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G325 final revision exam tips 2017 - 1a, 1b, Online Age

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G325 final revision exam tips 2017 - 1a, 1b, Online Age

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a mash up of ideas, notes and resources to help my lovely but disorganised bunch of A2 Media Studies students. bits borrowed from here and there - use how you wish.

a mash up of ideas, notes and resources to help my lovely but disorganised bunch of A2 Media Studies students. bits borrowed from here and there - use how you wish.

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G325 final revision exam tips 2017 - 1a, 1b, Online Age

  1. 1. G325 Coming to an exam theatre near you soon . . .
  2. 2. 1a – Key Reminders (POT CAFÉ) • POT – Progress Over Time • Five possible areas, can be combination of two: • Research and planning, digital technology, post production, conventions of real media texts, creativity. • You will not get creativity on its own. • Good media language usage essential – CCC MESS • Clear and Focused Examples (CAFÉ) to show what you did. • Evaluative, contextual, reflective - CONFIDENCE • 30 mins – 25 marks
  3. 3. • creativity has been defined as the ability to bring something new into existence’ Anthony Storr • ‘…through making things, and sharing them with others, we feel a greater connection with the world…’ David Gauntlett • To promote creativity you need to be able to play and take risks. Ken Robinson • ‘the making of the new and the rearranging of the old.’ Bentley • Spontaneity takes practice - Csikszentmihalyi (or a theorist) • Creativity takes Courage – Henri Matisse • Ken Robinson identified creative habits of mind: 1. Flexibility – alternate ways of thinking 2. Willingness - to think the impossible 3. Confidence - to try things out 4. Ability - to handle uncertainty - perseverance in adversity 1a only
  4. 4. 1B – 30 mins (25 marks) • CCC MESS (Media Language) • Address the main concept first • Try to link in to wider range of concepts and theorists to reach level 3 and 4 marks • Give the examiner landmarks (real media texts, clear examples from your own coursework) • You know your coursework better than anyone else, so SHOW the examiner that you can apply theoretical ideas to your work – DON’T DESCRIBE.
  5. 5. 2 minutes, write them down
  6. 6. Media in the Online Age • How have online media developed? • What has been the impact of the internet on media production? • How is consumer behaviour and audience response transformed by online media. • To what extent has convergence transformed the media? Candidates might explore combinations of any two media, considering how each (or the two in converged forms) can be analyzed from the above prompts. Examples might be music downloading and distribution, the film industry and the internet, online television, online gaming and virtual worlds, online news provision, various forms of online media production by the public or a range of other online / social media forms.
  7. 7. Question 8 or 9 – 1 hour – 50 marks • Will either have a statement for you to discuss • Or an idea it wants you to agree or disagree with • One questions will lean towards audiences • One question will lean towards institutions • Whichever you answer, it’s good to share knowledge of both • This process is easier if you can apply a theoretical concept or demonstrate your point using a good case study
  8. 8. The mark scheme (Level 4) Explanation/ analysis/argument (16-20 marks) • Candidates adapt their learning to the specific requirements of the question in excellent fashion. The answer offers a clear, articulate balance of media theories, knowledge of texts and industries and personal engagement with issues and debates. Use of examples (16-20 marks) • Examples of texts, industries and theories are clearly connected together in the answer, with a coherent argument developed in response to the question. Use of terminology (8-10 marks) • Throughout the answer, material presented is informed by contemporary media theory and the command of the appropriate theoretical language is excellent.
  9. 9. Q8 or 9 – backward thinking • Start with the conclusion (your destination) • Plan your essay in reverse (identify key landmarks) • Develop thesis statement (where you are leaving from) • Plan some sightseeing/toilet breaks along the way.
  10. 10. Things to consider in your answer: • Have any command words been used or deciphered in the response • Have industries been identified • Is there a mention of audiences • Is there a mention of institutions • Is there a clear thesis statement (something the candidate hopes to prove or disprove or explore during the essay). • Are there any theoretical ideas hinted at to explore or examine? (IS there an opportunity to talk about a theorist?) • Does the introduction make sense? (could you map out an essay plan from it?)
  11. 11. ESSAY WRITING – THE INTRO  Thesis – the question rephrased plus your opinion/angle  Industry – which industries you will use to highlight your main arguments  Theory – what theorist/s this most closely links to  Sense – keep it clear, keep it relevant to the question (use clincher sentences). TITS !
  12. 12. CLINCHER SENTENCES  A clincher sentence can be defined as a statement, argument, fact, situation, or the like, that is decisive or conclusive. In academic writing, this is a statement in a expository paragraph which reiterates the topic and summarizes how the information in the paragraph supports the topic. Normally, each paragraph starts with a topic sentence which tells the reader about what the paragraph will discuss. This is followed by the body which gives evidence and arguments that support the topic statement. The final sentence of each of these paragraphs are clincher sentences. The statement should not simply be a summary, but it should make the reader feel that the writing is complete.
  13. 13. Theories we considered: • Jeff Howe – Crowd Sourcing This is when someone puts their intent out onto the internet and then gets free support/information/ideas/labour from other people on the internet. Clay Shirky – The internet is run on love (people offering time, resources and knowledge to get stuff done) Gauntlett – The process of making (connecting) and collaborating using the web. What example can we use of how this has benefitted audiences? Case Studies to support this: OK Go – This Shall Pass (2010) Life in a Day (2011) Chainsmokerz – Selfie (2014) Can you think of other UGC work across media?
  14. 14. Other relevant theory: • 2. Chris Anderson – The Long Tail Lots of small grossing films If you add up all the revenue from Niche market films the profit can be greater than or equal to the profit from one blockbuster or best selling product. Pre broadband (WEB 1.0) - Niche products were hard to find and expensive to buy Now (WEB 2.0) - online shopping/sharing/recommendations makes it easy to cater for everyone's taste. Future (WEB 3.0 - Markoff) – pre-filtered content based on user history. Web more connected, more open, and more intelligent. Ubiquitous Connectivity. Intelligent applications One large grossing blockbuster
  15. 15. A tendency to celebrate certain key texts produced by powerful media industries Media Studies 1.0 Media Studies 2.0 An interest in the massive long tail of independent media projects such as those found on YouTube and many other … forms of DIY media.. ‘DIY’ and the ‘Long Tail’ – Media Gods no longer in control
  16. 16. OLD MEDIA The ‘Media Gods’ Passive Audience ‘Appointment to view’ Expensive Separate Platforms Centralized Wasted Time/Cognitive Surplus NEW MEDIA Web 2.0 User Generated Cross Platform Inexpensive to produce Decentralized Social ‘Making is connecting’ David Gauntlett The Media Gods As opposed to ‘Making is connecting’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rlzu8UYidTY
  17. 17. DAVID GAUNTLETT  Web 2.0 has created a more democratic media. (Gillmour [WE Media]– netizen – bottom up framework)  We are all inherently creative, “making is connecting.” Web has enhanced this.  The dominance of media institutions is being challenged.  We live in the age of the prosumer.  Removal of gatekeepers will open up the media to greater democracy and foster creativity that otherwise would not have been accesible.
  18. 18. ANDREW KEEN  Web 2.0 has created cultural chaos.  Creates a “cult of the amateur” which devalues the professional.  Expertise is devalued.  Internet Oligarchs are replacing Old Media Oligarchs.  Removal of gatekeepers will devalue genuine talent and expertise.  “Those who shout loudest will be heard most” celebs with mass following (bought / ordered online) B J Mendelson – social media is bullsh*t; quantity over quality.
  19. 19. Polarised views on social media Pessimistic (DYSTOPIAN) OPTIMISTIC (Utopian) Banal and trivial, replacing “real” human contact; Noam Chomsky – social media eroding social norms We’re living in a golden age – we can do almost anything Shaping people in narcissistic and inarticulate ways – Michael Wesch Increased communication – the global village (McLuhan) Erosion between the traditionally private and public Potential for political, charitable, arts and protest collaborative action (Gillmour – WE Media – netizens) Computer games/uncensored posts/videos to blame for violence and cruelty
  20. 20. Includes all, irrespective of wealth, social status, or geography Monopolies (like Google) Concentrate power and make the web brittle Tim Berners Lee DECENTRALISATION As opposed to ‘By design, the Web has no centre, anyone can create….'
  21. 21. The positives of web 2.0 outweigh the negatives. Discuss. Positives Negatives Youtube • Free / accessible • Market research • Potential careers/ profit • Fun • Easy to be heard Social Networking • Expression of own opinion • Free, easy communication • Advertising benefits for businesses • Political influences • Allows free debate • Unfiltered news •Copyright issues •Offensive content – hard to police (dependent on complaints) •Power of negative reviews •False identities •Cyberbullying •Hacking •Copyright issues •Sharing too much – getting fired, etc. •Time wasted / obsession
  22. 22. eMedia Electronic versions/add-ons to ‘old media’ EG: eMail, Messaging, Online Newspapers Pay to view Movies User Generated Content Audiences become the producers The Wisdom of Crowds Audiences share their favourites, tags and reviews The Network Effect Audiences communicate with each other directly. Tim O’Reilly: Web 2.0 Web 1.0 The web as a New way of publishing existing Media Content (Another Platform) Invented the term ‘Web 2.0’ and said there were six big ideas that make it work; the most important to Media being: Web 2.0 The Web as a Social Network
  23. 23. Dan Gillmor and ‘We Media’ • For years ‘Big Media’ (corporations such as Sky, Google and the BBC) have had control over who produces and shares media, and the information that people get. The people who own these large corporations are not representative of the diversity of society. • The internet has allowed for the freedom of citizen journalism. • The audience is now the producer.
  24. 24. Henry Jenkins and Convergence Culture • Convergence - the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audiences who would go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they wanted. Convergence is a word that manages to describe technological, industrial, cultural, and social changes • Participatory culture - circulation of media content depends heavily on the active participation of the consumer. • Collective intelligence – combining skills and resources (just like We-Think), which is enabled by convergence.
  25. 25. John McMuria and Youtube • A participatory culture is not necessarily a diverse culture. • Minorities are grossly under-represented - the most heavily viewed videos on YouTube tend to come from white middle class males. • If we want to see a more "democratic" culture, we need to explore what mechanisms might encouraged greater diversity in who participates, whose work gets seen, and what gets valued within the new participatory culture.
  26. 26. • Lean Back Media– non interactive media. • Lean Forward Media– interactive media. • Technology Push/Demand Pull – Daniel Chandler, 2001. • Top Down Communication – one communicating too many. • Bottom Up Communication – peer to peer communication.
  27. 27. NEW MEDIA Lean Forward ‘Lean back 2.0’ OLD MEDIA Lean back Nielsen Lean Forward, Lean Back As opposed to ‘On the Web, users are engaged and want to go places and get things done. The Web is an active medium. While watching TV, viewers want to be entertained. They are in relaxation mode and vegging out; they don't want to make choices. TV is a passive medium.’
  28. 28. Nielsen: Lean Forward/Lean Back
  29. 29. Political Positions Libertarians Liberal Pluralists ‘c’Conservative Political Belief People should be able to do what they want with the minimum of state control. The weaknesses of the few shouldn’t prevent the freedom of the many. Different communities should be able to live together with a core of common values, such as the rule of law and the primacy of free speech. It takes centuries to develop a strong culture and institutions. Novel ideas need to learn to fit in with existing values.The Jury is still out. Philosophy ‘Information wants to be free’ Regulation and control have no place in the new territory of Cyberspace. The technology can be empowering and educational It is a ‘great leveller’, but all citizens must have access to the web as a ‘digital entitlement’. Regulation may be needed to ensure (safe) access. The technology will tend to damage traditional values and economic systems including: Literacy, Decency, Expertise, Authority, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Copyright Causes Piracy and Censorship Digital Citizenship, Safe access Internet Porn (Paedophilia etc), Damage to young people, Criminality, Privacy
  30. 30. The physical fact of instant transmission has been uncritically raised to a social fact, without any pause to notice that virtually all such transmission is at once selected and controlled by existing social authorities ... Raymond Williams (1974) Raymond Williams : The Media is always dominated by the rich and powerful in society (Marxist Perspective)
  31. 31. Convergence • “We’re really talking about a converged interactive media industry. There’s an increasing interplay between gaming, online, TV and films – it’s all coming together.” Jon Kingsbury, NESTA, 2010
  32. 32. Proliferation of technology: • The rise of smartphones, iPads and netbooks. • Technological determinism – a noticeable change / cultural shift in the way we live our lives and access media • Orchestrated Media – using multiple devices to get most of A medium • Dual screen viewing – often linked to above, online content complimenting offline/broadcast content • Meshing (MULTIPLE DEVICE USAGE) and stacking (UNRELATED TASKS WHILST CONSUMING MEDIA)
  33. 33. Netflix: • More people use Netflix to access content rather than TV • Uses social media to discuss and promote new content • Exclusive content – to attract subscribers • Accessible from any device with internet connection (phone, games console, laptop). • No longer streaming – can download and watch at other times • Subscription services reduce the impact of illegal downloading
  34. 34. Netflix: • Broken down traditional scheduling (TV industry) • Made TV accessible online/through internet • Makes recommendations, viewers easy to find content by genre, type, etc. • Introduced rating systems (simple thumbs up/down approach). Company using data to develop new content. • People no longer buying DVD content and purchasing box-office content through cable/satellite services. • Fast delivery time (download/streaming) – accessible through smart devices (internet connection); developed from DVD rental. • Large DVD library • Creating their own content – exclusive content that you can’t get on traditional services
  35. 35. Netflix: • Threats • ISP may start introducing tariffs on internet traffic (costing – pass on to audiences); NET NEUTRALITY • More competition to traditional film industries* - making new content to rival the BIG 6; challenging original Media Gods (oligopoly) • New content under scrutiny (ethics of new content) • Eroding social norms (family watching TV) • Competition from other VOD services (Amazon Prime, Hulu, etc.) • Piracy, data – hacking threat • Opportunities • Allows audiences to save money to access lots of content • Access to niche content / on-demand • Might start streaming live sport events • International expansion – diversifying content (long tail – Anderson) • Potentially merging into gaming and educational materials • Alternative subscription options (Spotify model – freemium)
  36. 36. Shawn Mendes: Feedback • Link 1: good example of an active audience user experimenting with social media app Vine (an early adopter) and launching a career of the back of it • Link 2: Music industry has adapted its distribution model as a result of this (A & R recruitment) • Link 3:Supports Jenkins’ idea that everyone is a producer of Media text in today’s media landscape (age and gender not a boundary). • Industry: Moving away from the importance of radio play – charts now focus on downloads and streaming just as much. • Historical: Several other bloggers, pro-ams, and twitterati now have large revenue streams from their use of social media platforms. Myspace evolved into Youtube as source for new music and now we have Vine (Twitter) and Instagram. • Future: Industries will continue to monitor and regard things like views, likes and followers when signing new talent and directing marketing campaigns at audiences. Artist is not always going to be sustainable – we will see more hit and miss artists like Psy and Carly Rae Jepsen. Think Shots Studios – niche online content • Comparable text: References have been drawn to Justin Bieber’s use of Youtube as an early adopter and getting discovered.
  37. 37. Exemplar • Using Jenkins as an example, I have used gaming (industry) to apply his theory that “Everyone is a producer of Media, the desire to create and share is great and we can now communicate across geographical barriers” • Media text: Flappy Bird (a gaming app) May 2013 – Feb 2014 • Context: a simple game for touchscreen devices that was downloaded about 50 million times before its developer took it down • Notes taken from http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2014-02-11/what-really-happened-to-flappy-bird- • The world of game developers is full of people for whom stardom is a burden. They just want to do their thing quietly, without media hype or million-dollar revenues. Viral marketing can turn these people into victims of their own success. There will be people arguing that the removal of Flappy Bird is a clever marketing stratagem for Nguyen, who is working on more games and already has a few popular ones in the app stores. • Exemplar paragraph: • Gamers have used the internet to become producers and distributers of media texts. A good example is Vietnamese prosumer, Nguyen, whose love of pixelated games led him to create Flappy Bird, a gaming app. This supports Jenkins’ idea that everyone is a producer of media and can transcend geographical boundaries. In 2014 it had been downloaded nearly 50 million times through distribution sites like iTunes before he took the game down for ethical reasons. The distribution of the game was greatly enhanced through viral marketing, with audiences using twitter to post high scores; furthermore, when Nguyen took the game off the app store, he sent a series of tweets explaining his decision. Some critics argued this was a great way for people to actively engage with his other media texts which would allow him to create long term revenue equivalent to a blockbuster (Anderson’s Long Tail theory). The device was playable on tablets and smart phones and both distribution and exhibition was worldwide, all because of the internet.
  38. 38. In order to be fully prepared for the specific requirements of the question, the material studied by you must cover these three elements: • Historical – dependent on the requirements of the topic, candidates must summarise the development of the media forms in question in theoretical contexts. • Contemporary – current issues within the topic area. • Future – candidates must demonstrate personal engagement with debates about the future of the media forms / issues that the topic relates to.
  39. 39. Question 8 or 9 • Will either have a statement for you to discuss • Or an idea it wants you to agree or disagree with • One questions will lean towards audiences • One question will lean towards institutions • Whichever you answer, it’s good to share knowledge of both • This process is easier if you can apply a theoretical concept or demonstrate your point using a good case study • Lets look at a past paper.
  40. 40. ESSAY WRITING – THE INTRO  Thesis – the question rephrased plus your opinion/angle  Industry – which industries you will use to highlight your main arguments  Theory – what theorist this most closely links to  Sense – keep it clear, keep it relevant to the question
  41. 41. Q: responses should try and address much of the following. 1. Introduction – decipher the question & tailor it for your benefit (5mins) 2. give historical context: how the internet has shaped current world (use examples if necessary) industry or audience – 1-2 paragraphs (10 mins) 3. contemporary examples and relevant theory to support the idea that internet is providing opportunities – 2-3 paragraphs (12 mins) 4. contemporary examples to show the threats facing industries/audiences by the internet – 2-3 paragraphs (12 mins) 5. prediction (future) about how you think internet will continue to have an impact on industries/audiences – 1-2 paragraphs (10 mins) 6. short conclusion drawing your ideas and arguments to a close. (5 mins) This includes 6 mins planning and reflection time. Use clean line breaks please. Please do this closed book – if you use notes you must write ‘open book’ on top.
  42. 42. EVALUATE THE WAYS IN WHICH MEDIA PRODUCERS HAVE TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF CONVERGENCE  Plan and write an intro to this essay in groups or pairs.  3 mins – GO!
  43. 43. EVALUATE THE WAYS IN WHICH MEDIA PRODUCERS HAVE TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF CONVERGENCE  In the age where audiences command and control the web (Tapscott and Williams), it is often assumed that producers of traditional media outlets are constantly having to innovate their content to remain popular with audiences. This essay explores how the TV and newspaper industries have taken advantage of devices such as iphones and tablets to steer online audiences back towards mainstream media products.
  44. 44. THE ONLINE AGE HAS SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND AUDIENCE RECEPTION, COMPARED WITH THE OFFLINE AGE. DISCUSS  Quickly write an introduction to this essay – plan in pairs or threes (3 minutes) then write it.
  45. 45. THE ONLINE AGE HAS SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND AUDIENCE RECEPTION, COMPARED WITH THE OFFLINE AGE. DISCUSS  David Gauntlett recognised that web 2.0 has fundamentally changed the way in which media audiences engage with texts. The rise and popularity of social media networks, coupled with technological developments and the rise in convergent devices, has led to a shift away from passive reception to audiences actively participating and engaging with TV and Film texts.
  46. 46. OFFLINE MEDIA CANNOT EXIST WITHOUT ONLINE MEDIA. TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE WITH THIS STATEMENT  Plan and write this on YOUR OWN.
  47. 47. Applying Theory + Case Study = Top Marks • COPY THIS DOWN: • David Nye suggests that technological advancements are making the world worse. His argument can be backed up by the recent drive by large social media platforms like Facebook to shape the way people interact with each other. During F8 in April 2017, Zuckerberg envisions a media platform where people use their phones to enter virtual worlds to hang out with people; this could impact society in a negative way by eroding social norms (Chomsky). This also supports Nye’s idea that Facebook has the power and influence to change the way that society operates, with over 1.2 billion daily users. Therefore, such change could influence the way media content is produced exclusively for technology such as Virtual Reality headsets, leading audiences further away from traditional media platforms like TV and Film.
  48. 48.  An example of a producer using the internet to crowdsource was artist Shawn Madden, he invited his friends and fans to send in user generated content (UGC) of themselves having fun which he mashed up into his music track. Whilst not met with commercial success, it is an idea adapted by other music artists, including The Chainsmokers and their track Selfie (2014), which also trended on twitter with the same hash tag. This is a good example of people what Tim O’Reilly (who coined the term Web 2.0) would describe as user engagement and interaction, rather than just using the web to extract information. Essentially, crowdsourcing is much more evident through user participation and engagement than you would think. CROWDSOURCING AND WEB 2.0 COLLABORATION EXAMPLE
  49. 49. AUDIENCE COLLABORATION EXAMPLE  In essence, Jeff Howe’s idea of using the web to crowdsource material has allowed internet users to become producers and distributers of media texts, such as (insert prosumer or pro-am here). This also supports David Gauntlett’s idea that people create identities through making connections with others and also enable a shift in culture from passive audiences to active internet users. (insert an example of a media text that does this here). The fact that people are so quick to share ideas and information in the pursuit of creating new media products also supports Clay Shirky’s idea that the internet is run on love.
  50. 50. Notes:

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