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- DR.AKIF A.B
Mnemonic:
COLLEGE – SCHOOL-BIRTH
First we are born—then we
Go to School…then we go to college
C = Corneum
o
L = Lucidum
l
...
Cells forms at base and then migrates upwards to form other layers of skin
As explained in previous question : Cells forms at base and then migrates
upwards to form other layers of skin and since S...
-Flat, Anucleate cells.
-Eosinophilic
- Hyperkeratosis : Increase in thickness
- Parakeratosis : Retention of nuclei in ce...
Layer Cell type
Stratum corneum (horny layer) •Called corneocytes or squames.
•Dead, dried-out hard cells without
nuclei.
...
-Translucent layer
- contains degenerated cells
- Present in palms & soles.
- Not present in skin all over body( + ONLY IN...
- Granules +
Keratohyaline Lamellar
-Basophilic
- produces FILAGGRIN protein
Made of Keratin
Intermediate
filaments
Mutate...
-Fish Scale Disease.
- Caused due to mutation of FILLAGRIN protein in stratum granulosum
Filaggrin is a protein required f...
- Reaction pattern of Skin.
Acute Sub-Acute Chronic
-Erythema
- Vesicle
Oozes
Crusts
-Erythema
- Scaling
-Lichenification
...
- Reaction pattern of Skin.
Exogenous Endogenous
1) Allergic contact dermatitis
2) Irritant contact dermatitis
3) Phytoder...
Spongiosis is mainly intercellular edema (abnormal accumulation of fluid) in
the epidermis, and is characteristic of eczem...
- Also known as Gravitational Eczema/ Chronic venous insufficiency
-Defect in skin barrier function making the skin more susceptible to irritation
by soap and other contact irritants, the w...
1) Chronic / Chronically relapsing condition
2) Pruritis
3) Typical morphology & Distribution
4) Personal/ Family h/o atopy
The name refers to its appearance:
Pityriasis refers to its characteristic fine scale
Alba to its pale colour (hypopigment...
-Decrease surface skin lipids
- also known as ECZEMA CRACQUALE
-Prickle cell layer
- Spines + ( Acantha) : known as desmosomes
- Acantholysis : Rupture of Desmosomes
Connects Keratin
In...
PRIMARY
PEMPHIGUS
SECONDARY
ACANTHOLYSIS
-Single layer
- Columnar cell with central nucleus
- Lichen Planus : Lymphocyte infiltrates basal layer leading to basal c...
-Present in all layers of epidermis.
- forms 80% of all cells in epidermis
-Ectodermal in origin
-Dendritic type of cell.
-Function : Pigment production
- Origin : Neural Crest
-Location : Stratum basale
- for every 1 m...
VOGT KOYANAGI HARADA
SYNDROME
-It involves all places where melanin is present like :
1) skin = Poliosis ( White patches i...
-Type of macrophage.
-Origin : Bone marrow
-Location : stratum spinosum
-Dendritic cell
-Markers : CD1a
S100
CD-207 : Most...
- Granules in Langerhan cell : BIRBECK granules (Electron microscope)
BIRBECK granules
- Horse shoe arrangement of nuclei.
-Bilobed nucleus
-Mechanoreceptors
-Location : Stratum basale
-Markers : Cytokeratin-20
- forms synapse with nerve
-Portion of epidermis which enters dermis.
- Portion of dermis which enters epidermis.
FIBRES
Collagen
elastic
APPENDAGES
Sweat Glands
Sebaceous Glands
Hairs
BLOOD VESSELS
NERVES
& Skin
COLLAGEN DEFECT DISEASE
1) Type-1 Collagen Osteogenesis Imperfecta
2) Type-2 Collagen Relapsing Polychondritis
3) Type-3 C...
- DR.AKIF A.B
1) MARFAN SYNDROME
2) CUTIS LAXA
3) PSEUDOXANTHOMA ELASTICUM
- Defect in fibriilin component of elastin fibres.
- Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that mainly affects t...
The main characteristic features of the syndrome include:
1) tall and thin stature with long extremities (arms, legs, fing...
Michael Phelps : Top swimmer is known to have few symptoms of
Marfan Sx.
-Recoil of skin after pinching will be slow.
- characterised by loosely hanging skin that lacks any elasticity.
-Group of connective tissue disorders that affects the elastic tissue of the skin,
blood vessels, and the eyes.
- Calcium ...
Plucked Chicken appearance
Plucked Chicken appearance
Plucked Chicken appearance
1) Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
2) SLE
3) Ehlers danlos Syndrome.
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Anatomy of skin, Lichen planus, Dermatitis, Koebner phenomenon, collagen defects and elastin defects have been mentioned in details with various images to help u in understanding it well.

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Dermatology

  1. 1. - DR.AKIF A.B
  2. 2. Mnemonic: COLLEGE – SCHOOL-BIRTH First we are born—then we Go to School…then we go to college C = Corneum o L = Lucidum l e G = Granulosum e School = Spinosum Birth = Basale OUTSIDE INSIDE
  3. 3. Cells forms at base and then migrates upwards to form other layers of skin
  4. 4. As explained in previous question : Cells forms at base and then migrates upwards to form other layers of skin and since Stratum corneum is the upmost layer , it forms at last and thus absent in premature babies
  5. 5. -Flat, Anucleate cells. -Eosinophilic - Hyperkeratosis : Increase in thickness - Parakeratosis : Retention of nuclei in cells of stratum corneum. - Dermatophytosis : Fungal infection in stratum corneum. - Sarcoptes scabiei, causative organism of Scabies causes burrows in stratum corneum .
  6. 6. Layer Cell type Stratum corneum (horny layer) •Called corneocytes or squames. •Dead, dried-out hard cells without nuclei. Stratum granulosum (granular layer) •Cells contain basophilic granules. •Waxy material is secreted into the intercellular spaces. Stratum spinulosum (spinous, spiny or prickle cell layer) •Intercellular bridges called desmosomes link the cells together. •The cells become increasingly flattened as they move upward. Stratum basale (basal layer) •Columnar (tall) regenerative cells. •As the basal cell divides, a daughter cell migrates upwards to replenish the layer above.
  7. 7. -Translucent layer - contains degenerated cells - Present in palms & soles. - Not present in skin all over body( + ONLY IN PALMS & SOLES)
  8. 8. - Granules + Keratohyaline Lamellar -Basophilic - produces FILAGGRIN protein Made of Keratin Intermediate filaments Mutated in cases of 1) Ichthyosis Vulgaris 2) Atopic dermatitis -ODLAND bodies or Cementosomes -Produces Lipid which functions as barrier of skin
  9. 9. -Fish Scale Disease. - Caused due to mutation of FILLAGRIN protein in stratum granulosum Filaggrin is a protein required for the binding of keratin fibres in epidermal cells, to form an effective skin barrier. - It helps maintain the skin pH, retain moisture in the stratum corneum, and reduce trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). - Xerosis or dryness results from the reduced skin hydration associated with defective filaggrin. Excessive scale results from the inability of the squamous (skin cells) to remain hydrated as they move upward through the stratum corneum. - Hyperkeratosis results from compensatory repair mechanisms increasing cell proliferation.
  10. 10. - Reaction pattern of Skin. Acute Sub-Acute Chronic -Erythema - Vesicle Oozes Crusts -Erythema - Scaling -Lichenification Thickening of skin Hyperpigmentation Exaggereted skin margins
  11. 11. - Reaction pattern of Skin. Exogenous Endogenous 1) Allergic contact dermatitis 2) Irritant contact dermatitis 3) Phytodermatitis 4) Photodermatitis 1) Seborrhoeic dermatitis 2) Stasis Dermatitis 3) Atopic Dermatitis 4) Discoid eczema 5) Pityriasis alba 6) Pompholyx 7) Asteatotic Eczema
  12. 12. Spongiosis is mainly intercellular edema (abnormal accumulation of fluid) in the epidermis, and is characteristic of eczematous dermatitis, manifested clinically by intraepidermal vesicles (fluid-containing spaces), "juicy" papules, and/or lichenification.
  13. 13. - Also known as Gravitational Eczema/ Chronic venous insufficiency
  14. 14. -Defect in skin barrier function making the skin more susceptible to irritation by soap and other contact irritants, the weather, temperature and non-specific triggers. - Increased IgA response to allergen Infantile Childhood Adult -Extensor aspect - 0-2yrs - On face Cheek Scalp -Flexural aspect - 2yrs to puberty - Papules Excoriations Eczemas - Flexural aspect - Puberty -Adult - Lichenoid Plaques
  15. 15. 1) Chronic / Chronically relapsing condition 2) Pruritis 3) Typical morphology & Distribution 4) Personal/ Family h/o atopy
  16. 16. The name refers to its appearance: Pityriasis refers to its characteristic fine scale Alba to its pale colour (hypopigmentation). primarily affects children.
  17. 17. -Decrease surface skin lipids - also known as ECZEMA CRACQUALE
  18. 18. -Prickle cell layer - Spines + ( Acantha) : known as desmosomes - Acantholysis : Rupture of Desmosomes Connects Keratin Intermediate filaments Loss of adhesion between epidermal cells leading to separation of cells and this cells are now known as Acantholytic cell/Tczank cell
  19. 19. PRIMARY PEMPHIGUS SECONDARY ACANTHOLYSIS
  20. 20. -Single layer - Columnar cell with central nucleus - Lichen Planus : Lymphocyte infiltrates basal layer leading to basal cell degeneration
  21. 21. -Present in all layers of epidermis. - forms 80% of all cells in epidermis -Ectodermal in origin
  22. 22. -Dendritic type of cell. -Function : Pigment production - Origin : Neural Crest -Location : Stratum basale - for every 1 melanocyte, there are 10 keratinocytes - also present in Iris, Leptomeninges & Inner ear - Vogt Koyanagi Harada Syndrome : Defect of melanocyte -1 melanocye gives melanin to 36 keartinocytes.
  23. 23. VOGT KOYANAGI HARADA SYNDROME -It involves all places where melanin is present like : 1) skin = Poliosis ( White patches in hair and skin due to loss of melanocyte ) 2) Iris = Uveitis 3) Leptomeninges 4) Inner ear = Sensorineural deafness
  24. 24. -Type of macrophage. -Origin : Bone marrow -Location : stratum spinosum -Dendritic cell -Markers : CD1a S100 CD-207 : Most specific Used to diagnose Langerhan cell histiocytosis
  25. 25. - Granules in Langerhan cell : BIRBECK granules (Electron microscope) BIRBECK granules
  26. 26. - Horse shoe arrangement of nuclei.
  27. 27. -Bilobed nucleus -Mechanoreceptors -Location : Stratum basale -Markers : Cytokeratin-20 - forms synapse with nerve
  28. 28. -Portion of epidermis which enters dermis.
  29. 29. - Portion of dermis which enters epidermis.
  30. 30. FIBRES Collagen elastic APPENDAGES Sweat Glands Sebaceous Glands Hairs BLOOD VESSELS NERVES
  31. 31. & Skin
  32. 32. COLLAGEN DEFECT DISEASE 1) Type-1 Collagen Osteogenesis Imperfecta 2) Type-2 Collagen Relapsing Polychondritis 3) Type-3 Collagen Ehlers Danlos syndrome 4) Type 7 collagen Epidermolysis bullosa
  33. 33. - DR.AKIF A.B 1) MARFAN SYNDROME 2) CUTIS LAXA 3) PSEUDOXANTHOMA ELASTICUM
  34. 34. - Defect in fibriilin component of elastin fibres. - Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that mainly affects the 1) bones and joints (skeletal system) 2) heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system) 3) the eyes.
  35. 35. The main characteristic features of the syndrome include: 1) tall and thin stature with long extremities (arms, legs, fingers and toes disproportionately long in relation to rest of the body) 2) Eye problems where one or both lenses of the eye may dislocate, 3) heart and blood vessel problems that may result in heart murmurs, irregular heartbeat, or in severe cases aortic aneurysm (potentially fatal heart condition).
  36. 36. Michael Phelps : Top swimmer is known to have few symptoms of Marfan Sx.
  37. 37. -Recoil of skin after pinching will be slow. - characterised by loosely hanging skin that lacks any elasticity.
  38. 38. -Group of connective tissue disorders that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, blood vessels, and the eyes. - Calcium deposits over defective elastin fibres. - Collagen and ground substance is normal. - Plucked Chicken appearance of Neck. -Angioid streaks in retina.
  39. 39. Plucked Chicken appearance
  40. 40. Plucked Chicken appearance
  41. 41. Plucked Chicken appearance
  42. 42. 1) Pseudoxanthoma elasticum 2) SLE 3) Ehlers danlos Syndrome.
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Anatomy of skin, Lichen planus, Dermatitis, Koebner phenomenon, collagen defects and elastin defects have been mentioned in details with various images to help u in understanding it well.

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