SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
SCOOTERS INDIA LTD LUCKNOW
FOR THE PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWRAD OF
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, 2ND
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF:
Mr. ROHIT Mr. A.K. CHATERJEE
UNITED INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT NAINI, ALLAHABAD
This is to declare that AKASH SINGH (1601170009) student of MBA,
have personally worked on the project entitled “TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT”. The data mentioned in this report were obtained
during genuine work done and collected by me. The data obtained from
other sources have been duly acknowledged. The result embodied in this
project has not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the
award of any degree.
Place: Lucknow AKASH SINGH
Roll No.: 1601170009
MBA III Sem
My summer training Report with SCOOTERS INDIA LTD Proved to be
highly valuable and informative sojourn. I got some valuable insights
from this exercise, which has definitely enabled me to hone my skills
and widen my prospective towards Loader Industry.
Firstly, I would like to seek an opportunity to express my sincere and
profound gratitude to MR. A.K. CHATTERJEE(HR Manager,SIL).
PROF. K.K. MALVIYA (PRINCIPLE), MR. VIKASH MALHOTRA
(H.O.D), MR. PRAKASH KUNDANI (Project coordinator), Mr.
ROHIT VISWAKARMA (Mentor), and Dr. ANAM AKHTAR (Class
coordinator) and faculty of UIM, for giving me an opportunity to this
project. He had been a continuous source of inspiration.
“Gratitude is short lived but when put down in black and white, one can
hope that it will enjoy a longer.”
This summer training report was started with making to meet with the
employee and seek information through questionnaire and in formal
interview,. In the process I used to face a lot of queries and arguments
regarding the performance of SCOOTERS INDIA LTD. To overcome
this problem my project leader helped me to a big stand by not imparting
deep training knowledge and answers to the queries but also by giving
his continuous encouragement, invaluable help and guidance.
Training is normally viewed as a short process. It is applied to technical
staff, lower and middle management staff it is called as Training and for
senior level it is called managerial development program/executive
development program/development program.
This study will review and analyse the training and development
programmes for workers of Scooter India Limited. The outline
framework for any training and development activity should be linked
with the organization’s vision and mission so as to make it more
I expect my work would at least act as a source further scope to the
company, with this I whole heartily hand over my project hours to you.
Insurance industry is one of the fast growing industries in India. The life
insurance can be further classified in insurance industry. Marketing
includes all the fulfill the all segment of consumers. Integrated
Marketing communication is also to convert social needs into profitable
So this topic provides all the essential to theoretical knowledge and to
inculcate the efficiency. It is also requirement for the company to
improve their service and quality for achieving their ultimate goal.
Project Title: “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.”
The topic has been already given by the company to collect information
about current status of the Loader Industry that is given by the company
to the retailer for selling of every brand of Scooters India ltd.
The main objective of the research was to know the company’s position
in the manufacture sector.
1 INTRODUCTION 7-13
2 COMPANY PROFILE 14-24
3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 25
4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26-33
5 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
6 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETION
8 RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESSIONS
Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of
organization and to the experience of people in work. Training has
implication for productivity, health and safety at work and personal
development. All organizations employing people need to train and
develop their staff. Most organizations are cognisant of this
requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and
development. Such investment can take the form of employing
specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to staff
undergoing training and development. Investment in training and
development entails obtaining and maintain space and equipment. It
also means that operational personnel, employed in the organization’s
main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales,
marketing and management support, must also direct their attention
and effort from time to time towards supporting training development
and delivery. This means they are required to give less attention to
activities that are obviously more productive in terms of organization’s
main business. However, investment in training and development is
generally regarded as good management practice to maintain
appropriate expertise now and in the future.
Scooters India Limited, incorporated as a Government of India
enterprise at Lucknow, on September 7, 1972, is an ISO 9001:2000 and
ISO 14001 company, situated at 16 Km milestone, South–west of
Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh on NH No 25 and is well
connected by road, rail and air. It is a totally integrated automobile
plant, engaged in designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing
a broad spectrum of conventional and non–conventional fuel driven 3–
In 1975, company started its commercial production of scooters under
the brand name of Vijai Super for domestic market and Lambretta for
the overseas market. It added one more wheel to its product range and
introduced three wheelers under the brand name of VIKRAM/LAMBRO.
However, in 1997, strategically, the company discontinued its two–
wheeler production and concentrated only on manufacturing and
marketing of three–wheelers. These three–wheelers have become
more relevant in the present socio–economic environment as it
transports goods and passengers at least cost.
For various reasons the company became sick and it was perceived that
the company should be wound up. The company was referred to BIFR
The company has its own marketing network of regional sales offices all
over India, catering to customer’s requirements in the areas of sales
and services. The organisation has various departments to perform
different activities competently. SIL has an organised system to control
different activities. Personnel & administration department looks after
the employee’s welfare, medical benefits, conveyance facilities,
maintains their personal records and controls their regularity. It also
takes care of the security for the organisation. Marketing & services
department looks after the marketing of the products, provide services
to the customer and regulates the activities in its various regional
The products have a high payload capacity and efficiency. These are
specially designed and developed for local transportation. However, the
generation of Vikram run successfully in different countries also. Their
product is in demand in various countries all over the world. Germany,
Italy, Sudan, Nigeria, Nepal, Bangladesh are few of the countries.
The company vision is to grow into an environment friendly and
globally competitive company constantly striving to meet the changing
needs of customer through constantly improving existing products,
adding new products and expanding customer base.
The company is engaged in the manufacturing of
Vikram 750D (WC)
SCOOTER INDIA LIMITED
Scooters India Ltd is a public sector undertaking. The company
principally engaged in the business of manufacturing and sale of motor
vehicles and spare-parts (Automobile). They design, develop,
manufacture and market a range of conventional and non-conventional
fuel driven three-wheelers. They also possess the world right of the
trade name LAMBRETTA/ LAMBRO. The company has been a pioneer in
bringing out various models of 3-wheelers running on diesel, electric
and CNG for application as both passengers and load carrier versions.
They have played an important role in popularizing of 3-wheelers of
larger capacities in the country. The company is an ISO 9001:2000 and
ISO 14001 Company. The company has their manufacturing facilities
located at Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh. They have their own marketing
network of Regional Sales Offices all over India, catering to customer's
requirements in the areas of sales and services The company make
various types of three wheelers, which includes Vikram 450D, Vikram
410G, Vikram 600G, Vikram 750D, Vikram 750D (WC) and Vikram EV.
Vikram 750D and Vikram 450D is used as a passenger carrier, load
carrier and delivery van. These products are designed for local
transportation. Vikram EV is an electrical three wheeler. Scooters India
Ltd was incorporated on September 7, 1992. The company was
established for the manufacture of scooters, mopeds, motorcycles and
their components. The company bought over plant, machinery, design,
drawing, documentation, copyrights etc. lock, stock and barrel. In the
year 1975, company started its commercial production of Scooters
under the brand name of Vijay Super for domestic market and
Lambretta for overseas market. They added one more wheel to their
product range and introduced three wheelers under the brand name of
VIKRAM/ LAMBRO. In the year 1997, the company discontinued their
two-wheeler production and concentrated only on manufacturing and
marketing of 3 wheelers. During the year 2002-03, the company
developed a ten seater electric trolley bus. During the year 2003-04,
they developed a new starter motor and alternator for Vikram 750-D
air cooled three-wheelers for improved lighting and battery charging.
During the year 2005-06, the company commissioned a new paint shop
in order to facilitate superior paint finished vehicle. During the year
2006-07, the company introduced Vikram CG-1500 model of 3-wheeler
in the market. Also, they introduced CNG vehicles (1000CC) during the
year 2008-09. During the year 2009-10, the company continued their
leadership in passenger carrier (6+1) segment of vehicles and had a
share of 83.82%.
To fulfil customer's needs for economic and safe mode of road transport and quality
engineering products through contemporary technologies.
To grow into an environment friendly and globally competitive company constantly
striving to meet the changing needs of customer through constantly improving
existing products, adding new products and expanding customer base.
Providing economical and safe means of transportation with contemporary
technology for movement of cargo and people.Providing eco-friendly, flawless and
reliable products to fulfil customer needs. Achieving customer satisfaction by
providing products at right price and at right time.
Past is dead and gone, we are standing on the threshold of today,
planning for the future. In the process we added one wheel, shifting the
gear from two wheeler to three wheeler and propose to add another,
entering in to the arena of four wheeler, though for a limited segment -
the segment of zero emission. The quality has moved from product to
process to people. Only good quality people can work out quality
processes and provide quality products and services
Environment is our greatest heritage and its protection, our highest
responsibility. Green process design and also green product design
have assumed importance. Eco-design of the products and process is
the task for tomorrow. Accordingly, product development is the
obsession for future. Engineering it through various processes not only
to meet but exceed customer's expectation is the challenge.
As the 21st century is knocking at the door, the demand from people
will increase manifolds. Keeping this in view, the company has made
HRD a key functional area. The real asset has shifted from plant and
machinery to brands and brains. Knowledge has become the biggest
value added. Accordingly, sufficient resources have been committed to
convert the company into a learning organisation, thirsty for
Growing into a global company is not only a goal but has become
necessity as the world has turned into a global village without
boundaries and there is no place in the global village for protection.
QUALITY POLICY OF S.I.L
SIL is committed to meet customer requirements and continuously
improve our quality management system. The company sales and
services quality objective within the work of this policy
To fulfil costumer needs for economical and staff made of road
transport and quality.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To find out the impact of training and development programmes on the
performance and attitude of employees as well as organization
2. To find out the reason of success or failure of these programmes.
3. To gain the in-depth information and knowledge about the training and
development programme and its Impact on the workers.
4. To get the information about the training and development
programmes and its necessities that how it helps the organization in
achieving objectives effectively and efficiently.
Research is a common parlance refers to the search for knowledge. It
can be also defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent
information on specific topic. In fact, search is an art of scientific
investigation. In simple terms, research means, ‘a careful investigation
or enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of
LOGICAL FLOW OF RESEARCH AS FOLLOWS
Identification of problem
Sources of data
Findings and observation
Research design can be thought of as the structure of research. It is the
glue that holds all the elements in a research project together.
Research design is a vital part of the research study. It is the logical and
systematic planning and directing of piece of research. It is the master
plan and blue print of the entire study.
SOURCE OF DATA
The source of data as follows:
Internal data about working of HR department gathered from factory
Sufficient data collected through feedback forms by the employees
Website of the factory(www.Scottersindialimited.com)
We always have to work with a sample of subjects rather than the full
population. But people are interested in the population, not the
sample. To generalise from the sample to the population, the sample
has to be representative of the population. The safe way to ensure that
it is the representative is to be a Random selection procedure.
METHOD OF SAMPLING USED’’
In the random sampling method, all items have some chance of
selection that can be calculated. Random sample technique ensures
that bias is not introduced regarding who is included in the survey.
The sample size is taken is 22 employees from the Human Resource
Department of Scooters India Limited, Lucknow.
Survey-questionnaire: Behaviours, beliefs and observation of specific
groups are identified, reported and interpreted.
It was collected through questionnaire prepared contains relevant
questions that are both close ended and opened. Individual and group
interviews also under taken with difference consumers,
I have collected mainly the Primary Data for my study by utilizing the
questionnaire and interview methods.
These data are collected from published sources such as Magazines,
News papers, several books, and also from the help of web site.
(A) Sampling plan of the study:
Sample size: Sample size refers to number of elements to be included
in the study several qualitative factors should also be taken into
consderation when determining the sample size. These include the
nature of research, number of variable, and nature of analysis, sample
size used in similar studies incidence rates, completion rates, and
During the process of the study, survey has been conducted on 22
The researcher had choice between probability and non probability
sampling methods. In this study a simple non probability method namely
convenience sampling was adopted.
For my study I have selected Non-probability method in which I selected
convincing sampling method.
(B) FIELD WORK
Survey was done in SCOOTER INDIA LIMITED.
The data was collected over a period of six weeks, using well structured
questionnaire. The respondents were contacted at their respective
employees in various parts of the company.
Plan of the data analysis:
Planning and analysis of data can be done through three steps. They are
editing coding tabulation. These three are very important in analyzing
Editing is the process of examining errors when there is some
inconsistency in the responses as entered in the questionnaire or where it
contains partial or vague answers.
Coding is necessary to carryout the subsequent operations of tabulating
and analyzing data. If coding is not done, it will not be possible to
reduce a large number of heterogeneous responses into meaningful
categories with the result that the analysis of data would be weak and
ineffective and without proper focus.
Tabulation comprises sorting of the data into different categories and
counting the number of cases that belong to category the simplest way to
tabulate is to count the number of responses to one question. This is
called univeriate tabulation. Where two or more variables are involved
in tabulation, it is called bivariate or multivariate tabulation. In
marketing research projects and generally both types of tabulation are
CONCEPT OF TRAINING
Training is concerned with imparting and developing specific skills for a
particular purpose. Thus, training is the process of learning a sequence
of programmed behaviour. This behaviour, being programmed, is
relevant to a specific phenomenon, that is, a job.
In earlier practice, training programmes focussed more on
preparation for improved performance in a particular job. Most of the
trainees used to be from operative levels like mechanics, machine
operators and other kinds of skilled worker. When the problems of
supervision increased, the steps were taken to train supervisors for
better supervision. However, the emphasis was more on mechanical
aspects. Gradually, the problems increased in other areas like human
relations besides the technical aspects of the job. Similar problems
were also experienced in management group too, that is, how
managers could change their approach and attitude in order to face
new challenges. This required the total change in utilising the concept
of training beyond operative level to supervisory and management
groups. However, the utilisation of training methods for managers did
not have the same objective, that is providing training to managers to
perform a specific job but id extended to multi-skill training so that
managers might be able to handle a variety of jobs in the organization.
People in management group have to perform more varied jobs
because of their vertical and horizontal movement in the organization.
Approach Of Training & Development
Traditional Approach– Most of the organizations before never used to
believe In training. They were holding the traditional view that managers
are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very
costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive
pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.
The modern approachof training and development is that Indian
Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training
is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training
system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce
and yield the best results.
Objectives Of Training And Development
The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure
the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In
addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational,
Functional, and Societal.
Individual Objectives– help employeesin achieving their personal
goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary
objective by bringing individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a
level suitable to the organization’s needs.
Societal Objectives– ensure that an organization is ethically and
socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Employee training is distinct from management development. Training
is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure
by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and
skills for a definite purpose. It refers to instructions in technical and
mechanical operations like operation of a machine. It is designed
primarily for non-managers. It is for a short duration and for a specific
On the other hand, development is a long-term educational process
utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial
personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general
purpose. It involves philosophical and theoretical educational concepts
and it is designed for managers. It involves broader education and its
purpose is long-term development.
Training involves helping an individual learn how to perform his present
job satisfactorily. Development involves preparing the individual for a
future job and growth of the individual in all respect. Development
complements training because human resource can exert their full
potential only when the learning process goes for beyond simple
TRAINING AND EDUCATION
The term ‘education’ is wider in scope and more general in pur5pose
when compared to training. Training is the act of increasing the
knowledge and skill of an employee while doing a job. It is job oriented.
Education, on the other hand, is the process of increasing the general
knowledge and understanding of employees. It is a person-oriented,
theory-based knowledge whose main purpose is to improve the
understanding of a particular subject or theme. Its primary focus is not
the job of an operative. Education is imparted through schools or
colleges and the contents of such a programme generally aim at
improving the talents of a person. Training is practice-based and
company specific. However, both have to be viewed as programmes
that are complementary and mutually supportive. Both aim at
harnessing the true potential of a person/employee.
NEED FOR TRAINING
Newly required employees require training so as to perform their tasks
effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs
competently, without any wastage.
Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs
Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of
the latest development in job operations. In the face of rapid
technological changes, this is absolute necessity.
Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can
be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.
Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has
and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees
more productive and useful in the long run.
Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers
(Learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of
the best ways for them to gain acceptance).
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
A well planned and well executed training programme can provide the
Higher Productivity: Training helps to improve the level of
performance. Trained employees perform better by using better
methods of work. Improvements in manpower productivity in
developed nations can be attribute in no small measure to their
educational and industrial training programmes.
Better Quality Of Work: In formal training, the best methods are
standardized and taught to employees. Uniformity of work methods
and procedures helps to improve the quality of product or service.
Trained employees are less likely to make operational mistakes.
Less Learning Period: A systematic training programme helps to
reduce the time and cost involved in learning. Employees can more
quickly reach the acceptable level of performance. They need not waste
their time and efforts in learning through trial and error.
Cost Reduction: Trained employees make more economical use of
materials and machinery. Reduction in wastage and spoilage together
with increase in productivity help to minimize cost of operations per
unit. Maintenance cost is also reduced due to fewer machine
breakdown and better handling of equipment. Plant capacity can be
put to the optimum use.
Reduced Supervision: Well-trained employees tend to be self-reliant
and motivated. They need less guidance and control. Therefore,
supervisory burden is reduced and the span of supervision can be
Low Accident Rate: Trained personnel adopt the right work methods
and make use of the prescribed safety devices. Therefore, the
frequency of accidents is reduced. Health and safety of employees can
High Morale: Proper training can develop positive attitudes among
employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to a rise in
the earnings and job security of employees. Training reduces
employees grievances because opportunities for internal promotion are
available to well trained personnel.
Personal Growth: Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of the
participants. Therefore, well trained personnel can grow faster in their
career. Training prevents obsolescence of knowledge and skills. Trained
employees are a more valuable asset to any organization. Training
helps to develop people for promotion to higher posts and to develop
Quality: Training and Development helps in improving upon the
quality of work and work-life.
Healthy work environment: Training and Development helps in
creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good
employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with
Health and Safety: Training and Development helps in improving
the health and safety of the organization thus preventing
Morale : Training and Development helps in improving the
morale of the work force.
Image : Training and Development helps in creating a better
Profitability: Training and Development leads to improved
and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
Training & Evaluation
The process of examining a training program is called training
evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the
desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates
are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to
the regular work routines.
Purposes of Training Evaluation
The five main purposes of training evaluation are:
Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by d
efining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.
Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between
acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and
Purpose of training
Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the
training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.
Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative
employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes
are aligned with the expected outcomes.
Process of Training Evaluation
Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed be
training program. During the start of training, candidates generally.
perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times
candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the
program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the
methods used and whether those methds confirm to the candidates
preferences and learning style.
BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO EMPLYEES
Training is useful to employees in the following ways:
Self Confidence: Training helps to improve the self-confidence of an
employee. It enables him to approach and perform his job with
Higher Earnings: Trained employees can perform better and thereby
Safety:Training helps an employee to use various safety devices.
Adaptability: Training enables an employee to adapt to change in
work [procedures and methods.
Promotion: Training employees can develop him and earn quick
New Skills: Training develops new knowledge and skills among
employees. The new skills are a valuable asset of an employee and
remain permanently with him.
TYPES OF TRAINING
There are many approaches to training. We focus here on the types of
training that are commonly employed in present-day organizations.
Skills Training: This type of training is most common in organizations.
The process here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills
(such as reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem
solving, managing oneself, knowing how to learn, working as a part of
team, leading others) is identified through assessment. Specific training
objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those
Refresher Training: Rapid changes in technology may force
companies to go in for this kind of training. By organizing short-term
courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field,
the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on
Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas: content
and task group processes. Group processes reflect the way members
function as a team- for example, how they interact with each other,
how they sort put differences, how they participate etc.
Creativity Training: Some organizations encourage their employees
to think unconventionally, break the rules, take risks, go out of the box
and devise unexpected solutions.
Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse
dimensions in the workplace – race, gender, age, disabilities, lifestyles,
culture, education, ideas and backgrounds – while designing a training
programme. It aims to create better cross- cultural sensitivity with the
aim of fostering more harmonious and faithful working relationship
among a firm’s employees.
Orientation Training: In orientation training, new hires get a first-
hand view of what the company stands for, how the work is carried out
and how to get along with colleagues. In short, ‘they learn the ropes’
the specific ways of doing things in a proper manner. When a new
employee is from a different country and culture, this initial training is
especially important in helping new employees adjust in the company.
Job Training: It refers to the training provided with a view to increase
the knowledge and skills of employees for improving performance on
Safety Training: Training provided to minimize accidents and damage
to machinery is known as safety training. It involves instruction in the
use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.
Promotional Training: It involves training of existing employees to
enable them to perform higher level jobs. Employees with potential are
selected and they are given training before their promotion, so that
they do not find it difficult to shoulder the higher responsibilities of the
new positions to which they are promoted.
TRAINING NEED ASSESMENT
Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the
organization (long-term) and the individual employees (short-term).
This involves finding answers to questions such as: Whether training is
needed? If yes, where is it needed? Which training is needed? Etc. Once
we identified training gaps within the organization, it becomes easy to
design an appropriate training programme.
Training needs can be identified through the following g types of
1. Organizational Analysis: It involves a study of the entire
organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, the utilisation of
these resources, in order to achieve stated and its interaction pattern
with environment. The important elements that are closely examined in
this connection are:
a) Analysis Of Objectives: This is a study of short-term and long-term
objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these
b) Resource Utilisation Analysis: How the various organizational
resources (human, physical and financial) are put to use is the main
focus of this study. The contribution of various departments, are also
examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done to
find out comparative labour costs, whether a unit is undermanned or
c) Environmental Analysis:Here the economic, political, socio-cultural
and technological environment of the organization is examined.
d) Organizational Climate Analysis:The climate of an organization
speaks about the attitudes of members towards work, company
policies, supervisors etc. Absenteeism, turnover ratios generally reflect
the prevailing employee attitudes. These can be used to find out
whether training efforts have improved the overall climate within the
company or not.
2. Task Or Role Analysis: This is a detail examination of a job, its
components, its various operations and conditions under which it has
to be performed. The focus here is on the roles played by an individual
and the training needed to perform such roles. The whole exercise is
meant to find out how the various tasks have to be performed and
what kind of skills, knowledge, attitudes are needed to meet the job
3. Person Analysis: Here the focus is on the individual in a given job.
There are three issues to be resolved through manpower analysis. First,
we try to find out whether performance is satisfactory and training is
required. Second, whether the employee is capable of being trained
and the specific areas in which training is needed.
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in
to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to
understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on
trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the
trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide
the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information,
demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods
are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
• COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)
• INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)
• PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)
• VIRTUAL REALITY
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the
trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow
the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best
used for skill development
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but
through different means.
Training methods are usually classified by the location 0f instruction.
On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant
knowledge, skills and abilities and the actual workplace; off-the-job
training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location
other than the real work spot. Some of the widely used training can be
classified as follows:
1) On The Job Training Method: In this method the trainee is placed
on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it. The
trainee learns under the guidance and supervision the superior or an
instructor. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job.
Therefore, it is called learning by doing.
Several methods are used to provide on the job training e.g., coaching,
job rotation, committee assignments, etc. A popular form of on the job
training is job instruction training (JIT) or step by step learning. It is
widely used in the United State to prepare supervisors. It is appropriate
for acquisition or improvement of motor skills and repetitive
operations. The JIT involves the following steps:
Preparing the trainee for instruction. This involves putting the
trainee at ease, securing his interest and attention, stressing the
importance of the jobs: etc.
Presenting the jobs operations or instructions in terms of what the
trainee is required to do. The trainee is put at work site and each step
of the job is explained to him clearly.
Applying and trying out the instruction to judge how far the trainee has
understood the instructions.
Following up the trainee to identify and correct the deficiencies, if any.
JIT method provides immediate feedback permit, quick correction of
errors and provides extra practice when required. But it needs skilled
trainers and preparation in advance.
2) Off The Job Training Method:Under this method of training, the
trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is
focused upon learning the material related to his future job
performance. Since trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he
can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than
spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for
freedom of expression for the trainees.
a) The main advantage of OJT is that trainee learns on the actual machine
in use and in the real environment of the job. He gets a feel of the
actual job. Therefore, he is better motivated to learn and there is no
problem of transfer of training skills to the job.
b) The method is very economical because no additional space,
equipment, personnel or other facilities are required for training. The
trainee produces while he learns.
c) The trainee learns the rules regulations and procedures by observing
their day to day applications.
d) This is the most suitable method for teaching knowledge and skills
which can be acquired through personal observation in a relatively
short time period. It is widely used for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs
e.g., machinist, clerical and sales jobs.
e) Line supervisors take an active part in training their subordinates.
a) In on the jobs training, the learners find it difficult to concentrate due
to noise of the actual work place.
b) This method is often haphazard and unorganized. The superior or
experienced employee may not be a good trainer.
c) Trainee may cause damage to costly equipment and material due to
lack of experience.
EVALUATION OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME
Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired impact
or not. It also tries to ensure whether candidates are able to implement
their respective workplace or not. The process of training evaluation
has been defined as ‘’any attempt to obtain information on the effect
of training performance and to access the value of training in the light
of that information.’’
Training evaluation helps in offering feedback to the candidates by
defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.
It helps in finding the relationship between acquired knowledge,
transfer of knowledge at the workplace and training.
It helps in controlling the training programme.
It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned
with the expected outcomes.
PROCESS OF TRAINING EVALUATION
Before Training: the learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed
before the training the programme. During the start of training,
candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at
most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and
outcomes of the programme. Once aware, they are asked to give their
opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to
the candidates preference and learning style.
During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This
phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals.
After Training: it is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are
assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training.
PROCESS OF TRAINING EVALUATION
What the learner’s skills &
knowledge are before
What the learner’s skills
& knowledge are after
The point at
Training is a waste of
CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT
Development is an education process as it tries to enhance one’s ability
to understand and interpret knowledge in a useful way. Development is
different from training in that it is often the result of experience and
the maturity that comes with it. It is possible to train most people to
drive a vehicle, operate a computer, or assemble a radio. However,
development in such areas as judging what is right-and-wrong, taking
responsibility for results, thinking logically, understanding cause and
effect relationships, synthesising experiences to visualise relationships,
improving communication skills, etc., may or may not come through
over time. Training certainly helps in improving these types of skills.
When the intent is to enhance executive’s ability to handle diverse jobs
and prepare them for future challenges, the focus must shift to
executive development. Executive development focuses more on the
manager’s personal growth. It is more future oriented and more
concerned with education than is employee training.
MEANING OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT
Executive or management development is a planned, systematic and
continuous process of learning and growth by which managers develop
their conceptual and analytical abilities to manage. It is the result of not
only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job
experience. It is primarily concerned with improving the performance
of managers by giving them stimulating opportunities for growth and
IMPORTANCE OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT
Executive development has become indispensable to modern
organizations in view of the following reasons:
For any business, Executive development is an invaluable in the long
run. It helps managers to acquire knowledge, skills and Abilities
required to grapple with complex changes in environment, technology
and processes quite successfully.
Developmental efforts help executives to realise their own career goals
and aspirations in a planned way.
Executives can show superior performance on the job. By handling
varied jobs of increasing difficulty and scope, they become more useful,
versatile and productive.
Executive development programmes help managers to broader their
outlook into various problems dispassionately, examine the
consequences carefully, appreciate how others would react to a
particular solution and discharge their responsibilities taking a holistic
view of the entire organization.
The special courses, projects, committee assignment. Job rotation and
help managers to have a feel of how to discharge their duties without
rubbing people (subordinates, superiors, competitors, customers, etc.)
the wrong way.
FEATURES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT
It is a planned effort to improve executives’ ability to handle a
variety of assignments.
It is not a one-shot deal, but a continuous on-going activity.
It aims is improving the total personality of an executive.
It aims at meeting future needs unlike training, which seeks to
meet current needs.
It is a long term process, as managers take time to acquire and
improve their capabilities.
It is proactive in nature as it focuses attention on the present as
well as future requirements of both of the organization and the
OBJECTIVES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT
The main objective of any programme of executive development, are
1. Improve the performance of managers at all levels.
2. Identify the person in the organization with the required potential and
prepare them for higher positions in future.
3. Improve the thought processes and analytical abilities.
4. Provide opportunities to executives to fulfiltheir career aspirations.
5. Understand the problem of human relation and improve human
PROCESS OF EXECUTIVE DVELOPMENT
The essential ingredients of an executive development programme are
1. Analysis OF Development Needs: First of all the present and future
developmental needs of the origination are ascertained. It is necessary
to determine how many and what type of executive are required to
meet the present and future needs of the enterprise. The calls for
organizational planning. A critical analysis of the organization structure
in the light of the future plans will reveal what the organization needs
in the terms of departments, functions and key executive positions.
Then job descriptions and specifications are prepared for all executive
positions. Then job descriptions are prepared for all executive positions
to know the type of knowledge, skills training and experience required
for each position.
2. Appraisal Of Present Managerial Talent: A qualitative assessment
of the existing executives is made to determine the type of executive
talent available within the organization. The performance of every
executive is compared with the standard expected of him. His personal
traits are also analysed to estimate his potential for development.
3. Inventory Of Executive Manpower: This inventory is prepared to
obtain complete information about each executive. Date on the age,
education, experience, health, test result and performance appraisal
result is collected. This information is maintained on cards or
replacement tables, one for each executive. An analyse of this
information will show the strengths as well as deficiencies of executives
in certain functions relative to the future needs of the organization.
4. Planning Individual and Development Programmes: Each one of
us has a unique set of physical, intellectual and emotional
characteristics. Therefore, development plan should be tailor made for
each individual. Such tailor made programmes of development should
give due attention to the interest and goals of the subordinates as well
as to the training and development opportunities existing in the
5. Establishing Training and Development Programmes: The
human resource department prepares comprehensive and well
conceived programmes. The department identifies development needs
and may launch specific courses in the field of leadership, decision
making, human relations, etc. it also recommends specific executive
development programmes organized by well known institutes of
management. On the basis of its recommendations, the top
programmes at the cost of the company.
6. Evaluating Development Programmes: Considerable money, time
and efforts are spent on executive development programmes. It is
therefore; natural to find out to what extent the programme objectives
have been achieved. Programme evaluation will reveal the relevance of
the development programmes and the changes that should be made to
make these more useful to the organization. Observation of the
trainee’s behaviour, rating of the training elements, opinion surveys,
interviews, tests and changes in productivity, quality, cost etc. can be
used to evaluate development programmes. General result of
development programmes can be measured in the long run. But some
specific result may be assessed during the short term.
MEHODS & TECHNIQUES OF EXECUTIVE
On the job training is the most suitable when the aims is to improve on
the job behaviour of executives. Such training is inexpensive and time
saving. The motivation to learn is high as training takes place in the real
job situation. The trainee can size up his subordinates and demonstrate
his leadership qualities without artificial support. But neither the
trainer nor the trainee are free from the daily routine and pressure of
their respective jobs. On the job-training is given – though the following
1. Coaching: In this method, the superior guides and instructs the
trainee as a coach. The coach or counsellor sets mutually agreed upon
goals, suggest how to achieve these goals, periodically review the
trainee’s progress and suggests changes required in behaviour and
Coaching method offers several advantages:
i. It is learning by doing.
ii. Every executive can coach his subordinate even if no executive
development programme exists.
iii. Periodic feedback and evaluation are a part of coaching.
iv. It is very useful for orientation of new executives and for developing
v. It involves close interactions between the trainee and his boss.
Coaching method, however, suffers from certain disadvantages:
i. It tends to perpetuate current managerial styles and practices in the
ii. It requires that the superior is a good teacher and guide.
iii. The training atmosphere is not free from the worries of daily, routine.
iv. The trainee may not get sufficient time to make mistakes and learn
Coaching can be effective if the coach is a good communicator, enable
motivator and a patient listener. Coaching will work well if the coach
provides a good model with whom the trainee can identify, if he
provides the trainee with recognition of his improvement and suitable
2. Understudy: An understudy is a person selected and being trained as
the heir apparent to assume at a future time the full duties and
responsibilities of the position presently held by his superior. In this
way a fully trained person becomes available to replace a manager
during his long absence or illness, on his retirement, transfer,
promotion or death. The superior routes much of the department work
through the junior, discusses problems with him and allows him to
participate in the decision making process as often as possible. The
junior is generally assigned tasks which are closely related to the work
in his section and he is deputed to attend executive meetings as a
representative of his superior.
Under study method provides many advantages:
I. The trainee receives continuous guidance from the senior gets the
opportunity to see the total job.
II. It is practical and time saving due to learning by doing.
III. The trainee takes interest and shows the superior’ work load.
IV. The junior and the senior come closer to each other.
V. It ensures continuity of management when the superior leaves his
Understudy method, however suffers from the following
I. It perpetuates the existing managerial practices.
II. As one employee is identified in advance as the next occupant of higher
level managerial position, the motivation of other employees in the
unit may be affected
III. The subordinate staff may ignore the understudy and treat him as an
intruder without clear authority and responsibility.
IV. Under an overbearing senior, the understudy may lose his freedom of
thought and cooperation of the superior with whom the understudy is
3. Position rotation: It involves movement or transfer of executives
from one position or job to another on some planned basis. These
persons are moved from one managerial position to another according
to a rotation schedule. Position rotation is also called job rotation or
position rotation is often designed for junior executive. IT may continue
for a period ranging from six month to two years According to Bennett.
‘’Job rotation is a process of horizontal movements that widens the
managers experience horizon beyond the limited confines of his own
4. Projects assignments: Under this method a number of trainee
executives are put together to work on a project related to their
functional area. The group called project team or task force will study
the problem and find appropriate solutions. For instance, accounts
officers may be assigned the task of designing and developing an
effective budgetary system. By working on this project, the trainee
learns the work procedures and techniques of budgeting. They also
come to learn the interrelationship between accounts and other
departments. This is a flexible training device due to temporary nature
Sometimes, a syndicate or team consisting of persons of mature
judgement and proven ability is constituted. It is given a task properly
spelt out in terms of brief and background papers. Participants
represent different functional areas to facilitate interchange of ideas
and experience. Each syndicate prepares a report to be discussed by
other executive group.
5. Committee assignment: A permanent committee consisting of
trainee executives is constituted. The entire trainee participates in the
deliberations of the committee. Through viewpoints and alternative
methods of problem solving. They also learn interpersonal skills.
6. Multiple management: This technique was developed by Charles P.
McCormick oh McCormick Corporation of Baltimore, USA Under. Under
it a junior board of young executives is constituted. Major problems are
analysed in the junior board which makes recommendation to the
Board of Directors.
Q.NO.1 Age group respondents.
Age Group No.of employees
Below 25 0
25 to 35 7
35 to 45 2
45 and above 13
The above graph shows 13 employees having training and development
Below 25 25 to 35 35 to 45 45 and above
Q No 2. For how long have you been working in this factory ?
As per analysis 22 employees has come in above years.
1975 1976 1978 1980 1981 1982 2007 2008 2011
Q.NO3. What could help you to do your job better?
No of emp Practical
22 14 2 3 3
As per analysis 14 employees out of 22 employees prefer to the
practical knowledge to help there job better.
Communication Work harder other
Q.NO4. Do your factory have regular training progamme?
Agree Disagree Total
18 4 22
As per analysis 82% employees are agree and 18% employees are not
Q.NO5. Last one year have you attended any of the training
No of employee YES NO
22 5 5
As per analysis 17 employees out of 22 employees are not attended any
type of training programme in past one year but only 5 employees are
attend training programme.
No of emp YES NO
Q.NO6. Which type of training programme have you attended?
Any other Total
5 10 6 1 22
As per analysis 45% worker have attend technical training progamme
who are related to lower level and 27% officers have attended
Skills training Technical training Promotional training Any other
Q.NO.7 Does training helps to increase the motivation level of
Yes No Total
22 0 22
As per analysis 100% employee traiing helps to increase the motivaton
level of employess.
Q.NO.8 When employees arrive from training supervisors encourage
them to share what they have learned with other employees?
Not at all Rarely true Sometimes
Mostly true Total
0 11 5 6 22
As per analysis 11% employees rarely true the training supervisors
encourage them to share.
Not at all Rarely true Sometimes
Q.NO.9 Are you satisfying with the training programme ?
Yes No Total
22 0 22
As per analysis 100% empoyees satisfying with the training programme.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Training should be in a continuous process i.e., it should be imparted as
The duration of training programmes should be less and details should
be precise and accurate.
HR department should conduct seminars on some vital topics so that
employees are always motivated and encouraged to work.
Some advanced training is required in technology department.
The factory should adapt some other ways for nominating the trainees
like training need identification surveys, self-nomination, personal
analysis, organizational analysis etc.
Here recommended ISO Clauses6.2.1
People performing work will direct or indirect affecting the conformity
of product requirements must be competent base on education, training,
knowledge, skills and experience.
Human resource is one of the key resources for the ISO 9001 QMS. ISO
QMS can be effective and efficiency if the organization has the right
people doing the right jobs with the right types of competencies.
To handle this requirement, the competency (education, skills,
experience) must be defined clearly and communicate to the people who
perform the task affected to the product quality.
The common practice, we will define these competency requirements in
the job description, some organization define in procedure level.
ISO clauses 6.2.2 Competence, Training and
Organization must identify the training needed for each job or task, and
review the gap between the people who perform the job to the
Provide the require training to the people if there are a gap.
To review and evaluate the people after training provided to ensure the
effectiveness of training.
People must be aware and understand the importance of how their
activities can contribute to the achievement of quality objectives.
Training records, evaluation records must be maintain according to ISO
On the basis of the analysis made, the following conclusions are drawn:
Employees are satisfied with the training and development
programmes given to them.
The training programme has helped in developing the skills of the
After attending the training programme most of the employees find
their performance better at their workplace.
Training programmes also help to improve interpersonal relationship.
During training programmes employees realized that their work stress
Employees are needed technical training.
Employees want that training programme to be conducted regularly, at
least once either in 3 months or 6 months
Human resource management by V.S.P. Rao
Human resource management by L.M. Prasad
Questionnairefor Employees of SIL
Name………………….. Date ………………………
Age ………………………. Gender …………………
Designation ………………………. Department ………………
Qualifica tion ………………………
1. For how long have you been working in this factory?
a) 1-3 years b) 4-6years
c) 7-9 years d) More than 8 years
2. How many employees in your department?
a) 0-2 b) 2-4 years
c) 4-6 d) More than 6
3. What tasks do you do regularly?
4. Have you faced any problem performing these tasks ?
5. What could help you to do your job better?
a) Practical knowledge b) Communication skills
c) Work-harder d) Others (please specify)
6. How do your skills and experience match the job description if you are
agree then give ranking?
a) Skills ( ) b) Knowledge ( )
c) self confidence ( )
7. Do your factory have regular training programme?
a) Yes b) No
8. If yes, then in last one year have you attended any of the training
a) Yes b) No
9. What type of training programme is undergone here?
a) On the job b) Off the job
c) Corporate training/In house training d) External
10. If yes, then which type of training programme have you attended?
a) Skills training b) Technical training
c) Promotional training d) Any other
11. Does training helps to increase the motivation level of employee?
a) Yes b) No
12. Does training and developmental activities help the organization to
Maintain employees’ relation rate?
a) Yes b) No
13. When employees arrive from training supervisors encourage them to
Share what they have learned with other employees?
a) Not at all true b) Rarely true
c) Sometimes true d) Mostly true
14. Does the training method focus on developing team work and
Leadership skills ?
a) Yes b) No
15. After these training programme have you noticed any improvement in
a) Yes b) No
16. Do you feel training programme is compulsory for the employees?
a) Yes b) No
17. Are you satisfying with the training programme?
a) Yes b) No
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