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Extreme Sports<br />
An extreme sport (also called action sport and adventure sport) is a popular term for certain activities perceived as havi...
Base Jumping<br />
Bungee jumping<br />
Skydiving<br />
Skysurfing<br />
Skateboarding<br />
Street luge<br />
Jet Ski<br />
Base Jumping<br />This sport began way back in 1978, when parachutists started jumping off El Capitan, a 100-metre-high cl...
Vocabulary<br />Being able to make split-second decisions<br />Before even contemplating your first jump <br />At the merc...
Estimated Rates<br />
Gerunds and Infinitives<br />Look at the following sentences from the reading text:<br />Being able to make split-second d...
Gerunds and Infinitives<br />A. The gerund is used in the following cases:<br />B. The infinitive with to is used:<br />As...
The gerund as the subject/ object/complement of a clause or sentence:<br />Subject:                   Cyclingis good for y...
The gerund after prepositions:<br />I look forward to hearingfrom you.<br />I can’tget used to living without her.<br />3....
The infinitive to express purpose:<br />I’m learning English to help me get a better job.<br />I’ve been meaning to paint ...
Gerund and infinitives after verbs<br />Verb + gerund<br />Have you finished cleaning your room?<br />The following verbs ...
Verb + infinitive with to<br />He promised not to tell anyone what she had said.<br />The following verbs are normally fol...
3. Verb + gerund or infinitive<br />Like, love, hate and prefer are usually followed by the gerund. However, the infinitiv...
Begin, start, continue and intend can be followed by the gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.<br />When I arriv...
Complete each space with a preposition from the box.<br />
2. Complete the sentences using the gerund or the infinitive  of the verb in brackets.<br />When I suggested ______ (go) s...
Complete the sentences using infinitive constructions.<br /><ul><li>She didn't tell me (do / what)_________
We asked a man (get / to the station / how)_________
We didn't know (go / this way or that way / whether)_________
She found out (queue / for the tickets / where)_________
I learnt (juggle / with three balls / how) __________</li></li></ul><li>
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Extreme sports

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Extreme sports

  1. 1. Extreme Sports<br />
  2. 2. An extreme sport (also called action sport and adventure sport) is a popular term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of danger and that are counter-cultural. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and highly specialized gear or spectacular stunts.<br />
  3. 3. Base Jumping<br />
  4. 4. Bungee jumping<br />
  5. 5. Skydiving<br />
  6. 6. Skysurfing<br />
  7. 7. Skateboarding<br />
  8. 8. Street luge<br />
  9. 9. Jet Ski<br />
  10. 10. Base Jumping<br />This sport began way back in 1978, when parachutists started jumping off El Capitan, a 100-metre-high cliff in Yosemite National Park, California. BASE is an acronym for Buildings, Antenna, Span, Earth and participants have to freefall from an object in each case. Being able to make split-second decisions is essential as these objects are not very high off the ground and you need to open your parachute at just the right moment. Before even contemplating your first jump you should have done at least 100 skydives. You are at the mercy of gusts of wind during the descent and must know exactly how to steer yourself away from danger. Illegal in some countries, this sport has claimed the lives of 20 jumpers since it was invented and many more have been severely injured.<br />
  11. 11. Vocabulary<br />Being able to make split-second decisions<br />Before even contemplating your first jump <br />At the mercy of gusts of wind <br />Howto steer yourself away from danger<br />Has claimed the lives of <br />
  12. 12. Estimated Rates<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Gerunds and Infinitives<br />Look at the following sentences from the reading text:<br />Being able to make split-second decisions is essential as these objects are not very high off the ground. <br />Before even contemplating your first jump you should have done at least 100 skydives.<br />2. The words written inboldare all gerunds. Match each of these gerunds with the appropriate explanation for its use:<br />As the subject of a clause or sentence<br />After prepositions<br />
  15. 15. Gerunds and Infinitives<br />A. The gerund is used in the following cases:<br />B. The infinitive with to is used:<br />As the subject/object/ complement of a clause<br />After prepositions<br />After certain verbs<br />To express purpose<br />After many adjectives, eg surprised, delighted, disappointed, happy, important, lucky, necessary, possible etc.<br />After certain verbs.<br />
  16. 16. The gerund as the subject/ object/complement of a clause or sentence:<br />Subject: Cyclingis good for your health.<br />Object: I find shopping for clothes really boring.<br />Complement: My favourite sport is swimming.<br />
  17. 17. The gerund after prepositions:<br />I look forward to hearingfrom you.<br />I can’tget used to living without her.<br />3.The gerund after certain verbs:<br />Peter suggested going for a picnic.<br />
  18. 18. The infinitive to express purpose:<br />I’m learning English to help me get a better job.<br />I’ve been meaning to paint the front door for ages, but I keep forgetting to buy the paint.<br />The infinitive after many adjectives:<br />I was surprised to hear she had failed the exam.<br />The infinitive after certain verbs:<br />He offered to give her a lift, but she decided to go by bus.<br />
  19. 19. Gerund and infinitives after verbs<br />Verb + gerund<br />Have you finished cleaning your room?<br />The following verbs are normally followed by the gerund: <br />Adore, dislike, give up, detest, don’t mind, can’t stand, admit, avoid, consider, feel like, put off, miss, prevent, suggest etc.<br />
  20. 20. Verb + infinitive with to<br />He promised not to tell anyone what she had said.<br />The following verbs are normally followed by the infinitive with to:<br />Agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, choose, decide, deserve, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, offer, etc.<br />
  21. 21. 3. Verb + gerund or infinitive<br />Like, love, hate and prefer are usually followed by the gerund. However, the infinitive is also possible with little, if any, difference in meaning.<br />I love going/to go for long walks in the hills.<br />The infinitive is common for specific situations:<br />I hate to interrupt, but we really must be going.<br />
  22. 22. Begin, start, continue and intend can be followed by the gerund or infinitive with no change in meaning.<br />When I arrived it started to rain/raining.<br />c) Forget, remember, go on, mean, need, regret, stop and try can be followed by the gerund or the infinitive, but with a change in meaning, eg:<br /><ul><li>Mean + gerund = to involve</li></ul>Dieting usually means giving up things you enjoy.<br /><ul><li>Mean + infinitive = to intend</li></ul>I meant to phone the electrician but I forgot.<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Complete each space with a preposition from the box.<br />
  25. 25. 2. Complete the sentences using the gerund or the infinitive of the verb in brackets.<br />When I suggested ______ (go) skiing she was extremely enthusiastic and we arranged_______ (meet) at seven o’clock on Saturday morning.<br />I can’t help_______ (smile) when I see my dad playing tennis. He’s had hundreds of lessons but he still hasn’t learnt _______ (hit) the ball properly.<br />Playing with golfers better than myself has certainly helped_______ (improve) my game. Now I’m even considering_______ (take) golf up professionally.<br />One of my cousins has promised_______ (take) me windsurfing with him as soon as I’ve finished_______(study).<br />
  26. 26. Complete the sentences using infinitive constructions.<br /><ul><li>She didn't tell me (do / what)_________
  27. 27. We asked a man (get / to the station / how)_________
  28. 28. We didn't know (go / this way or that way / whether)_________
  29. 29. She found out (queue / for the tickets / where)_________
  30. 30. I learnt (juggle / with three balls / how) __________</li></li></ul><li>
  31. 31. What is Ben’s profession?<br />How old was he when he did his first jump?<br />Whyhe decided to do his first jump?<br />What does he do before jumping?<br />For how long is he doing skydiving?<br />6. Is easy for people to have their first jump?<br />
  32. 32. Discussion<br />Which of these extreme sports would you most and least like to do? Give reasons for your answers.<br />Have you ever tried any unusual sports?<br />
  33. 33. Thank you<br />

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