1. Washington’s Presidency 1789-1796
1. Established precedence:
Cabinet, Leadership, White House
Pomp & Circumstance; Moderation;
Two Terms; Farewell Address
2. Faced with internal disunion
between Federalists and Democrat
3. Faced international conflict between
France & England (Genet Affair ;
Impressments ; Jay Treaty w/GB
4. Dealt with sobering Whiskey
5. Warned nation to refrain from
foreign entanglements & political
6. Retired to Mount Vernon & Freed his
slaves in his Will – “First in War, First
in Peace, First in the Hearts of his
Countrymen.” ~ Henry “Light Horse
2. Beginning of Fraction/Faction Politics
The John Adams Presidency (1796-1800)
1. No one was anymore prepared
to hold office than Adams –
Immense Potential Why???
2. Suffered from Big Ego, Too
Independent, Distrusting of
common man – Federalist
3. XYZ Affair showed his strength
& his weaknesses as a leader
4. Fear of Republican Public
Sphere caused him to sign the
Alien Sedition Acts – A flagrant
affront to his former self.
5. His last minute Midnight Judge
Appointment before leaving
office contradicted his
predecessor’s wish to remain
apolitical – Why???
The Federalists effectively used the slogan
"MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, BUT NOT ONE
CENT FOR TRIBUTE" to strengthen their
political position. ~ XYZ Affair
Republican Public Sphere: Benjamin Franklin
Bache was editor of the Aurora, a
Republican newspaper. Bache had accused
George Washington of incompetence and
financial irregularities, and "the
blind, bald, crippled, toothless, querulous
ADAMS" of nepotism and monarchical
ambition. He was arrested for his
3. Kentucky Virginia Resolves
1. Democrat Republicans Reaction to Alien Sedition Acts
2. Drafted by Jefferson and Madison
3. The Virginia and Kentucky legislatures passed
resolutions declaring the federal laws invalid within
their states. The bold challenge to the federal
government offered by this strong states' rights
position seemed to point toward imminent armed
conflict within the United States.
4. Enormous changes had occurred in the explosive
decade of the 1790s. Federalists in government now
viewed the defense of their political party as the
equivalent of the survival of the republic. This led them
to enact and enforce such harsh laws against civil
5. Madison, who had been the chief architect of a strong
central government in the Constitution, now was wary
of national authority. He actually helped the KENTUCKY
LEGISLATURE to reject federal law.
6. By placing states rights above those of the federal
government, Kentucky and Virginia had established a
precedent that would be used to justify the secession
of southern states in the Civil War during the
Nullification Crisis in the Jackson Presidency and
Secession threats by South Carolina’s John Calhoun
Under the terms of the ASA over
20 Republican newspaper
editors were arrested and some
were imprisoned. The most
dramatic victim of the law was
MATTHEW LYON. His letter that
criticized President Adams'
"unbounded thirst for ridiculous
pomp, foolish adulation, and
self avarice" caused him to be
imprisoned. While Federalists
sent Lyon to prison for his
opinions, his constituents
reelected him to Congress even
from his jail cell.
4. Election of 1800
A Test of Wills
1. The ELECTION OF 1800 between John Adams and
Thomas Jefferson was an emotional and hard-fought
campaign. Each side believed that victory by the
other would ruin the nation.
2. Federalists attacked Jefferson as an un-Christian deist
whose sympathy for the French Revolution would
bring similar bloodshed and chaos to the United
3. On the other side, the Democratic-Republicans
denounced the strong centralization of federal power
under Adams's presidency. Republicans' specifically
objected to the expansion of the U.S. army and navy,
the attack on individual rights in the Alien and
Sedition Acts, and new taxes and deficit spending
used to support broadened federal action.
4. Overall, the Federalists wanted strong federal
authority to restrain the excesses of popular
majorities, while the Democratic-Republicans wanted
to reduce national authority so that the people could
rule more directly through state governments.
5. Marbury vs. Madison (1803) page 302
1. Before John Adams leaves office he attempts to
“pack” the Federal Courts with Federalist sympathizers
2. His secretary of state John Marshall delivers a
appointment to William Marbury.
3. When Jefferson assumes Presidency, he refused to
honor Federalist appointment by preventing his
secretary of state James Madison from delivering
4. Marbury sues Madison & it goes to the Supreme Court
under Jefferson’s cousin John Marshall who rules that
the Judiciary Act of 1789 was Unconstitutional.
5. Marshall’s Court actually rules against themselves
however Marbury Madison establishes the Supreme
Court’s Legitimacy for Judicial Review !!
6. Jeffersonian Democracy
1. Thomas Jefferson Presidency (1801-
2. Many feared Jefferson’s radical views
on government would lead to a
National Civil War and anarchy…His
Inaugural Speech calmed the
nation…"We are all Republicans, we
are all Federalists."
3. The Democratic-Republicans believed that government needed to be broadly accountable to
the people. Their coalition and ideals would dominate American politics well into the
nineteenth century. Can name past and modern Presidents who were influenced by
4. As an Enlightened Man, Jefferson embodied a true Renaissance President – dedicated to
Human Reason, Exploration, Sciences, Music, Architecture and Nature.
5. As a politician of democracy, Jefferson led the Nation toward his vision of the American
Republic based on "absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the MAJORITY." Stemming
from his deep optimism in human reason, Jefferson believed that the WILL OF THE PEOPLE,
expressed through elections, provided the most appropriate guidance for directing the
7. Additional Significant Facts on
1. Jefferson supported an Agrarian Democracy based on
affordable land for farmers & his 1787 Northwest Ordinance
2. Jefferson believed that the future of the US must be based
on hard working independent rural communities that
3. Jefferson also encouraged industry to use science and
technology to advance US production & international
4. For Jefferson, western expansion provided an escape from
the British model of industrial oppression. As long as hard
working farmers could acquire land at reasonable prices,
then America could prosper as a republic of equal and
independent citizens. Jefferson's ideas helped to inspire a
mass political movement that achieved many key aspects of
8. The Louisiana Purchase & the Lewis
Such a Bargain for an Empire
“Farmers were the chosen people of
Native Americans were apparently not
among the chosen
1. How did Jefferson’s Major Presidential Achievement
reflect his historical contradictions?
2. Sent delegates to France to buy New Orleans as a vital
commercial port for US
3. Napoleon, in the middle of another French War
negotiates for the sale of the entire Louisiana Territory
for $15 million ($250 today)
4. In a stroke of his pen Jefferson doubled the size of the
nation for 14 cents an acre
10. Lewis & Clark Corps of Discovery 1804-1806
1. Jefferson dispatched two fellow
Virginians, Meriwether Lewis and William
Clark, to explore it.
2. They were to conduct scientific and
commercial surveys in order to find ways to
exploit the region’s resources, develop trade
with Indians, and find a commercial route to
the Pacific Ocean that could foster trade
with Asia (Northwest Passage).
3. With the indispensible help from a
Shoshone 15 year old Indian named
Sacagawea the Corps of Discovery forged
alliances with local tribes along their
4. In two years Lewis and Clark traveled 2000
miles, all the way to the Pacific (reaching it
in the area of today’s Oregon- Fort Clatsop)
5. Though they did not find a commercial
route to Asia, their success reinforced the
belief that America’s territory would one
day extend to the Pacific Ocean.
6. It was the greatest achievement of
1. Barbary Wars
a. Jefferson sent Stephen Decatur and the Marines to Tripoli to
battle Islamic Pirates & open Mediterranean Seas to open trading
2. Embargo Act
a. In order to remain neutral between France & England, Jefferson
used his Presidential powers to shut down foreign trade to
pressure nations to end Impressments.
b. In 1808 American exports plummeted to 80%
c. Though he moderated it with the 1809 Non-intercourse Act, his
Presidential image was tarred and feathered by those who saw
this as an act of Jeffersonian economic piracy!!
12. US Moves toward 2nd War with England
“Canada, Canada, Canada!!”
1. A group of aggressive political leaders
known as the War Hawks pushed for
war against England.
2. These new American leaders from
western & southern US states such as
Henry Clay (Kentucky) & John C.
Calhoun (S. Carolina) were a new
breed of nationalists.
3. US pride and upholding American
honor at all costs in order to expand
economic interests were paramount to
4. Coupled with heightened tensions
between western settlers (1800 –
400K lived W. of App. Mtns) and
Native Indians in the Ohio Valley, the
War Hawks pushed Jefferson’s
successor, James Madison to declare
war against England.
13. The Rebel Shawnee Bros: Tecumseh & Tenskwatawa “The Prophet”
1. Natives could either attempt to
assimilate into American culture as
Cherokee Chief John Ross his people
should do or…
2. Reject all “White Ways” like the
Shawnee Leaders Tecumseh &
Tenskwatawa urged and fight for their
people traditional culture.
3. Tenskwatawa, a prophet, argued that
whites were the source of all evil and
that Indians should completely
separate from everything European.
4. In 1810, Tecumseh organized attacks
on frontier settlements. In 1811,
William Henry Harrison destroyed the
militants’ village at the Battle of
5. The Shawnee Bros were emblematic
of the future erosion of Indian culture
as more white settlers entered their
6. Hunting grounds, bison, fishing and
grass lands that had been
indispensible to their culture were
now disappearing in lieu of the
entrance of whites.
Parody Cartoon of British incited Indian
Atrocities against American
William Henry Harrison, Tecumseh,
14. War of 1812 Becomes a State Mate
1. The declaration of war by Congress in 1812 reflected a
2. Federalists and Republicans representing northern states,
where mercantile and financial interests were
concentrated, voted against the war.
3. Southern and western representatives voted
overwhelmingly for it. Deeply divided, the U.S. lacked a
large navy or army, lacked a central bank (since the Bank of
the United States’ charter expired in 1811), and northern
merchants and bankers refused to loan money to the
4. England held the upper hand for much of the War of 1812,
defeating American navy in early sea/lake battles and even
invading the capitol In 1814, and captured Washington,
D.C., burned the White House, and forced the government
to flee (Dolly Madison saved George’s painting by Stewart).
5. The United States had a few victories, including the defense
of Baltimore at Fort McHenry, an event that inspired the
song that became the national anthem, the “Star-Spangled
6. However, under military commandeers like Commodore
Perry, William Henry Harrison, and Andrew Jackson they
began to remove the Indian threat and win decisive
victories at sea and on land.
7. The Treat of Ghent ended the War however Jackson’s
impressive victory with a militia of misfits over the British at
New Orleans provided a patriotic push and lent great
measure to his military political aspirations.
15. Transforming America in the
“Rugged Individualism &
1. In 1800, America was undergoing not one, but two revolutions: one
political, the other economic.
2. 1801, when Jefferson became President, the U.S was a
new, underdeveloped country of just over 5 million.
3. Most of the pop. Hugged the Atlantic Ocean – 10% lived in rural areas –
not in cities – most remained within 20 miles of their homes – America
was a rural agrarian nation in 1801 – But this was going to change….In 100
years when T.R. took office – the US was a different nation. How???
4. Industrialization – Immigration – Urbanization – Class/Race/Gender Roles
5. The big question is how the United States emerged into such radical
changes over only a century & what movements drove these changes
during the course of the 19th Century????
16. T.R. in 1901
1. Electricity 5. Factories - Unions 9. Abolition of Slavery
2. Telephone 6. Urbanization 10. Women suffrage (states)
3. Refrigeration 7. Immigration 11. West is Conquered
4. Locomotive 8. Imperialism 12. Within 6 years – planes, cars,
17. The Mountain Men
1. The mountain men were beaver trappers and
explorers who lived in the wilderness of the
Rocky Mountains between 1810 to the 1840s.
Initially began by French trappers during the
17th & 18th Century – Americans entered fur
trapping following the Lewis and Clark
Expedition. John Colter remained in the Rockies
2. Mountain men epitomized the enterprising
independent adventuresome spirit of early
America because they not only lived in the
wilderness while trading but marketed their
lucrative beaver pelts.
3. They forged healthy positive relationships with
local Indian tribes like the
Blackfeet, Shoshone, Crows, and Cheyenne
4. They were instrumental in opening up the
various Emigrant Trails (widened into wagon
roads) allowing Americans in the east to settle
the new territories of the far west by organized
wagon trains traveling over roads explored and
in many cases, physically improved by the
mountain men and the big fur companies
originally to serve the mule train base inland fur
18. Jedediah Smith
1. Worked for William Ashley Company
2. Always carried a bible with him
3. Was scarred from a terrifying encounter with a Grizzly Bear
4. Rediscovered the South Pass the lowest point in the Rockies
where Pioneers later used.
5. Led a trapping expedition into California in 1826 to be the
first Americans to enter California overland…Helped by
Missionaries at San Gabriel Mission and then arrested by
Mexican authorities. They released him if he promised to
immediately return to US….he broke his promise and
headed toward Northern California.
6. Traveled back to California in 1831 and was later killed by a
Comanche ambush on the Santa Fe Trail. The movie
Jeremiah Johnson staring Robert Redford is based on Smith.
7. While travelling overland throughout the American
West, Jedediah's policy with the Native Americans was to
maintain friendly relations with gifts and exchanges.
However, if Jedediah felt Indians were being hostile to his
party, he would make a demonstration by having one or two
Natives killed with a rifle. This was done to discourage any
further tribal aggression against him and his party. Smith
punished his men for indiscriminately shooting Indians
without any perceived threat to his party.
8. Jedediah Smith's explorations were the main basis for
accurate Pacific-West maps; all the travels and discoveries
of the trappers and fur traders since Ashley went into the
map of the western United States he prepared in the winter
of 1830–31. This map has been called “a landmark in
mapping of the American West”.
19. Era of Good Feeling
• A Virginian and
Monroe ushered in a
period of national political
stability and growth.
• Governor of Virginia, a
diplomat who was part of
the Louisiana Purchase
and Secretary State,
Monroe was the last
founding father President.
• Wrought with conflicts:
• Second Bank of US Panic
• Missouri Compromise of
1820 – “Fire bell in the
• Monroe Doctrine –
Warning to Foreign
nations to keep out of
20. Panic of 1819
• A sharp financial disaster known as the Panic of 1819 hit the country in
1819; many blamed the distress on the policies of the Second Bank of the
United States (chartered in 1817 with Monroe's support),which was badly
managed by William Jones, its first president. Monroe, who considered
the bank essential to ensure a sound currency and to control the careless
habits of state banks in making loans, succeeded in 1819 in persuading the
directors to replace Jones with Langdon Cheves, a former Congressman
and a far abler financier. Monroe approved Chief Justice John Marshall's
decision in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), which upheld the
constitutionality of the banK
• Despite the economic downturn, Monroe remained popular and was
reelected in 1820 almost unanimously.
• The economy recovered after 1820. Monroe vetoed an appropriation for
road repairs in the Cumberland Road Bill (1822), stating that "congress
does not possess the power under the constitution to pass such a law.”
With Monroe in the White House, the House rejected most spending bills
on internal projects.
21. The Missouri
its “Fire Bell in
The U.S. Senate was evenly split during the Monroe Administration: 11 free
states and 11 slave states (Delaware and Kentucky were slave states), and
admission of a new state threatened the balance. Henry Clay, known as the
Great Compromiser, peacefully resolved the difficult dispute over slavery in
new states with the Missouri Compromise: admit one free state (Maine) to
balance one new slave state (Missouri), and ban slavery above a certain
latitude (36 degrees, 30 minutes) in the Louisiana Territory.
The Missouri Compromise became a temporary stop gap measure only
delaying the pending crisis that would divide the nation regarding the future of
slavery in the decades to come.
In his 1823 Presidential Address, a speech written by John Adams son
John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s Sec. State, Monroe established the first
American Foreign Policy Declaration known as the Monroe Doctrine.
Essentially, the Doctrine recognized newly independent Latin American
nations and their rights to self-determination without the threat of
European powers to attack them.
It was a warning to European Powers that if they intervened in the
sovereignty of Latin America, the US would see it as a threat to all of
the Americas & take any action it deemed necessary to protect these
smaller countries and US interests
23. The Inventor of the First American Industrial
1. In 1807, on the Hudson River in New York, the first
steamboat, built by Robert Fulton, went into
2. Steamboats made possible upstream navigation and
rapid transport across the Great Lakes, and
eventually the Atlantic Ocean.
3. In 1825, the Erie Canal in upstate New York was
completed. The canal facilitated the settlement of
upstate New York and the Old Northwest, and
helped foster trade between farmers in the west
and manufacturers in the east.
4. While canals only connected existing
waterways, railroads opened vast new areas of the
interior, while stimulating coal mining, for fuel, and
iron manufacturing, for locomotives and rail. Work
on the first railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio, began
5. By 1860, the nation’s rail network was 30,000 miles
long, more than the total in the rest of the world
6. At the same time, the invention of the telegraph in
the 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse allowed for
24. The American System Connecting Markets
1. Henry Clay believed that the future
success of national enterprise must be
determined by regional markets
controlled by supply and demand
2. This American System would connect
Northern manufacturing, banking and
artisans with Southern agriculture and
raw materials. Furthermore, western
settlements would provide the North and
South with viable future markets.
3. National Roads like the one through the
Cumberland Gap, canals, R/R and
telegraph would transport goods and
information to connect economic regions
to one another and strengthen the
4. Protective Tariffs & Taxes to foster
internal improvements would be
necessary & a national bank to ensure
monetary stability and credit
30. The American Industrial Revolution Factory Life for
Virginia Woolf, in the 1920s, made this point: "It is
obvious that the values of women differ very
often from the values which have been made by
the other sex. Yet it is the masculine values that
prevail" (A Room of One's Own, N.Y. 1929, p. 76)
Definition: A gender
role is a set of social
norms that are
either a man or a
woman in a social or
32. Lowell Mill Girls (1810-1840)
WHAT: The "Lowell Mill Girls" (or "Factory Girls," as they
called themselves) were female workers who came to work
for the textile corporations in Lowell, Massachusetts, during
the Industrial Revolution in the United States.
WHO: The Factory girls were daughters of propertied New
England farmers, between the ages of 17 and 25 (But many
were as young as 11 and as old as 40).
By 1840, at the height of the Industrial Revolution, the textile
mills had recruited over 8,000 women, who came to make up
nearly 75% of the mill workforce.
WHY: The girls could support their families during the
depression of the 1830s; help send their brothers to college;
take advantage of educational schools provided by factory
employers; gain valuable skills that they would carry into
adulthood; develop social relations with other workers
CONFLICT: Factory owners began to abuse the girls by working them longer hours for less pay
and under dangerous working conditions.
EFFECT: Conditions in the Lowell mills were severe: Lowell girls worked from 5:00 am until 7:00
pm, for an average 73 hours per week. The noise of the spindles were deafening; girls toiled in
hot spinning rooms especially during the summer when employers kept windows shut. They
breathed in air filled with cloth and thread that led to many coughing up blood and causing
33. The Spatial Empowerment Effect
1. Girls lived together in boarding houses that
factory owners built near the factories.
2. Despite cramped and menial conditions; these
Lowell boarding homes fostered a close affinity
among the girls who saw one another as part of
3. This communal spirit inspired them to demand
worker rights as conditions worsened during the
1830s. They organized two strikes in ’34/’36
4. The sense of community that arose from
working and living together contributed directly
to the energy and growth of the first union of
women workers, the Lowell Female Labor
5. Started by twelve operatives in January 1845, its
membership grew to 500 within six months, and
continued to expand rapidly. The Association
was run completely by the women themselves:
they elected their own officers and held their
own meetings; they helped organize the city’s
female workers, and set up branches in other
mill towns. They organized fairs, parties, and
34. Oh! isn't it a pity, such a
pretty girl as I
Should be sent to the
factory to pine away and
die? Oh! I cannot be a
slave, I will not be a
slave, For I'm so fond of
That I cannot be a slave.
The Lowell girls' organizing efforts were notable not only for the "unfeminine" participation of
women, but also for the political framework used to appeal to the public. Framing their struggle
for shorter work days and better pay as a matter of rights and personal dignity, they sought to
place themselves in the larger context of the American Revolution. During the 1834 &1836
"turn-out" or strikes – they warned that "the oppressing hand of avarice would enslave us,” the
women included poems which read:
Let oppression shrug her
shoulders, And a haughty
tyrant frown, And little
upstart Ignorance, In
mockery look down. Yet I
value not the feeble
threats Of Tories in
disguise, While the flag of
Independence O'er our
noble nation flies.
1. In reaction to the factory system and the
depersonalized nature of machines, certain American
writers emphasized the individual unique qualities of
2. They placed value on the natural world and our
relationship to it.
3. These transcendentalists reasoned that individual
judgment should take precedence over existing social
traditions and institutions. Ralph Waldo Emerson
defined freedom as an open-ended process of self-
realization, in which individuals could remake
themselves and their own lives. Henry David Thoreau
called for individuals to rely on themselves.
4. In this era the term individualism was first used. Unlike
in the colonial period, many Americans now believed
individuals should pursue their own self-interest, no
matter what the cost to the public good, and that they
should and could depend only on themselves.
Americans more and more saw the realm of the private
self as one in which other individuals and government
should not interfere.
5. Thoreau, Dickinson, and Emerson established an
credible national literary field that stood on par with
Hinweis der Redaktion
Republican Societies – French Revolution – French English WarHamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Great Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution. John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington's strong support mobilized public opinion and proved decisive in securing ratification in the Senate by the necessary two-thirds majority. The British agreed to depart from their forts around the Great Lakes, subsequently the United States-Canadian boundary had to be re-adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Great Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with Great Britain. The treaty angered the French and became a central issue in many political debates. Relations with France deteriorated after the treaty was signed, leaving his successor John Adams, with the prospect of warInternal
Attempted to remain neutral as the war between France and England engulfed EuropeThe French saw America as Britain's junior partner and began seizing American merchant ships that were trading with the British. Americans remained pro-French, due to France's assistance during the Revolutionary War. Because of this, Americans wouldn't rally behind Adams, nor anyone else, to stop FranceThere were four separate acts, the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Alien Enemies Act, and the Sedition Act. These four acts were passed to cool down the opposition by stopping their most extreme firebrands. The Naturalization Act changed the period of residence required before an immigrant could attain American citizenship to 14 years (naturalized citizens tended to vote for the Democratic-Republicans). The Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to deport any foreigner he thought dangerous to the country. The Sedition Act made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. Punishments included 2–5 years in prison and fines of up to $5,000. Although Adams had not originated or promoted any of these acts, he nevertheless signed them into law.American popular support for France weakened dramatically as the Federalists effectively used the slogan "MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, BUT NOT ONE CENT FOR TRIBUTE" to strengthen their political position. Federalists who controlled the Congress as well as the presidency raised new taxes, dramatically enlarged the army and navy, and generally increased the power of the central government in preparation for a war against France that seemed inevitable.The Adams administration entered a "quasi-war" with France from 1798 to 1800. Although no official declaration of war had been made, the United States clearly acted as an unofficial ally of Great Britain. Only 15 years since the end of the Revolutionary War, a dramatic transition in American international alliances had occurred.
The election's outcome brought a dramatic victory for Democratic-Republicans who swept both houses of Congress, including a decisive 65 to 39 majority in the House of Representatives. The presidential decision in the electoral college was somewhat closer, but the most intriguing aspect of the presidential vote stemmed from an outdated Constitutional provision whereby the Republican candidates for president and vice president actually ended up tied with one another.Votes for President and Vice President were not listed on separate ballots. AlthoughDuring the election of 1800, Federalists cast Thomas Jefferson as an infidel because of his strict advocacy for the separation of Church and State.Adams ran as Jefferson's main opponent, running mates Jefferson and AARON BURR received the same number of electoral votes. The election was decided in the House of Representatives where each state wielded a single vote.Interestingly, the old Federalist Congress would make the decision, since the newly elected Republicans had not yet taken office. Most Federalists preferred Burr, and, once again, Alexander Hamilton shaped an unpredictable outcome. After numerous blocked ballots, Hamilton helped to secure the presidency for Jefferson, the man he felt was the lesser of two evils. Ten state delegations voted for Jefferson, 4 supported Burr, and 2 made no choice.
As the first peaceful transition of political power between opposing parties in U.S. history, however, the election of 1800 had far-reaching significance. Jefferson appreciated the momentous change and his inaugural address called for reconciliation by declaring that, "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Madison, Monroe, Jackson, Polk, Lincoln, Wilson, T.R., FDR, Kennedy, Johnson, Carter, Clinton, ObamaJefferson also felt that the central government should be "rigorously frugal and simple." As president he reduced the size and scope of the federal government by ending internal taxes, reducing the size of the army and navy, and paying off the government's debt. Limiting the federal government flowed from his strict interpretation of the Constitution.Finally, Jefferson also committed his presidency to the protection of civil liberties and minority rights. As he explained in his INAUGURAL ADDRESS IN 1801, "though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal laws must protect, and to violate would be oppression." Jefferson's experience of Federalist repression in the late 1790s led him to more clearly define a central concept of American democracy.Jefferson's stature as the most profound thinker in the American political tradition stems beyond his specific policies as president. His crucial sense of what mattered most in life grew from a deep appreciation of farming, in his mind the most virtuous and meaningful human activity. As he explained in his NOTES ON THE STATE OF VIRGINIA (1785), "Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God." Since farmers were an overwhelming majority in the American republic, one can see how his belief in the value of agriculture reinforced his commitment to democracy.
financial speculation and the development of urban industry both threatened to rob men of the independence that they maintained as farmers. Debt, on the one hand, and factory work, on the other, could rob men of the economic autonomy essential for republican citizens.In spite of the success and importance of Jeffersonian Democracy, dark flaws limited even Jefferson's grand vision. First, his hopes for the incorporation of technology at the household level failed to grasp how poverty often pushed women and children to the forefront of the new industrial labor. Second, an equal place for Native Americans could not be accommodated within his plans for an agrarian republic. Third, Jefferson's celebration of agriculture disturbingly ignored the fact that slaves worked the richest farm land in the United States. Slavery was obviously incompatible with true democratic values. Jefferson's explanation of slaves within the republic argued that African Americans' racial inferiority barred them from becoming full and equal citizens.Our final assessment of Jeffersonian Democracy rests on a profound contradiction. Jefferson was the single most powerful individual leading the struggle to enhance the rights of ordinary people in the early republic. Furthermore, his Declaration of Independence had eloquently expressed America's statement of purpose "that all men are created equal." Still, he owned slaves all his life and, unlike Washington, never set them free.For all his greatness, Jefferson did not transcend the pervasive racism of his day.
Did Jefferson have the right to purchase this territory from France?
The United States decisively vanquished Indian forces in the West and South, killing Tecumseh and many other militants. Most notably, forces led by Andrew Jackson forced Indians to cede much of the southeastern lands that became Alabama and Mississippi, and then famously repulsed British forces at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815. This battle was fought before news reached America that American and British negotiators had signed the Treaty of Ghent which had ended the war the previous month. The treaty changed nothing, giving the United States no territory or rights regarding U.S. ships or impressment. At the time, some Americans called the War of 1812 the Second War of Independence. The war affirmed the ability of the republic to defend itself and wage war without sacrificing its republican institutions. It made Andrew Jackson a national hero. And it sealed the doom of Indians who occupied lands east of the Mississippi River, thus finally securing this vast area for whites, many of whom in the south would bring slaves and slavery with them. The war strengthened Americans’ nationalism and their sense of isolation and separation from Europe.
In 1800, America was undergoing not one, but two revolutions: one political, the other economic. The forces unleashed by these twin revolutions; democracy, industrialization, and capitalism, developed in tandem and transformed the look and character of the country. There's a world of difference between the America of Thomas Jefferson and that of Theodore Roosevelt.Show 1900 stats and film…….
Show History of US at 13 minutesThey arose in a natural geographic and economic expansion driven by the lucrative earnings available in the North American fur trade, in the wake of the various 1806–07 published accounts of the Lewis and Clark expeditions' (1803–1806) findings about the Rockies and the (ownership-disputed) Oregon Country where they flourished economically for over three decades.While they considered themselves independent they were, in fact, economically an arm of the big fur companies which held annual fairs for the mountain men to sell their wares known as Trapper's rendezvous.Approximately 3,000 mountain men ranged the mountains between 1820 and 1840, the peak beaver-harvesting period. While there were many free trappers, most mountain men were employed by major fur companies. The life of a company man was almost militarized. The men had mess groups, hunted and trapped in brigades and always reported to the head of the trapping party. This man was called a "boosway", a bastardization of the French term bourgeoisie. He was the leader of the brigade and the head trader.Donald Mackenzie, representing the North West Company, held a Rendezvous in the Boise River Valley in 1819. The rendezvous system was later implemented by William Henry Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, whose company representatives would haul supplies to specifimountain locations in the spring, engage in trading with trappers, and bring pelts back to communities on the Missouri and Mississippi rivers in the fall. Ashley sold his business to the outfit of Jackson and Sublette. He continued to earn revenue by selling that firm their supplies. This system of rendezvous with trappers continued when other firms, particularly the American Fur Company owned by John Jacob Astor, entered the fielThe annual rendezvous was often held at Horse Creek on the Green River,Pinedale, Wyoming. By the mid-1830s, it attracted 450-500 men annually, essentially all the American trappers and traders working in the Rockies, as well as numerous Native Americans.
In 1822, Gen. Ashley ordered Smith to come back down the Missouri to Grand River. When Jedediah returned, the Arikaras natives, who were becoming increasingly hostile, attacked and massacred 13 of Ashley's men. Jedediah fought bravely, and the surviving men, including Gen. Ashley, took note of Jedediah's conduct during the battle. Ashley appointed Smith as Captain of his menSmith was often recognized by significant facial scarring due to a grizzly bear attack along the Cheyenne River. In 1824, while looking for the Crow tribe to obtain fresh horses and get westward directions, Jedediah was stalked and attacked by a large grizzly bear. The huge bear tackled Jedediah to the ground. Jedediah's ribs were broken and members of his party witnessed Smith fighting the bear, which ripped open his side with its claws and took his head in its mouth. The bear suddenly retreated and the men ran to help Smith. They found his scalp and ear nearly ripped off, but he convinced a friend, Jim Clyman, to sew it loosely back on, giving him directions. The trappers fetched water, bound up his broken ribs, and cleaned his wounds. After recuperating from his bloody wounds and broken ribs, Jedediah wore his hair long to cover the large scar from his eyebrow to his ear.In its first trip, the Smith party followed the Colorado River deep into the west in search of new beaver hunting grounds, and ended up in harsh territory. To gather supplies for the return trip, the group chose to travel to California. After an arduous pass through the mountains into the Mojave Desert, the party was attacked by a group of Mohaves, and lost several men. Finding shelter with a friendly Mojave village, the men recuperated and met two Tongva men, who offered to guide them to San Gabriel Mission. The guides led them through the desert via a path that avoided Death Valley and which more or less follows the route of today's Interstate 15. Froo Soda Lake they followed the intermittent Mojave River into the San Bernardino Mountains, which they crossed, emerging at the point where today the Community of Etiwanda is, and into a vastly different environment, the paradisal California that sailors and newspapers talked about on the East Coast. Rather than head to the nearby mission ranch, they quickly made their way west (following the path of the future Route 66), arriving at the Mission on November 27, 1826.
In March 1822 Monroe informed Congress that permanent stable governments had been established in the United Provinces of La Plata (present-day Argentina), Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Mexico. Adams, under Monroe's careful supervision, wrote the instructions for the ministers (ambassadors) to these new countries. They declared that the policy of the United States was to uphold republican institutions and to seek treaties of commerce on a most-favored-nation basis. The United States would support inter-American congresses dedicated to the development of economic and political institutions fundamentally differing from those prevailing in Europe. The articulation of an "American system" distinct from that of Europe was a basic tenet of Monroe's policy toward Latin America. Monroe took pride as the United States was the first nation to extend recognition and to set an example to the rest of the world for its support of the "cause of liberty and humanity."
Talcott Parsons' viewWorking in the United States, Talcott Parsons developed a model of the nuclear family in 1955, which at that place and time was the prevalent family structure. It compared a strictly traditional view of gender roles (from an industrial-age American perspective) to a more liberal view.The Parsons model was used to contrast and illustrate extreme positions on gender roles. Model A describes total separation of male and female roles, while Model B describes the complete dissolution of gender roles. (The examples are based on the context of the culture and infrastructure of the United States.)
Together, these mutually reinforcing technological and social changes produced staggering increases: between 1840 to 1860, the number of spindles in use went from 2¼ million to almost 5¼ million; bales of cotton used from 300,000 to nearly 1 million, and the number of workers from 72,000 to nearly 122,000. This tremendous growth translated directly into large profits for the textile corporations: between 1846 and 1850, for instance, the dividends of the Boston based investors, the group of textile companies that founded Lowell, averaged 14 percent per year. Most corporations recorded similarly high profits during this period.Conditions in the Lowell mills were severe by modern American standards. Employees worked from 5:00 am until 7:00 pm, for an average 73 hours per week. Each room usually had 80 women working at machines, with two male overseers managing the operation. The noise of the machines was described by one worker as "something frightful and infernal," and although the rooms were hot, windows were often kept closed during the summer so that conditions for thread work remained optimal. The air, meanwhile, was filled with particles of thread and clothLiving quartersThe investors or factory owners built hundreds of boarding houses near the mills, where textile workers lived year-round. A curfew of 10:00 pm was common, and men were generally not allowed inside. About 25 women lived in each boarding house, with up to six sharing a bedroom. One worker described her quarters as "a small, comfortless, half-ventilated apartment containing some half a dozen occupants". Trips away from the boarding house were uncommon; the Lowell girls worked and ate together. However, half-days and short paid vacations were possible due to the nature of the piece-work; one girl would work the machines of another in addition to her own such that no wages would be lost but they would be lost if they stopped working. These close quarters fostered community as well as resentment. Newcomers were mentored by older women in areas such as dress, speech, behavior, and the general ways of the community. Workers often recruited their friends or relatives to the factories, creating a familial atmosphere among many of the rank and file. The Lowell girls were expected to attend church and demonstrate morals befitting proper society. The 1848 Handbook to Lowell proclaimed that "The company will not employ anyone who is habitually absent from public worship on the Sabbath, or known to be guilty of immorality."
Living quartersThe investors or factory owners built hundreds of boarding houses near the mills, where textile workers lived year-round. A curfew of 10:00 pm was common, and men were generally not allowed inside. About 25 women lived in each boarding house, with up to six sharing a bedroom. One worker described her quarters as "a small, comfortless, half-ventilated apartment containing some half a dozen occupants". Trips away from the boarding house were uncommon; the Lowell girls worked and ate together. However, half-days and short paid vacations were possible due to the nature of the piece-work; one girl would work the machines of another in addition to her own such that no wages would be lost but they would be lost if they stopped working. These close quarters fostered community as well as resentment. Newcomers were mentored by older women in areas such as dress, speech, behavior, and the general ways of the community. Workers often recruited their friends or relatives to the factories, creating a familial atmosphere among many of the rank and file. The Lowell girls were expected to attend church and demonstrate morals befitting proper society. The 1848 Handbook to Lowell proclaimed that "The company will not employ anyone who is habitually absent from public worship on the Sabbath, or known to be guilty of immorality.”Strikes of 1834 and 1836The initial effort of the investors and managers to recruit female textile workers brought generous wages for the time (three to five dollars per week), but with the economic depression of the early 1830s, the Board of Directors proposed a reduction in wages. This, in turn, led to organized "turn-outs" or strikes.In February 1834, the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills requested the managers or agents to impose a 15% reduction in wages, to go into effect on March 1. After a series of meetings, the female textile workers organized a "turn-out" or strike. The women involved in "turn-out" immediately withdrew their savings causing "a run" on two local banks.The strike failed and within days the women had all returned to work at reduced pay or left town, but the "turn-out" or strike was an indication of the determination among the Lowell female textile workers to take labor action. This dismayed the agents of the factories, who portrayed the turnout as a betrayal of femininity. William Austin, agent of the Lawrence Manufacturing Company, wrote to his Board of Directors, "notwithstanding the friendly and disinterested advice which has been on all proper occasions [sic] communicated to the girls of the Lawrence mills a spirit of evil omen … has prevailed, and overcome the judgment and discretion of too many".Again, in response to a severe economic depression and the high costs of living, in January 1836, the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills absorbed an increase in the textile workers' rent to help in the crisis faced by the company boarding house keepers. As the economic calamity continued in October 1836, the Directors proposed an additional rent hike to be paid by the textile workers living in the company boarding houses. The female textile workers responded immediately in protest by forming the Factory Girls' Association and organizing a "turn-out" or strike. Harriet Hanson Robinson, an eleven-year-old doffer at the time of the strike, recalled in her memoirs: "One of the girls stood on a pump and gave vent to the feelings of her companions in a neat speech, declaring that it was their duty to resist all attempts at cutting down the wages. This was the first time a woman had spoken in public in Lowell, and the event caused surprise and consternation among her audience."This "turn-out" or strike attracted over 1,500 workers – nearly twice the number two years previously - causing Lowell's textile mills to run far below capacity. Unlike the "turn-out" or strike in 1834, in 1836 there was enormous community support for the striking female textile workers. The proposed rent hike was seen as a violation of the written contract between the employers and the employees. The "turn-out" persisted for weeks and eventually the Board of Directors of Lowell's textile mills rescinded the rent hike. Although the "turn-out" was a success, the weakness of the system was evident, and worsened further in the Panic of 1837.