Introduction to Animation
Why Do We See Images As Moving ?
Effects On Picture During Animation
Categories Of Animation
Uses Of Animation
Animation File Formats
3. Introduction to Animation
The word “animation” derives from “animate,” which
means “to bring to life”.
Thus when a multimedia developer wants to bring an
Image to life, animation is used.
“Animation is the process resulting time-varying
visual effects of motion, shape, color and so on.”
4. Why Do We See Images As Moving ?
The Persistence of Vision Theory
Our brain holds onto an image for a
fraction of a second after the image has
passed. If the eye sees a series of still
images very quickly one picture after
another, then the images will appear to
move because our eyes cannot deal with
5. Effects On Picture During Animation
In Animation, you get moving images when the
pictures change in some way. Here are some ways
in which pictures can change :-
Change in Size
Change in Position
Change in Angle
Change in Color
Change of Shape
6. Categories Of Animation
Animation deals with graphics drawn by hand or by animation
software. Depending upon the techniques used to create and
manage the frame. There are two broad categories of
1. Cell Animation
2. Computer Animation :-
a) Computer Assisted (two-dimensional) animation
b) Computer Generated (three dimensional ) animation
If we fix the window on an object but reduce or
increase its size, the object would appear bigger
(zoom in) or smaller (zoom out), respectively.
9. Tilt (camera)
Tilting is a technique in
which the camera is
stationary and rotates in a
vertical plane (or tilting
plane). Tilting the camera pitch rotation.
results in a motion similar
to someone nodding their
head "yes" or to an
aircraft performing a pitch
A rotation in a horizontal
plane is known as
panning (yaw rotation).
Tilting the camera results
in a motion similar to yaw rotation
someone nodding their
head “no" or to an aircraft
performing a yaw
Traditional animation sequence is created by
two types of artists :-
1. the lead artists or experts who draw those
frames where major changes take place
within the sequence, called key frames.
2. assistants draw a number of frames in
between the frames, process is called
13. Animation Techniques
There are four basic techniques used in animation.
1. Drawn Animation
2. Cut-out Animation
3. Model Animation
4. Computer Animation
14. Drawn Animation
This covers any form where one drawing is
replaced by another in a sequence. Each drawing is
slightly different from one before.
It takes a very long time to film
from start to finish and is expensive needing many
animators to complete the work.
15. Cut-out Animation
This covers any form where cut-out shapes are
moved around or replaced by other cut-out. Flat
objects like buttons, matchsticks and string can also
be used in this form of animation.
It is difficult to have more than one
or two cut-outs moving at the same time.
16. Model Animation
This involves the filming of
puppets or any form of
This type of animation needs
a lot of time and hard work. The makers of
„James and the Giant Peach‟ were only able to
complete 45 seconds of model animation a
week, 10 seconds a day. This was because
each puppet had so many joint.
17. Computer Animation
This refers to drawing of three dimensional models
and sets on the computer. Images can be scanned
into the computer using digital photography or
made within the computer itself.
18. 11 Basic Principle of Animation
1. Squash and stretch
4. Straight ahead action and pose to pose
5. Follow through and overlapping action
6. Slow in and slow out
8. Secondary action
19. 1. Squash and Stretch
Defining the rigidity and
mass of an object by
distorting its shape
during an action
22. 4. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-
1. Straight Ahead
Animator start from first drawing in the scene and
draw all subsequent frames until the end of scene.
Animator plans actions, draws a sequence of poses,
in between frames etc.
23. 5. Follow Through and
The termination of an action and establishing its
relationship to the next action
Example: Luxo Jr.‟s hop with
overlapping action on chord.
30. Animation File Formats
Software File Format
Director .dir & .dcr
Animator Pro .fli
Studio Max .max
SuperCard and Director .pics
Windows Audio Video Interleaved .avi
Macintosh .qt & .mov
Motion Video .mpeg
31. Current Companies
• Pixar • Metrolight Studios
• Industrial Light and • Boss Film Studios
Magic (ILM) • deGraf/Wahrman
• Pacific Data Images • R/Greenberg
• Disney • Blue Sky Productions
• Xaos • Sony Pictures
• Rhythm & Hues • Cinesite
• Digital Domain • Imageworks
• Lamb & Company • Apple…. .