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Phrm 475 Comt Workplace Cust Service Cult Comp Lecture 2011 11 17

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A lecture on workforce, professionalism, and customer service

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Phrm 475 Comt Workplace Cust Service Cult Comp Lecture 2011 11 17

  1. 1. PHARMACY MANAGEMENT: CONTEMPORARY WORKPLACE ISSUES (12) CUSTOMER SERVICE (11)  Christian B. Albano, PhD, MBA, MPH
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES:Identify workplace/professional factors thatimpact the effectiveness of organizations Contemporary Workplace Issues & Cultural Competency  Job Enrichment and Quality of Work Life  Work Safety Issues  Job Stress and Employee Impairment  Managing a Diverse Workforce  Career Planning  Managerial (Business) ethics 2 Customer Service
  3. 3. JOB ENRICHMENT AND QUALITY OF WORK Classical Pharmacy Job Design  Emphasizes standardization and segmentation  Requires accuracy, efficiency, and compliance – e.g. community/retail pharmacist  Automations and technicians do more Clinical Pharmacy Job Design  Pharmaceutical care that requires increased professionalism, a different practice philosophy, and enriched job environment to address ―higher order‖ pharmacist needs (i.e., MTM) – e.g. hospital pharmacist 3 Which do you prefer? Is there a movement?
  4. 4. MOTIVATION 4
  5. 5. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION = QUALITY OFWORK Intrinsically motivating jobs and enriched job environments increase satisfaction and performance Encourage 3 basic psychological states:  Experience meaningfulness of work  Knowledge of outcomes  Being responsible for outcomes 5
  6. 6. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION = QUALITY OFWORK Do you have a strong need for growth, personal accomplishment, self-direction, and learning? Core job characteristics necessary to accomplish goals (to what degree…):  Skill variety – demand greater skills  Task identity – complete the set of interventions or tasks  Task significance – impact for the well being of others  Autonomy – exercise independent judgment of the work  Feedback – feedback that is independent of supervisors & co-workers Academia example 6
  7. 7. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION 7
  8. 8. WORK SAFETY ISSUESOrganizations responsible for a safe environment Managers in large organizations must interact with safety staff, risk managers, and others to ensure the well-being of their employees  May defer some responsibility to other areas  Hospital pharmacy Managers in smaller organizations must take more responsibility to be  familiar with rules and regulations  to ensure compliance with the law and a safe, productive workforce  Community pharmacy 8
  9. 9. WORK SAFETY ISSUES e.g., TOYOTA  This One You Oughta Tow Away http://www.newser.com/tag/17680/1/car-safety.html Organizational structure impacts safety  Machine bureaucracy: formal, top- down, dehumanizing, boring (Mintzberg, Henry)  Formal safety rules & regulations 9
  10. 10. WORK SAFETY ISSUES: OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act  Formed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 2003  Established the government’s role in promulgating and enforcing safety and health standards for places of employment It is the responsibility of every employer to provide a work environment that is free from recognized hazards Failure to comply with rules and regulations can result in severe fines and penalties 10
  11. 11. WORK SAFETY ISSUES: NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health  Conducts research on criteria for http://www.swmedsource.com/p specific functions and occupations harmacy_seating.htm  Ergonomics and human factor  Publishes safety and health standards related to workplace hazards i.e, blood-borne pathogens/chemical hazards  Exposure plans/Post exposure follow up plans http://exerciseballchair.info/test/imag 11 es/ExerciseBallChairGirlSide.jpg
  12. 12. JOB STRESS AND EMPLOYEE IMPAIRMENT Recognize and identify stress 12
  13. 13. JOB STRESS AND EMPLOYEE IMPAIRMENT Long-term stagnation  stress  high turnover, absenteeism and poor work performance  Function of demands, coping ability, skills, and supports  Function of Personality: Type A (coronary-prone behavioral pattern) vs. Type B Managerial and organizational duties:  To ↓ stress match the following with the demands/type of job  employee qualifications match tasks  skills match tasks  interest/personality mesh with the responsibilities  Awareness of employee behavior to observe symptoms of stress reactions  Employee Assistance Program (EAP)  Mental health & substance abuse 13
  14. 14. EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EAP) Voluntary and confidential  Manager can suggest a referral based on poor work performance or other related work problems EAPprofessionals are licensed psychiatrists, psychologists, addiction counselors, clinical social workers  Have to abide by HIPPA – employees can sign a releases to share ―limited‖ information with employers Training of managers in early identification and 14 referral improves EAP utilization
  15. 15. BENEFITS OF MANAGING STRESS Lower turnover and absenteeism Higher job satisfaction Improvements in productivity and efficiency Customer satisfaction Physical and emotional health Happiness 15
  16. 16. DRUG/ALCOHOL ABUSE: MGMT INTERVENTION Universal access + false sense of invulnerability  substance abuse Pharmacists and managers have responsibilities and obligations NOT to ―enable‖ another’s abuse Pharmacy has taken a rehabilitative rather than a punitive stance towards impaired pharmacists  State Board of Pharmacy 16  Pharmacy Assist Programs within each state
  17. 17. DRUG/ALCOHOL ABUSE: MGMT INTERVENTION Procedures for managing impaired pharmacist 1. Mandatory state board reporting requirements 2. Intervention by an organization, working closely with the state board 3. Professional assessment 4. Treatment recommendations 5. After-care counseling and monitoring usually involving Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous 6. Random drug testing for a defined period 7. Reinstatement to practice contingent on successful completion of treatment 17
  18. 18. MANAGING A DIVERSEWORKFORCE
  19. 19. DIVERSITY: DEFINITIONS Diversity is all forms of individual differences, including culture, gender, age, ability, religion, personality, social status, and sexual orientation  The ability to value diversity and use these resources effectively, will be critical to the success of an organization Managing diversity requires creating a workplace environment of quality of opportunity and respect for individual differences and capabilities 19
  20. 20. DIVERSITY: BOTTOM-LINE Managed improperly: (lack of) diversity  tunnel vision  no creativity and no $ Managed properly: (more) Diversity  escaping tunnel vision  innovations and $ Avoid “groupthink” : when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment” 20
  21. 21. DIVERSITY: BOTTOM-LINE 21 “Good to Great” by Jim Collins
  22. 22. DIVERSITY: BY THE YEAR 2020 More culturally diverse population  Minorities will constitute ½ of the new entrants in the US workforce  White non-Hispanics will constitute 68% of the workforce which was 76% in 1977  14% of the work force will be Hispanic, 11% African American, 6% Asian  The same number of women as men will be employed  More workers with disabilities will be employed 22
  23. 23. DIVERSITY: MANAGEMENT AWARENESS Managers need to be aware of general concepts of discrimination:  Reasonable accommodation: making the workplace both accessible and capable of use by individuals with disabilities  Disparate treatment: different treatments and opportunities are afforded to diverse individuals  Affirmative Action  Disparate impact: involves neutral employment practices that lack apparent discrimination, but exclude a group from opportunity  Highering based on a biased test 23
  24. 24. DIVERSITY: MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS Training programs that increase awareness/respect for cultural pluralism Educate people regarding practices that involve negative stereotyping and negative impact on minorities Counseling when potential discriminatory practices take place 24
  25. 25. SEXUAL HARASSMENT According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), sexual harassment is unwelcome sexual attention, whether verbal or physical, that affects an employee’s job conditions or creates a hostile working environment Types:  Gender harassment includes crude comments or sexual jokes and behaviors that disparage someone’s gender or convey hostility toward a particular gender  Unwanted sexual attention involves unwanted touching or repeated unwanted pressures for dates  Sexual coercion consists of implicit or explicit demands for sexual favors by threatening negative job-related consequences or the promise of job-related awards 25
  26. 26. SEXUAL HARASSMENT STATISTICS In 2005, the EEOC received 12, 679 complaints at the federal level concerning sexual harassment. 14.3% of which were filed by males Sexual harassment costs the typical Fortune 500 company $6.7 million per year in absenteeism, turnover, and loss of productivity Victims are prone to all of the results of extreme workplace conflict  Poor mental health, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder  Report of alcohol abuse, depression, headaches, and nausea 26
  27. 27. A DIVERSE WORKPLACE: BENEFITS Bottom-line: creativity and $ Attract a larger talent pool Enhanced knowledge of diverse markets  Increased probability of addressing unique customer needs Organizational agility in times of change  Problem solving and creativity are enhanced as a result of diverse ―group think‖ capabilities  Promotes creativity and innovation  Remain competitive in a global market 27
  28. 28. CAREER PLANNING The active management of a career involves providing or attaining developmentally appropriate experience, education and training to decide, focus on, and nurture career progression Career anchors:  technical/functional, managerial, security-oriented, autonomy-oriented, and creativity oriented While managers can help choose the right fit between talents, interest, and job opportunities, the main responsibility for career management rests with the individual 28
  29. 29. MANAGERIAL (BUSINESS) ETHICSHealthcare is a moral enterprise – involving issues of quality of life and suffering and deathPharmacist’s Code of Ethics: is intended to publicly state the principles that form the fundamental basis of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists is established to guide pharmacist in relationships with patients, health professionals, and society 29
  30. 30. MANAGERIAL (BUSINESS) ETHICSPharmacist’s Code of Ethics1. A pharmacist respects the covenantal relationship between the patient and pharmacist.2. A pharmacist promotes the good of every patient in a caring, compassionate, and confidential manner.3. A pharmacist respects the autonomy and dignity of each patient.4. A pharmacist acts with honesty and integrity in professional relationships.5. A pharmacist maintains professional competence.6. A pharmacist respects the values and abilities of colleagues and other health professionals.7. A pharmacist serves individual, community, and societal needs.8. A pharmacist seeks justice in the distribution of health resources. 30
  31. 31. MANAGERIAL (BUSINESS) ETHICSGoals of Business ethics program: Business ethics program must provide a code of conduct that is short, specific, and easy to understand for all employees A business ethics program requires absolute commitment from the top down in an organization A business ethics program should provide guidelines to help employees avoid doing something ―wrong‖ 31
  32. 32. THE CUSTOMER SERVICE  The interaction between the service organization/service provider, and the customer  Pharmacy is a service business
  33. 33. CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES: “SELLING THE INVISIBLE” The customer is a participant in the service process Services are produced and consumed simultaneously Services are perishable Service site location is dictated by the consumer Economies of scale are difficult to achieve in services Standardization of services is difficult Services are labor-intensive Service output is difficult to measure 33
  34. 34. STANDARDS FOR SERVICES Reliability: the ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately (most valued by customers) Responsiveness: the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service Assurance: the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence Empathy: the caring, individualized attention provided to customers Tangibles: the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials 34
  35. 35. MANAGING A SUCCESSFUL SERVICE ENCOUNTER
  36. 36. EMPOWERED EMPLOYEES NEED: Information about the organization’s performance Rewards based on the organization’s performance Knowledge that allows employees to understand and contribute to organizational performance Power to make decisions that influence organizational direction and performance 36
  37. 37. AN EMPOWERED EMPLOYEE WILL: Respond more quickly to customer needs during the service encounter Respondmore quickly to dissatisfied consumers during service recovery Feel better about their jobs and themselves Interact with consumers with more warmth and enthusiasm innovate and improve 37
  38. 38. MEASURING SERVICE QUALITYQuality of Service = Expectations – PerceptionsQuality of the service is defined by the gap between theexpectation for the service and the perception of how itwas delivered. Perception is everything
  39. 39. CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS Ideal = Desired Adequate = Satisfaction Zone of tolerance = any level of service in the gap between ideal and adequate 39 http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/files/2008/11/3234-ex3-lo.png
  40. 40. DESIGNING SERVICES What is the product (service)?  ―consumer benefit‖ -- tangible and intangible How will this service be priced?  Financial return, market share, or meet the competition How will the service be positioned, promoted, and branded?  On what basis can the market be segmented—demographic, geographic, psychographic, etc. How will the service be delivered?  Brick and mortar location and/or internet 40
  41. 41. DESIGNING SERVICES What will the facility look like? What will the employees look like?  First impressions What procedures/protocols will be put in place for the delivery of the service?  Quality measures Who will deliver the service? How will they be trained, promoted, and motivated? 41

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