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Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience

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User experience is the sum of experiences across all dimensions of all solutions and the user’s interaction with it including its functionality and quality attributes. It is the sum of all interactions with the solution and the results the solution provides. Solution usability is much, much more than a user interface

Users experience the complete operational solution across its entire scope and experience its functional and quality properties. The solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed solutions. Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the overall solution design from the start

The dimensions of solution usability are:

• Components of overall solution
• Functional components of solution
• Quality properties

The complete solution Is always much more than just a bunch of software. Implementing the end-to-end components of the solution positively impacts on solution usability and utility. Without the complete view there will be gaps in the usability of the solution.

Enterprise architecture needs to provide leadership in defining and implementing approach to measuring solution usability. Enterprise architecture needs to define standards and associated frameworks for

• Overall experience
• Solution usability

Each of these needs to include measurement and analysis framework. Solution architecture needs to incorporate these standards into solution designs. Individual solutions incorporate usability standards
Overall set of solutions comprise the experience.

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Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience

  1. 1. Solution Architecture And User And Customer Experience Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney
  2. 2. Objective • Identify the importance of including solution usability within solution architecture • Identify approaches to measuring solution usability and the creation of a common measurement framework • Identify the characteristics of an effective approach to solution usability November 1, 2017 2
  3. 3. Solution Architecture And User Experience • Solution architecture needs to take account of user experience as part of the overall solution design process • People are always part of the operation and use of the solution • The solution design needs to deliver on user expectations and provide an experience that matches these − Create and deliver on realistic and fulfillable expectations • Solution architects need to be aware of the people and experience aspects of solutions • Solution usability contributes to the long-term success of a solution November 1, 2017 3
  4. 4. What Is The Solution That The Architect Designs? • I have a problem • I want to be able to do what I am currently unable to do • I cannot do what I want • I need to be able to do something • A solution is a Resolver, a Provider or an Enabler • An originator will identify the need for a solution • The solution architect must work with the originator to provide a usable and deliverable answer to the solution need • The solution architect must being value to the solution design process November 1, 2017 4
  5. 5. IT Architecture As Internal Business Consulting And Advisory Function • What IT Architecture Can Do • Identify trends in advance that offer opportunities or represent challenges • Assist with the design and development of new business models • Acquire the skills and experience to be a credible business advisor • Be able to translate innovation and creativity into practical, realistic, implemented and operated business solutions • What IT Architecture Must Do To Achieve Its Potential • Take an appropriate and sufficient approach to architecture • Take a realistic approach to innovation − Radical innovation − Incremental innovation − Innovation By reapplication • Focus on simplicity and speed rather than completeness and perfection • Understand appropriate complexity • Be able to react to changes quickly 01 November 2017 5
  6. 6. The Complete Solution Is Always Much More Than Just … • … A bunch of software • Complete solution is the entire set of components needed to operate the associated business processes • Users experience the complete operational solution across its entire scope and experience its functional and quality properties • Successful solution requires the interoperation of all these components and that the components are properly designed and implemented • Overall solution usage experience is the sum of the experience of the usage of the components • Solution architect must be aware of the usability of designed solutions • Usability is not an afterthought: it must be embedded in the overall solution design from the start November 1, 2017 6
  7. 7. Scope Of Complete Solution November 1, 2017 7 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  8. 8. Any Complete Solution Consists of: • Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Systems} • + Zero or more of {New Custom Developed Applications} • + Zero or more of {Information Storage Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Acquired and Customised Software Products} • + Zero or more of {System Integrations/Data Transfers/Exchanges} • + Zero or more of {Changes to Existing Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {New Business Processes} • + Zero or more of {Organisational Changes} • + Zero or more of {Reporting and Analysis Facilities} • + Zero or more of {Existing Data Conversions/Migrations} • + Zero or more of {New Data Loads} • + Zero or more of {Training and Documentation} • + Zero or more of {Central, Distributed and Communications Infrastructure} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Installation and Implementation Services} • + Zero or more of {Cutover/Transfer to Production} • + Zero or more of {Operational Functions and Processes} • + Zero or more of {Parallel Runs} • + Zero or more of {Sets of Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services} • + Zero or more of {Application Hosting and Management Services} November 1, 2017 8
  9. 9. Solution Usability – Taking The End To End Design View November 1, 2017 9 Changes to Existing Systems New Custom Developed Applications Information Storage Facilities System Integrations/ Data Transfers/ Exchanges Changes to Existing Business Processes Organisational Changes Existing Data Conversions/ Migrations New Data Loads Training and Documentation Central, Distributed and Network Infrastructure Sets of Installation and Implementation Services Cutover/ Transfer to Production Operational Functions and Processes Parallel Runs New Business Processes Reporting and Analysis Facilities Maintenance, Service Management and Support Services Application Hosting and Management Services Acquired and Customised Software Products
  10. 10. Solution Architecture – Taking The End To End View • One of the core objectives and purposes of solution architecture is to understand the scope of the end-to-end solution in order to allow the true scope of the delivery to be estimated • It is only if the true scope is needed that informed decisions can be made on what to include or exclude and to understand the consequences of those decisions November 1, 2017 10
  11. 11. Solution Usability – Taking The End To End View • Implementing the end-to-end components of the solution positively impacts on solution usability and utility • Users experience the complete operational solution across its entire scope and experience its functional and quality properties • Delivers on expectations • Without the complete view there will be gaps in the usability of the solution November 1, 2017 11 What The Solution Needs What Contributes to Solution Usability and Utility
  12. 12. User Experience Is The Sum Of Experiences … • … Across all dimensions of all solutions and the user’s interaction with it – functionality and quality attributes − Accuracy − Ease of interpretation − Usability − Utility − Interoperability − Integration − Automation − Performance − Consistency − Reliability − Availability − Appearance and navigation • Not all solution usage experiences can be observed directly or are based on experience of externally accessed solution functional components November 1, 2017 12
  13. 13. November 1, 2017 13 Dimensions Of Solution Usability Components of Overall Solution Quality Properties Functional Components of Solution
  14. 14. Solution Usability • Is the sum of all interactions with the solution and the results the solution provides • The experience of the individual solution • Solution usability is much, much more than a user interface November 1, 2017 14 Functionality and Quality Attributes And Solution Scope ΣSolution Usability = Interactions With and Results of Solution
  15. 15. User Experience • Is the sum of the interactions across all solutions and their usability November 1, 2017 15 Functionality and Quality Attributes And Solution Scope ΣInteractions With and Results of Solution { }User Experience = All Solutions and Interactions Σ
  16. 16. Overall Experience • The outcome of the sum of observations, perceptions, thoughts and feelings arising from interactions and relationships (direct and indirect) over an interval of time between a customer and their supplier November 1, 2017 16
  17. 17. Solutions/Systems/Applications • Are the windows into the underlying business processes • Solutions cannot, in themselves, resolve problems with underlying business processes without a process redesign component • Solutions should have the following characteristics − Optimise self-service and associated automation and orchestration − Have a consistent, seamless, continuous experience and appearance across all channels − Ensure underlying data is consistent across all applications and usage points − Measure usage and implement processes to analyse and take improvement actions • Create an inventory of user usage journeys and scenarios November 1, 2017 17
  18. 18. Overall Context Of Solution Usability November 1, 2017 18 Experience and Experience Management Solution and System Usability Customer Relationship Management Processes and Systems Customer Facing Operational Systems and Processes Internal Operational Systems and Processes Data Collection, Analysis and Action
  19. 19. Overall Context Of Solution Usability • Solution usability sits in a wider context − Experience and Experience Management – constructing overall set of interactions, their aggregation into an overall experience and defining framework to manage these − Solution and System Usability − Customer Relationship Management Processes and Systems – applications and processes to manage operational customer interactions − Customer Facing Operational Systems and Processes – operational systems and their associated processes that support organisation delivery with which customer direct interacts − Internal Operational Systems and Processes - internal systems and their associated processes that support organisation delivery with which customer indirect interacts through interactions with employees and agents − Data Collection, Analysis and Action – framework for gathering information on usage, perform analysis, identifying problems, generating feedback and ensuring actions are taken November 1, 2017 19
  20. 20. Customer Experiences And External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality • Customer experience is the sum of: Directly through experiences with externally facing applications + Indirectly through experiences with employees who are users of internal applications and with whom customers are interacting + Experience of the products and services delivered by the organisation • So the usability of each component contributes to overall solution usability • However good solution usability and experience can only go so far November 1, 2017 20 Solution Usability and Experience Overall Organisation Experience
  21. 21. IT Architecture Context Of Solution Usability November 1, 2017 21 Solution Architecture Solution Usability Enterprise Architecture Experience Management Standards User Experience Solution Usability Standards Experience Management Measurement Framework Solution Usability Measurement Framework Solution Design Defines and Develops Defines and Develops Includes Includes Are Incorporated By Are Incorporated By Included In Included In IncorporatesIncorporates Included In In Part Of Creates
  22. 22. IT Architecture Context Of Solution Usability • Enterprise architecture needs to define standards and associated frameworks for − Overall experience − Solution usability • Each of these needs to include measurement and analysis framework • Solution architecture needs to incorporate these standards into solution designs − Individual solutions incorporate usability standards − Overall set of solutions comprise the experience November 1, 2017 22
  23. 23. Usability Measurement And Action Framework • Need to understand actual user experiences and solution usability • Need to measure experiences and define methodology for taking action on results • Need a common measurement framework across all applications • Enterprise architecture needs to define a common application usage data collection measurement framework • Design and implement a consolidated and shared platform • Collection of information yields insight into actual application usability and results of solution architecture and design • Information can assist with improving solution architecture and design November 1, 2017 23
  24. 24. Organisation Business Landscape Business Customer Retail Customer Shareholder Shareholder Partner Dealer Outsourcer Competitor Supplier Regulator Contractor Service Provider Distributor Intermediary Collaborator Sub-Contractor Franchisee Counterparty Intermediary Representative Agent Researcher Client Public November 1, 2017 24
  25. 25. Organisation And Business Solution Business Landscape • Organisations typically operate in a complex environment with multiple interactions with different communication with many parties of many different type over different channels − External Actors - xActors • Business solutions are deployed and used across the organisation landscape – internal and external • Externally accessed applications are within the scope of solution usability and overall experience management • A successful approach to solution usability and overall experience management is concerned with the organisation interacts with some or all of these xActors • Solution usability and overall experience management is not necessarily just about the customer xActor, though this may be its main focus November 1, 2017 25
  26. 26. Organisation Business Landscape • Not xActors the organisation interacts with have equal importance or of equal value • Each xActor and communications channel has different characteristics: − “Distance” from the core of the organisation – composite measure of value and importance to the organisation − Volume of interactions − Complexity of interactions − Type of interaction – informational or transactional • Every organisation will have a different xActor and distance profile • Follow the value chain and focus on those solution areas that deliver greatest value November 1, 2017 26
  27. 27. Extending Processes And Applications Outside The Organisation Creates Customer Expectations • Understand, manage, control and deliver on the expectations November 1, 2017 27             • Deploying externally accessible application reduces the expected and tolerated latency and the asynchronicity of communications between the organisation and external parties • Customers have an expectation of connected operation and ease of use of externally facing applications and processes • Delivering on these expectations is a usability concern                               
  28. 28. Digital Transformation And Solution Design And Usability • Digital transformation involves designing and implementing solutions across a wide range of application and system areas • External solution users are more demanding and less tolerant of usability failings and poor experience November 1, 2017 28 External Party Interaction Zones, Channels and Facilities Security, Identity, Access and Profile Management Responsive Infrastructure Digital Specific Applications and Tools Internal Interaction Management Integration Operational and Business Systems Applications Delivery and Management Tools and Frameworks System Development, Deployment and Management
  29. 29. Customer Experiences And External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality • Customer experience is not just about interactions with systems and applications • Solution architecture cannot fix wider product and service delivery and usage problems • Solution architecture can assist in designing cross- functional applications • Enterprise architecture needs to assist with strategy to bridge and connect silos November 1, 2017 29
  30. 30. External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality November 1, 2017 30 External Organisation Interactions And Supporting Applications Internal Organisation Reality
  31. 31. Solutions And Processes • Solutions implement business processes • Processes are greater than their constituent solutions • Processes define journeys, interactions and touch points • Journeys represent usage and interaction scenarios November 1, 2017 31
  32. 32. Inventory Of Organisation Interaction (Customer) Journeys And Scenarios November 1, 2017 32 Journey 1 Journey 2 Journey 3 Journey 4
  33. 33. Organisation Interaction (Customer) Journeys And Scenarios • Interaction paths will correspond to business processes • Business processes will be (partially) implemented or supported by systems (solutions) • There will be many organisation interaction paths with your organisation, depending on: − Type of interacting party − Number of interactions • Create an inventory of interaction journeys to understand how users and customers interact with and experience the organisation’s solutions − Enable problems to be identified − Use as a basis for a measurement and action framework − Journeys inventory should be prioritised November 1, 2017 33
  34. 34. Mapping Organisation Interactions To Solutions November 1, 2017 34 Interaction Journeys Mapped To Solutions That Deliver Functionality Solutions External Parties Directly Interact With Solutions External Parties Indirectly Interact With Through Interactions With Employees and Agents
  35. 35. Customer Experiences And External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality November 1, 2017 35 Internal Organisation Users External users expect to experience seamless end-to-end interactions External users also interact with internal users Internal users frequently experience disconnected processes and systems/ solutions
  36. 36. External Interactions And Internal Organisation Reality • Internal organisation reality all too frequently consists of siloed non-integrated, disconnected and disparate structures, business processes and supporting applications • Interactions with the organisation can exist in several contexts − Ad hoc interactions with no (initial) long-term objective − Interactions as part of a transaction • Any external interaction represents the organisation’s brand November 1, 2017 36
  37. 37. Operational Silos • Are an unfortunate fact of organisational life • Caused by the way organisations are allowed to grow and develop • Business function leaders develop careers on owning and then protecting siloed areas • Silo owners are not incentivised on optimising inter-silo cross functional operation • Siloes can remain isolated within the organisation • Siloes contribute to poor solution design and user experience November 1, 2017 37
  38. 38. Organisation Operational Silos November 1, 2017 38
  39. 39. Operational Silos • There are too many operational units that operate independently with walls effectively between them • There is too much throwing of work over the walls between operational units with no cross-functional/cross- capability, end-to-end view and no seamless operation • When you extend business processes outside the organisation, you need to ensure cross-functional/cross- capability operation • External parties are not concerned with process limitations caused by a siloed organisation not operating efficiently • Lack of seamless operation of business processes not evident (to a lesser or greater extent) to the outside world November 1, 2017 39
  40. 40. November 1, 2017 40 Overall Experiences Cross “Vertical” Operational Organisational Units
  41. 41. November 1, 2017 41 Core Overall Experiences • Three core overall experience areas that are common to all organisations − Product/service delivery • From order/specification/design/selection to delivery/installation/implementation/provision and billing − Customer management • From customer acquisition to management to repeat business to up-sell/cross-sell − New product/service provision • From research to product/service design to implementation and commercialisation • These experience areas cross multiple internal organisation boundaries and have multiple handoffs but they are what concern customers • These cross-functional experiences and associated processes deliver value − Value to the customer − Value to the company • Integrated cross-functional processes means better customer service and more satisfied and more customers
  42. 42. Core Overall Experiences And Solution Design • Good solution design presents seamless and integrated interactions • Hides the complexity of integrations, handoffs, movements November 1, 2017 42
  43. 43. Operational Silos And Conway’s Law • Short article written by Dr Melvin Conway in April 1968 - How Do Committees Invent? - Design Organization Criteria − http://www.melconway.com/Home/pdf/committees.pdf • Nearly 50 years old and still as insightful as when it was originally written −“ … there is a very close relationship between the structure of a system and the structure of the organization which designed it.” −“… organizations which design systems … are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.” November 1, 2017 43
  44. 44. Solution Usability Corollary to Conway’s Law • Externally presented solutions and experiences tend replicate siloed internal organisation processes, limitations, constraints and structures • Solution usability and solution experience of external solutions replicate the designs of internal solutions November 1, 2017 44 Siloed Applications Developed for Organisation Silos
  45. 45. Solution Usability Corollary to Conway’s Law • Organisations are prisoners of their own corporate experiences and structures • That experience constrains choices, produces limitations • Good solution usability and overall experience is frequently outside the knowledge and understanding of organisations November 1, 2017 45
  46. 46. Solutions Bridging Organisational Silos • Solutions need to bridge organisational silos to ensure usability and to delivery good overall experience • Organisations focus on line of business applications to meet individual business function needs November 1, 2017 46 Bridging Interface Applications Bridging Cross Functional Process Applications Bridging Data Applications And Measurement Framework
  47. 47. EA Leadership In Solution Usability And Experience • Enterprise architecture needs to provide leadership in defining and implementing approach to measuring solution usability • Embed lessons learned into solution usability November 1, 2017 47
  48. 48. Metrics • Measure what you can and assign it an importance to it rather than measuring what is actually important and reflects November 1, 2017 48
  49. 49. Solution Experience And Overall Experience • Solutions enable the operation of business processes • Experience with business processes comprise overall experience • Solution usability – directly by customers and indirectly by employees interacting with customers – contributes to experience November 1, 2017 49
  50. 50. User And Customer Experience • High level of employee satisfaction contributes to higher levels of customer satisfaction • Good user experience of internal applications contributes to good external user experience November 1, 2017 50
  51. 51. Solution Architecture And Solution Design • Good solution design is concerned with making user experiences better • Experiences can be direct – of the solution itself – or indirect – of the products and services that the solution delivers or provides access to • The overall experience is the sum of the experiences of individual interactions • Every solution usage results in an experience • Good solution design embeds usability and experience • Poor usability means poor experience November 1, 2017 51
  52. 52. Applications Cannot Remediate Underlying Product And Service Issues • Good application architecture, design and usability leading to good experiences can only go so far • These limitations needs to be accepted and understood • If the underlying products and services being ordered/accessed are poor then good application architecture, design and usability cannot resolve these November 1, 2017 52
  53. 53. Design, Usability And Experience • Two sides of the same coin − Design and usability drives experience November 1, 2017 53
  54. 54. Cost Of Lack Of Usability And Poor Experience • Poor usability and experience negatively influences outcomes − Frustration and reduced efficiency − Abandonment of interaction − Seeking uncosted peer support − Errors requiring subsequent resolution − Lack of repeat business November 1, 2017 54
  55. 55. Lack Of Implementation Of User Experience In Solution Architecture • Organisations almost always do not include user experience in solution architecture and design − Lack of understanding or appreciation of what usability is − Fear of the scope of usability and its impact on solution design and delivery schedule and cost • Focus of solution architecture is on meeting stated business requirements and not perceived intangibles such as usability • Poor solution usability design leads to poor user experience − Lack of user satisfaction increases cost along the spectrum of solution operation and solution usage outcomes − Greater support, slowness of usage, bypassing systems, rework and abandonment by external users who go elsewhere − Poor usability is not a support issue: by then it is too late November 1, 2017 55
  56. 56. Usability Focus In Solution Architecture and Designs • Embed usability and experience into solution architecture and design • Take a end-to-end solution view and understand how internal solution component interactions impact usability and experience • Create a user usage journey inventory for all users and walk through customer journeys to understand user experiences • Define usability and experience measurement framework to link usability to influences on outcomes November 1, 2017 56
  57. 57. Embedding Usability Into Solution Architecture • This is at the interface between solution architecture and enterprise architecture • Cross application consideration • Constraint and functionality should be inherited from enterprise architecture • Capability needed to be part of enterprise architecture practice in order to support its use across solution architectures • Enterprise architecture function needs to have design and usability skills • May require a significant cultural change in enterprise and solution architecture functions November 1, 2017 57
  58. 58. Role of Enterprise Architecture in Usability • Acquire design skills, understand the principles and value of usability design in solution architectures • Provide leadership and internal organisation consulting competencies • Define overall approach and standards • Acquire common technologies • Drive education and adoption • Common framework reduces effort required by individual solution architectures • Enterprise architecture view of usability enables systematic approach November 1, 2017 58
  59. 59. Understanding Usability And Experience • How to measure the effectiveness of customer usability and customer experience • What metrics to use? • Need to embed measurement of usage in solution to • Standard measurement and analysis framework • Take action on analysis November 1, 2017 59
  60. 60. Principles Of Usability Architecture And Design • Redesign and optimise underlying business processes • Consistent, seamless, continuous experience across all user interaction channels and touchpoints • Create inventory of customer journeys • Define measurement framework • Approach to usability is part of any customer-centric strategy • Measurements overlaid on top of customer journeys show actual user experiences of applications and processes • Journey view links organisation silos to create cross- functional view November 1, 2017 60
  61. 61. Solution Usability Is Not A Programme • It is not a separate set of activities • It is not just a layer or skin on top of applications • Usability and customer experience should be integrated into normal architecture and design activities • Embed in the architecture and design process • Solution architecture needs to understand the requirements of usability and change the design process if necessary • Question the solution usability and resulting user experience from the outset • Need to understand the usability of the solutions being designed • Have a common approach to design/usability/experience to reduce overhead and cost and increase adoption and quality November 1, 2017 61
  62. 62. Usability • Is not just about creativity, appearance and navigation – it is about results and outcomes • It is not about having lots of functionality and features • It is not just about meeting business requirements – it is about meeting the needs of the user • The needs of the user relate to achieving a result • Outcomes are not results • There are many different types of user: frequent and infrequent, expert and inexperienced – design for all but focus on volume usage scenarios, frequent users are not necessarily expert November 1, 2017 62
  63. 63. What Does Usability Mean • Primary or direct usability − Usable for large volumes of transactions and numbers of users − Usable for large volumes of data − Usable for complex interactions − Usable for easy access and navigation • Secondary or indirect usability − Usability to achieve or influence outcomes − Usability to increase user satisfaction − Usability for greater efficiency − Usability to drive usage and growth − Usability to build or enhance brand • Not all are relevant or apply to all organisations • What are you trying to achieve November 1, 2017 63
  64. 64. November 1, 2017 64 Not All Outcomes Can Be Achieved • Some outcomes cannot be managed, only influenced • Outcomes include: − Sales − Sales conversion rate − Revenue − Profit − Cashflow • Outcomes can only be influenced through activities: − Improved customer satisfaction − More sales activity − Greater value for money • Focussing end-to-end usability is a key way of influencing outcomes and delivering value
  65. 65. November 1, 2017 65 Illusion of Attempting to Manage Outcomes Sell More Products/ Services and More Profitably Generate More Profit Identify the Right Customers Fulfil Orders Correctly and Satisfactorily Manage Customer Relationships Be Easy to Do Business With Be an Organisation Customers Want to Do Business With Generate and Maintain High Customer Satisfaction Develop and Sell the Right Product at the Right Price Activities Outcomes You cannot force customers to buy more products and services
  66. 66. November 1, 2017 66 Illusion of Attempting to Manage Outcomes Sell More Products/ Services and More Profitably Generate More Profit Identify the Right Customers Fulfil Orders Correctly and Satisfactorily Manage Customer Relationships Be Easy to Do Business With Be an Organisation Customers Want to Do Business With Generate and Maintain High Customer Satisfaction Develop and Sell the Right Product at the Right Price Activities Outcomes You cannot force customers to buy more products and services But you can take actions and perform activities that will increase the propensity of customers to buy more
  67. 67. Good Usability Design • Means understanding what the user population wants or needs the solution to achieve and ultimately what the user wants to achieve • Understand what is important to users • Usability matches what the organisation does with how users interact with the organisation to avail of the products and services, do what has to be done November 1, 2017 67
  68. 68. Multiple Overlapping Interrelated Programmes November 1, 2017 68 Digital StrategyDigital Technical Strategy Business Strategy People Tools And Systems Digital Customer Strategy Customer Experience Strategy Digital Operations Strategy Processes Solution Architecture and Usability Strategy Enterprise Architecture
  69. 69. Multiple Overlapping Programmes • There may already be multiple overlapping programmes within the organisation that already relate to solution architecture and usability − Business Strategy − Enterprise Architecture − Solution Architecture and Usability Strategy − Digital Strategy − Digital Technical Strategy − Digital Customer Strategy − Digital Operations Strategy − Customer Experience Strategy − Tools And Systems − Processes − People • Do not let the complexity stop usability initiative November 1, 2017 69
  70. 70. Multiple Overlapping Programmes • Are there other initiatives relating to solution architecture and usability? • Do you have full visibility of all usability-related activities? • Are you optimising the benefits and avoiding replicated costs across solution usability and experience initiatives? • Does the structure of your approach to usability mimic organisational silos? • Do you know which interfaces, touchpoint and applications have the greatest impact on usability? November 1, 2017 70
  71. 71. Solution Design And Usability Gulfs November 1, 2017 71 I Have Done What I Wanted This Is What I Want Gulf of Execution Gulf of Evaluation This Is The Journey And Experience I Want This Is The Journey And Experience I Get
  72. 72. Look For The Solution Design And Operation Gulfs • Gulf of Execution – gap between the desired/required goal and the activities and steps required to achieve goal − Execution gulfs can correspond to the multiple steps needed within an application or the need to use multiple applications − Execution gulfs can be caused by organisational silos and the need for handoffs and a lack of an end-to-end cross-functional application that delivers the associated cross-functional process • Gulf of Evaluation – gap between solution outcome and the user’s interpretation of or ability to interpret and understand that outcome − How easy it is to understand/interpret/evaluate what has happened − Have I got the right information? − Did it work? November 1, 2017 72
  73. 73. Third Solution Design Gulf – Gulf Of Experience And Expectation November 1, 2017 73 Customer And Employee Experience Of External Consumer And Social Media Applications Customer And Employee Experience Of Corporate Applications Experience Gulf Between Usability Of Consumer And Corporate Applications
  74. 74. Gulf Of Experience And Expectation • Corporate organisations tend to be poor at solution usability and design • They also tend to be poor at recognising the existence of this gap − Lack of awareness and appreciation − Lack of understanding of cost • Consumer-oriented applications tend to be viewed with suspicion that create risks and costs that must be managed and controlled • Bridging the experience and expectation gulf requires changes throughout the solution design and delivery function November 1, 2017 74
  75. 75. Solution Usability Pyramid November 1, 2017 75 Common, Shared And Integrated, Guiding, Predicting Flexible And Adaptable Intuitive And Easy To Use And Understand, Searchable, Navigable, Learnable Efficient, Consistent, Available, Dependable And Reliable, Error Detection And Correction, Error Tolerance And Handling Basic, Serviceable And Functional, Limited Attention To Usability Greater Solution Usability
  76. 76. User Experience Ownership • Creating a separate user experience and usability ownership replicates organisational silos − Skills and experience must be available across all solution designs • Solution usability – both internal and external – is cultural and may need cultural change within the organisation • Process needs to ensure that ownership devolves to the solution and is supported by tools and techniques to enable this • Difficult to separate user experience from the underlying organisation structures that drive solution requirements and design November 1, 2017 76
  77. 77. Good System Usability And Associated Experience Drives … • Operational efficiencies through − Greater self-service − Reduced errors and rework − Reduced direct support − Reduced peer support − Improved customer and employee satisfaction − Greater throughput for the same resources − Reduced sales and marketing costs November 1, 2017 77
  78. 78. Experience Management Is Greater Than Solution Usability • User/customer-centred processes and associated solutions • Consistent experience across all solutions that comprise the implementation of cross-functional processes • Consistent experience across all interface channels • Trans-solution data and process view to enable cross solution • Data analytics across solutions November 1, 2017 78
  79. 79. Usability And Experience Measurement Frameworks and Methodologies • Many old, out-of-date, partially developed and incomplete solution usability models, methodologies and processes • They tend to be software-oriented rather than focussing on the completeness of the overall solution • Many consist of basic maturity models without supporting implementation and justification and lacking implementation framework November 1, 2017 79
  80. 80. Sample Usability And Experience Measurement Frameworks and Methodologies • Agile and User Centred Design Integration (AUCDI) • DATech Standard Usability Test • HCD-PCM Visioning HCD-PCM-V • Human Centred design (HCD) HCD-PCM Process Capability Model Design PCM • Human Factors Integration Process Risk Assessment HFIPRA • Humanware Process Improvement (HPI) Framework • ISO 18152 Ergonomics of human-system interaction -- Specification for the process assessment of human-system issues • ISO 18529 - Ergonomics of human-system interaction -- Human-centred lifecycle process descriptions • ISO 9241 Ergonomics of human-system interaction • Kano model product development and customer satisfaction • KESSU UCD User-Centred Design) performance assessment (UPA) • Microsoft Solution Framework (MSF) • Nielsen Corporate Usability Maturity Model • Open Source Usability Maturity Model (OS-UMM) • Oracle Fusion Applications User Experience Patterns and Guidelines • Quality Attribute-oriented Software ARchitecture design method (QASAR) • SAAM: A Method for Analyzing the Properties of Software Architectures • SALUTA Scenario based Architecture Level UsabiliTy Assessment • Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM) • System Usability Scale (SUS) • Trillium Model • Usability Leadership Maturity Model ULMM • Usability Maturity Model: Human-Centredness Scale UMM-HCS • Usability Maturity Model: Processes UMM-P • User Centred Design Maturity UCDM November 1, 2017 80
  81. 81. November 1, 2017 81 Solution Usability Measurement Needs To Measure Along All Dimensions Of Usability Components of Overall Solution Quality Properties Functional Components of Solution
  82. 82. Solution Usability Measurement Framework Usability Measurement Approach • Usability is subjective • Define approach to measuring solution usage along the inventory solution usage journeys and scenarios • Measure functional use, quality attributes • Measurement of scope of delivery of solution is more complex November 1, 2017 82
  83. 83. Characteristics Of Integrated Approach To Solution Usability Within Solution Architecture • Standardised approach to assessing user requirements • Assessment of requirements used to develop a wider understanding of user needs • Evaluation includes feedback on quality and delivery of user expectation • Usability and experience evaluations collected and analysed centrally • Multiple different approaches to evaluation used • Assessments performed over wide user group • Approach to assessment and evaluation updated by previous analyses and experience • Assessment and evaluation information made available to all project teams • Evaluations of needs identifies user technical and business capabilities and skills • Evaluation feedback prioritised and used to define usability for not just current solution but also potential future solutions • Users are included in design team • Design team include cognitive frameworks in the solution design process • Prototyping techniques used widely including prototyping of conceptual and physical design • Prototyping techniques used to ensure complexity and issues around usability are identified during solution design November 1, 2017 83
  84. 84. Summary • Solution usability depends on functionality, quality and comprehensiveness of implementation • Externally presented solutions and experiences tend replicate siloed internal organisation processes, limitations, constraints and structures • Solutions are the windows into the underlying business processes • Solutions cannot, in themselves, resolve problems with underlying business processes without a process redesign component • Solution architecture needs to take account of user experience as part of the overall solution design process • People are always part of the operation and use of the solution • Solution architects need to be aware of the people and experience aspects of solutions • Solution usability contributes to the long-term success of a solution • Users experience the complete operational solution across its entire scope and experience its functional and quality properties • Enterprise architecture needs to provide leadership in defining and implementing approach to measuring solution usability • Enterprise architecture needs to define standards and associated frameworks for overall experience and solution usability • Define approach to measuring solution usage along the inventory solution usage journeys and scenarios November 1, 2017 84
  85. 85. More Information Alan McSweeney http://ie.linkedin.com/in/alanmcsweeney November 1, 2017 85

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