societies about them.
  39. 39. REFERENCE:  Bilbao, Purita,. et.al, (2008) Curriculum Development,. LORIMAR Publishing Company
  40. 40. =)