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  1. 1. Indice  History  Pre-Nasrid  Nasrid kingdom of Granada  Granada after 1492  Architecture  Parks of Granada  Alhambra  Generalife  Sacramento  Cartuja  Gastronomy  Popular festivals
  2. 2. History Pre-Nasrid  The city has been inhabited from the dawn of history. There was an Ibero-Celtic settlement here, which made contact in turn with Phoenicians, Carthagenians and Greeks. By the 5th century BCE, the Greeks had established a colony which they named Elibyrge or Elybirge . Under Roman rule, in the early centuries CE, this name had become quot;Illiberisquot;. As Illiberis, the city minted its own coins. The Visigoths maintained the importance of the city as a centre of both ecclesiastical and civil administration and also established it as a military stronghold. It was also managed by Byzantines for 60 years.  A Jewish community established itself in what was effectively a suburb of the city, called quot;Gárnataquot; or quot;Gárnata al-yahud”. It was with the help of this community that Moorish forces under Tariq ibn-Ziyad first took the city in 711, though it was not fully secured until 713. They referred to it under the Iberian name quot;Ilbiraquot;, the remaining Christian community calling this quot;Elviraquot;, and it became the capital of a province of the Caliphate of Cordoba. Civil conflicts that wracked the Caliphate in the early eleventh century led to the destruction of the city in 1010. In the subsequent reconstruction, the suburb of Gárnata was incorporated in the city, and the modern name in fact derives from this. With the arrival of the Zirid dynasty in 1013, Granada became an independent emirate Taifa of Granada. By the end of the eleventh century, the city had spread across the Darro to reach what is now the site of the Alhambra.
  3. 3. History Nasrid Kingdom of Granada  In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince, Idris, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the longest lasting Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula - the Nasrids. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Cordoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Ferdinand III of Castile, officially becoming a tributary state in 1238. The state officially became the Kingdom of Granada in 1238.  Granada was held as a vassal to Castile for many decades, and provided trade links with the Muslim world, particularly the gold trade with the sub-saharan areas south of Africa. The Nasrids also provided troops for Castile while the kingdom was also a source of mercenary fighters from North Africa.  Historic map of Granada by Piri Reis  On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, surrendered complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos , after the city was besieged.  See Nasrid dynasty for a full list of the Nasrid rulers of Granada. The most prominent members of the dynasty were:  Mohammed I ibn Nasr (died 1273), the founder of the dynasty  Yusuf I (1334–1354)  Muhammed V (1354–1391), builder of the royal palace within the Alhambra  Muhammad XII of Granada, the last of the line, who surrendered in 1492 to Ferdinand and Isabel and was given the Alpujarras mountains to rule to the East of Granada, although he left for Tlemsen in Morocco.
  4. 4. History Granada after 1492  The capture of Muslim Granada by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella is one of the more significant events in Granada's history. The terms of the surrender treaty explicitly allowed the city's Muslim inhabitants to continue unmolested in their faith and customs. By 1499, however, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros grew frustrated with the slow conversion efforts of Granada's first archbishop, Fernando de Talavera, and undertook a program of forced baptisms. Cisneros's new tactics, which were a direct violation of the terms of the treaty, provoked an armed revolt centered in the Alpujarras, a rural region to the southwest of the city. In response to the rebellion, in 1501 the Castilian Crown rescinded the surrender treaty, demanding that Granada's Muslims convert or emigrate. While many elites chose to emigrate to North Africa, the majority of the city's Muslims converted to Christianity while keeping their Islam secretly, becoming Moriscos, Catholics of Moorish descent.  Over the course of the sixteenth century, Granada took on an ever more Christian and Castilian character, as immigrants flocked to the city from other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. The city's mosques, some of which had been established on the sites of former Christian churches, were converted to Christian uses. New structures, such as cathedral and the Chancillería, or Royal Court of Appeals, helped transform the urban landscape, and in the wake of the 1492 Alhambra decree that expelled Spain's Jewish population, Granada's Jewish neighborhood was demolished to make way for new Christian and Castilian institutions.  The fall of Granada holds an important place among the many significant events that mark the latter half of the 15th century. It ended the eight hundred year-long Islamic presence in the Iberian Peninsula. Freed from internal conflict, a unified Spain embarked on its greatest phase of expansion around the globe, leading to the arrival in the Americas by Isabella's protégé Christopher Columbus. Subsequent colonization led to the creation of the Spanish Empire, the largest empire of the world for its time.
  5. 5. Architecture  There are many important Moorish and Catholic architectural sites in Granada:  The Alhambra and Generalife  The Palace of Charles V  Granada's Cathedral  Capilla Real. Royal Chapel, with the tombs of Isabella and Ferdinand, the Catholic Kings  The Albayzín, or Albaicín: The ancient Arab quarter, containing many original houses from the 16th century  The Charterhouse: A Carthusian monastery; one of the most impressive pieces of ornamental Baroque in Spain.  Calle Calderería: An Albayzin street where you can taste Arab typical food, especially teas and desserts from North Africa  El Cármen de los Mártires: A lovely palace with a beautiful botanic garden near the Alhambra  Santa Ana Church: 16th century, Mudejar Style  San Salvador Church: 16th century, Mudejar Style. With Moorish Almohad patio from the former mosque  El Corral del Carbón: Deposit of merchandise and shelter of merchants. Adapted after 16th century for theater plays
  6. 6. Architecture  Hospital Real: Founded in 1504 by the Reyes Católicos, now part of the University  Santo Domingo Church: Founded in 1512 by the Reyes Católicos  San José Church: On the site of the quot;moansquot;  Almorabitín, the mosque of the Almoravids, one of oldest in Granada, dating from the 10th century  Sacromonte Abbey: Founded in the 17th century. Legend says that the catacombs under the church were the site of the martyrdom of San Cecilio, the city's first bishop and now its patron saint  Old University: Originally Granada's Jesuit college, this building now houses the law school of the University of Granada. The building is particularly notable for its original 17th century facade.  Bermejas Towers: Strongpoints on the encircling wall of the Alhambra, they date from the 8th and 9th centuries  Basilica of St. John of God: The remains of this saint are preserved in this Baroque basilica.  The Gate of Elvira: The principal gate to the old city. Part of the Moorish wall  Casa de los Tiros, 16th century. With a complex iconographic program of sculputure and painting about Spanish history and full of cryptograms, it was the palace of Gil Vázquez-Rengifo, who helped the Catholic Kings in the fight for the city. Nowadays it is a museum where visitors can follow the history of Granada from the Middle Age to the present day  The 16th century Castril palace which hosts the Archaeological Museum of Granada  The Cube: Main building for CajaGranada has won a lot of international architects awards.  Zaida Building: Situated in the city centre, this residential building designed by Alvaro Siza is a good example of modern architecture surrounded by historical structures
  7. 7. Parks of Granada  The garden of Alhambra and Generalife  The garden of Fuente nueva  The garden of Federico Garcia Lorca  The garden of Carmen de los Mártires  The garden of Zaidin  The Botanical Garden of the University of Granada
  8. 8. Alhambra  The Alhambra is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish rulers of Granada in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed during the mid 14th century), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada.  Once the residence of the Muslim rulers of Granada and their court, the Alhambra is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions exhibiting the country's most famous Islamic architecture, together with Christian 16th century and later interventions in buildings and gardens that marked its image as it can be seen today. Within the Alhambra, the Palace of Charles V was erected by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1527.
  9. 9. Generalife  The Generalife is the city with gardens became a place of recreation and rest of the Muslim kings Grenadians when they wanted to flee the palace's official life. Occupies the slopes of the Cerro del Sol, from which cover the entire city and valley of the Darro and Genil. It was conceived as a rural village, where he gardens, orchards and integrated architecture, near the Alhambra. The origin of the name is disputed, some say that could mean the most sublime garden. It was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco meeting in 1984. It was built during the XII and XIV and was transformed by Abu I-Walid Isma'il. It nazari Arabic style. It consists of a set of buildings, courtyards and gardens, making it one of the biggest attractions of the city of Granada and one of the architectural highlights of the Muslim architecture. At present, the Generalife is formed by two sets of buildings, connected by the Patio de la Acequia. Models reproduced the confined spaces of the courtyards of Granada Nazarene comes from the combination of historical references and tradition Granada (stone floors, the use of water, lush flower beds ...). It is difficult to know the original appearance of the Generalife, which has been undergoing modifications and reconstructions throughout the Christian period, initially due to the necessary state of deterioration and neglect that had befallen Muslim in the last stage, but subsequently disrupted available and disfigured many of its aspects. Contrary to the Alhambra, Generalife entire building, though solid, is generally very poor and very simple. Are only decorative plaster varied little, but extremely cunning and good taste. Lately, much of the gardens have been destroyed for the construction of an auditorium.
  10. 10. Sacromonte  The Sacromonte is famous for being the old quarter of the Roma, Egyptian calls tribes known as the Gypsies of the era of the Catholic Monarchs who settled in Granada after the conquest of the city. Their way of life, their language and their dances and feasts built their homes in caves, its reputation grew among the Romantic writers, so that over time the neighborhood has become one of the most important tourist attractions of the city. At the end of the route through the neighborhood at the top of Mount Valparaíso is the Abbey of Sacromonte and the College, founded in the seventeenth century by the then Archbishop of Granada Pedro de Castro. Part of school was destroyed in a fire and it is visited the Abbey has a large library with about 25,000 volumes. The Abbey consists of a central courtyard with a fountain and twenty-five arches with the coat of the founder, then the museum is very valuable pieces like the Virgen de la Rosa, and three Inmaculadas. The church, built in the early seventeenth century, has good seating and baroque altarpieces. The sacristy is decorated with small paintings of the Italian school and a table decorated with motifs made Indians in the sixteenth century in Peru, which was a gift from the father of Archbishop Pedro de Castro who was viceroy of Peru.
  11. 11. Cartuja  La Cartuja is a monastery of monks of closure, which is located in what was a farm, or recreational Muslim named carmen Aynadamar source or the tears that had an abundance of water and fruit trees. The idea of building the monastery in that place left Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova, known as El Gran Capitán. The donation of land to build on that farm was in Loja in 1513. The works were started but then suffered a break following the death of the Great Captain occurred in 1515 and were resumed in 1519 and completed in 1545. The monastery suffered extensive damage during the War of Independence, the farm and lost considerable ground in 1837 as a result of the confiscation of Mendizábal. At present (2008) belongs to the monastery of the Carthusian Order, depending directly from the Diocese of Granada. Existing installations can be visited by tourists, the highlight of the visit Claustrillo, De Profundis Chapel, where the monks did their penance, the Chapter House of the Legos, it follows the visit to the Chapter House of the monks, where the monks met to discuss where and pronounced his sermons, with the acoustics of the room. The Church is a baroque style and was built in 1662, is divided into a number of areas for the monks, totally isolated and incommunicado with the rest of the church, one for the faithful and for laymen. The Sancta Santorum behind the altar and the relics are kept there, which owns the Monastery. It is noteworthy for its artistic beauty of the dome of the church, frescoed by Antonio Palomino, and Juan Risueño, the participants will go to the sacristy, where there are paintings of great value, and other ecclesiastical objects.
  12. 12. Gastronomy  In the gastronomy of Granada, which is enormously rich mix different inputs. Above all, they bring new settlers to products that previously could be closed. This will, for example, beans with ham, because it Trevelez to have a delicate and mild flavor. The pot of San Antón is a traditional dish of the city and its province, but the most representative dishes of Granada are Saladillo with beans appetizer for the day or the day San Cecilio de la Cruz or the famous tortilla Sacromonte. Apart from these foods, depending, of course, the capacity of the diner, another may be interesting to taste a dish of potatoes to the poor or crumbs, mixed with anything either, although it is recommended that this thing comes from a pig. As for desserts, there are a wide variety of fresh eggs as moles of San Antón, the bizcochaza de Zafra, pestiños of the Incarnation or the puff of San Jerónimo. The pionono is a sweet from the nearby metropolitan area of Santa Fe, but by extension also is considered typical of the city of Granada. The fruit is symbolic of Granada, of course, Granada, whose tree is ubiquitous in Carmena and gardens. Other fruits such as persimmons, Acerola, quinces, and Serbo almecinas fill the markets of the city on the feast of the patron.
  13. 13. Popular Festivals  Semana Santa  Corpus Christi  January 2 - Day of the Notes is one of the most popular celebrations and also at Granada, which recalls the Nasrid surrender before the Catholic Monarchs in 1492.  February 1 - St. Cecilia is the patron saint of the city of Granada, Granada was a bishop and martyr of the century I.  Spring Festival the weekend closest to March 21.  May 3 - Day of the Cross  May 15 - Fiesta de San Isidro  May 26 - Procession of the Sacred Heart  Date changed - Day of the Tarascan  September 15 - Offering flowers to the Virgin of Sorrows. Patron saint of the city  Last Sunday in September - Procession of Our Lady of Sorrows. Patron saint of the city  September 29 - San Miguel