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This is to declare that AKASH SINGH (1601170009) student of MBA,
have personally worked on t...
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My summer training Report with SCOOTERS INDIA LTD Proved to be
highly valuable and informative sojour...
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  2. 2. Page 2 DDEECCLLAARRAATTIIOONN This is to declare that AKASH SINGH (1601170009) student of MBA, have personally worked on the project entitled “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT”. The data mentioned in this report were obtained during genuine work done and collected by me. The data obtained from other sources have been duly acknowledged. The result embodied in this project has not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree. Date: Place: Lucknow AKASH SINGH Roll No.: 1601170009 MBA III Sem
  3. 3. Page 3 ACKNOWLEDMENT My summer training Report with SCOOTERS INDIA LTD Proved to be highly valuable and informative sojourn. I got some valuable insights from this exercise, which has definitely enabled me to hone my skills and widen my prospective towards Loader Industry. Firstly, I would like to seek an opportunity to express my sincere and profound gratitude to MR. A.K. CHATTERJEE(HR Manager,SIL). PROF. K.K. MALVIYA (PRINCIPLE), MR. VIKASH MALHOTRA (H.O.D), MR. PRAKASH KUNDANI (Project coordinator), Mr. ROHIT VISWAKARMA (Mentor), and Dr. ANAM AKHTAR (Class coordinator) and faculty of UIM, for giving me an opportunity to this project. He had been a continuous source of inspiration. “Gratitude is short lived but when put down in black and white, one can hope that it will enjoy a longer.”
  4. 4. Page 4 PREFACE This summer training report was started with making to meet with the employee and seek information through questionnaire and in formal interview,. In the process I used to face a lot of queries and arguments regarding the performance of SCOOTERS INDIA LTD. To overcome this problem my project leader helped me to a big stand by not imparting deep training knowledge and answers to the queries but also by giving his continuous encouragement, invaluable help and guidance. Training is normally viewed as a short process. It is applied to technical staff, lower and middle management staff it is called as Training and for senior level it is called managerial development program/executive development program/development program. This study will review and analyse the training and development programmes for workers of Scooter India Limited. The outline framework for any training and development activity should be linked with the organization’s vision and mission so as to make it more effective. I expect my work would at least act as a source further scope to the company, with this I whole heartily hand over my project hours to you.
  5. 5. Page 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Insurance industry is one of the fast growing industries in India. The life insurance can be further classified in insurance industry. Marketing includes all the fulfill the all segment of consumers. Integrated Marketing communication is also to convert social needs into profitable opportunities. So this topic provides all the essential to theoretical knowledge and to inculcate the efficiency. It is also requirement for the company to improve their service and quality for achieving their ultimate goal. Project Title: “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.” The topic has been already given by the company to collect information about current status of the Loader Industry that is given by the company to the retailer for selling of every brand of Scooters India ltd. The main objective of the research was to know the company’s position in the manufacture sector. Location: Lucknow
  7. 7. Page 7 INTRODUCTION
  8. 8. Page 8 Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organization and to the experience of people in work. Training has implication for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organizations employing people need to train and develop their staff. Most organizations are cognisant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such investment can take the form of employing specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and development entails obtaining and maintain space and equipment. It also means that operational personnel, employed in the organization’s main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development and delivery. This means they are required to give less attention to activities that are obviously more productive in terms of organization’s main business. However, investment in training and development is generally regarded as good management practice to maintain appropriate expertise now and in the future.
  9. 9. Page 9 HISTORY Scooters India Limited, incorporated as a Government of India enterprise at Lucknow, on September 7, 1972, is an ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 company, situated at 16 Km milestone, South–west of Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh on NH No 25 and is well connected by road, rail and air. It is a totally integrated automobile plant, engaged in designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing a broad spectrum of conventional and non–conventional fuel driven 3– wheelers. In 1975, company started its commercial production of scooters under the brand name of Vijai Super for domestic market and Lambretta for the overseas market. It added one more wheel to its product range and introduced three wheelers under the brand name of VIKRAM/LAMBRO. However, in 1997, strategically, the company discontinued its two–
  10. 10. Page 10 wheeler production and concentrated only on manufacturing and marketing of three–wheelers. These three–wheelers have become more relevant in the present socio–economic environment as it transports goods and passengers at least cost. For various reasons the company became sick and it was perceived that the company should be wound up. The company was referred to BIFR in 1991. The company has its own marketing network of regional sales offices all over India, catering to customer’s requirements in the areas of sales and services. The organisation has various departments to perform different activities competently. SIL has an organised system to control different activities. Personnel & administration department looks after the employee’s welfare, medical benefits, conveyance facilities, maintains their personal records and controls their regularity. It also
  11. 11. Page 11 takes care of the security for the organisation. Marketing & services department looks after the marketing of the products, provide services to the customer and regulates the activities in its various regional offices. The products have a high payload capacity and efficiency. These are specially designed and developed for local transportation. However, the generation of Vikram run successfully in different countries also. Their product is in demand in various countries all over the world. Germany, Italy, Sudan, Nigeria, Nepal, Bangladesh are few of the countries. The company vision is to grow into an environment friendly and globally competitive company constantly striving to meet the changing needs of customer through constantly improving existing products, adding new products and expanding customer base.
  12. 12. Page 12 The company is engaged in the manufacturing of  Vikram 450D  Vikram 410G  Vikram 600G  Vikram 750D  Vikram 750D (WC)  Vikram EV
  13. 13. Page 13 COMPANY PROFILE
  14. 14. Page 14 SCOOTER INDIA LIMITED Scooters India Ltd is a public sector undertaking. The company principally engaged in the business of manufacturing and sale of motor vehicles and spare-parts (Automobile). They design, develop, manufacture and market a range of conventional and non-conventional fuel driven three-wheelers. They also possess the world right of the trade name LAMBRETTA/ LAMBRO. The company has been a pioneer in bringing out various models of 3-wheelers running on diesel, electric and CNG for application as both passengers and load carrier versions. They have played an important role in popularizing of 3-wheelers of larger capacities in the country. The company is an ISO 9001:2000 and
  15. 15. Page 15 ISO 14001 Company. The company has their manufacturing facilities located at Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh. They have their own marketing network of Regional Sales Offices all over India, catering to customer's requirements in the areas of sales and services The company make various types of three wheelers, which includes Vikram 450D, Vikram 410G, Vikram 600G, Vikram 750D, Vikram 750D (WC) and Vikram EV. Vikram 750D and Vikram 450D is used as a passenger carrier, load carrier and delivery van. These products are designed for local transportation. Vikram EV is an electrical three wheeler. Scooters India Ltd was incorporated on September 7, 1992. The company was established for the manufacture of scooters, mopeds, motorcycles and their components. The company bought over plant, machinery, design, drawing, documentation, copyrights etc. lock, stock and barrel. In the year 1975, company started its commercial production of Scooters
  16. 16. Page 16 under the brand name of Vijay Super for domestic market and Lambretta for overseas market. They added one more wheel to their product range and introduced three wheelers under the brand name of VIKRAM/ LAMBRO. In the year 1997, the company discontinued their two-wheeler production and concentrated only on manufacturing and marketing of 3 wheelers. During the year 2002-03, the company developed a ten seater electric trolley bus. During the year 2003-04, they developed a new starter motor and alternator for Vikram 750-D air cooled three-wheelers for improved lighting and battery charging. During the year 2005-06, the company commissioned a new paint shop in order to facilitate superior paint finished vehicle. During the year 2006-07, the company introduced Vikram CG-1500 model of 3-wheeler in the market. Also, they introduced CNG vehicles (1000CC) during the year 2008-09. During the year 2009-10, the company continued their
  17. 17. Page 17 leadership in passenger carrier (6+1) segment of vehicles and had a share of 83.82%.
  18. 18. Page 18 Mission To fulfil customer's needs for economic and safe mode of road transport and quality engineering products through contemporary technologies. Vision To grow into an environment friendly and globally competitive company constantly striving to meet the changing needs of customer through constantly improving existing products, adding new products and expanding customer base.
  19. 19. Page 19 Objective Providing economical and safe means of transportation with contemporary technology for movement of cargo and people.Providing eco-friendly, flawless and reliable products to fulfil customer needs. Achieving customer satisfaction by providing products at right price and at right time.
  20. 20. Page 20 FUTURE PLANNING Past is dead and gone, we are standing on the threshold of today, planning for the future. In the process we added one wheel, shifting the gear from two wheeler to three wheeler and propose to add another, entering in to the arena of four wheeler, though for a limited segment - the segment of zero emission. The quality has moved from product to process to people. Only good quality people can work out quality processes and provide quality products and services Environment is our greatest heritage and its protection, our highest responsibility. Green process design and also green product design have assumed importance. Eco-design of the products and process is the task for tomorrow. Accordingly, product development is the
  21. 21. Page 21 obsession for future. Engineering it through various processes not only to meet but exceed customer's expectation is the challenge. As the 21st century is knocking at the door, the demand from people will increase manifolds. Keeping this in view, the company has made HRD a key functional area. The real asset has shifted from plant and machinery to brands and brains. Knowledge has become the biggest value added. Accordingly, sufficient resources have been committed to convert the company into a learning organisation, thirsty for knowledge. Growing into a global company is not only a goal but has become necessity as the world has turned into a global village without boundaries and there is no place in the global village for protection.
  22. 22. Page 22
  23. 23. Page 23 QUALITY POLICY OF S.I.L SIL is committed to meet customer requirements and continuously improve our quality management system. The company sales and services quality objective within the work of this policy  To fulfil costumer needs for economical and staff made of road transport and quality.
  24. 24. Page 24 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1. To find out the impact of training and development programmes on the performance and attitude of employees as well as organization productivity. 2. To find out the reason of success or failure of these programmes. 3. To gain the in-depth information and knowledge about the training and development programme and its Impact on the workers. 4. To get the information about the training and development programmes and its necessities that how it helps the organization in achieving objectives effectively and efficiently.
  25. 25. Page 25 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is a common parlance refers to the search for knowledge. It can be also defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on specific topic. In fact, search is an art of scientific investigation. In simple terms, research means, ‘a careful investigation or enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge
  26. 26. Page 26 LOGICAL FLOW OF RESEARCH AS FOLLOWS Identification of problem Research objective Sources of data Data collection Sample Sample size Data Interpretation Data analysis Findings and observation Conclusion Recommendation
  27. 27. Page 27 RESEARCH DESIGN Research design can be thought of as the structure of research. It is the glue that holds all the elements in a research project together. Research design is a vital part of the research study. It is the logical and systematic planning and directing of piece of research. It is the master plan and blue print of the entire study. SOURCE OF DATA The source of data as follows: PRIMARY DATA:  Internal data about working of HR department gathered from factory  Survey  Observation  Sufficient data collected through feedback forms by the employees (Questionnaire)
  28. 28. Page 28 SECONDARY DATA:  Website of the factory(www.Scottersindialimited.com)  Books
  29. 29. Page 29 SAMPLE We always have to work with a sample of subjects rather than the full population. But people are interested in the population, not the sample. To generalise from the sample to the population, the sample has to be representative of the population. The safe way to ensure that it is the representative is to be a Random selection procedure. METHOD OF SAMPLING USED’’ In the random sampling method, all items have some chance of selection that can be calculated. Random sample technique ensures that bias is not introduced regarding who is included in the survey. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size is taken is 22 employees from the Human Resource Department of Scooters India Limited, Lucknow.
  30. 30. Page 30 DATA COLLECTION Survey-questionnaire: Behaviours, beliefs and observation of specific groups are identified, reported and interpreted. •Primary data •Secondary data Primary data It was collected through questionnaire prepared contains relevant questions that are both close ended and opened. Individual and group interviews also under taken with difference consumers, I have collected mainly the Primary Data for my study by utilizing the questionnaire and interview methods. Secondary data These data are collected from published sources such as Magazines, News papers, several books, and also from the help of web site.
  31. 31. Page 31 (A) Sampling plan of the study: Sample size: Sample size refers to number of elements to be included in the study several qualitative factors should also be taken into consderation when determining the sample size. These include the nature of research, number of variable, and nature of analysis, sample size used in similar studies incidence rates, completion rates, and resources constraints. During the process of the study, survey has been conducted on 22 employees. Sampling method: The researcher had choice between probability and non probability sampling methods. In this study a simple non probability method namely convenience sampling was adopted. For my study I have selected Non-probability method in which I selected convincing sampling method.
  32. 32. Page 32 (B) FIELD WORK Survey was done in SCOOTER INDIA LIMITED. The data was collected over a period of six weeks, using well structured questionnaire. The respondents were contacted at their respective employees in various parts of the company. Plan of the data analysis: Planning and analysis of data can be done through three steps. They are editing coding tabulation. These three are very important in analyzing the data. Editing: Editing is the process of examining errors when there is some inconsistency in the responses as entered in the questionnaire or where it contains partial or vague answers. Coding: Coding is necessary to carryout the subsequent operations of tabulating and analyzing data. If coding is not done, it will not be possible to reduce a large number of heterogeneous responses into meaningful categories with the result that the analysis of data would be weak and ineffective and without proper focus.
  33. 33. Page 33 Tabulation: Tabulation comprises sorting of the data into different categories and counting the number of cases that belong to category the simplest way to tabulate is to count the number of responses to one question. This is called univeriate tabulation. Where two or more variables are involved in tabulation, it is called bivariate or multivariate tabulation. In marketing research projects and generally both types of tabulation are used.
  35. 35. Page 35 CONCEPT OF TRAINING Training is concerned with imparting and developing specific skills for a particular purpose. Thus, training is the process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. This behaviour, being programmed, is relevant to a specific phenomenon, that is, a job. In earlier practice, training programmes focussed more on preparation for improved performance in a particular job. Most of the trainees used to be from operative levels like mechanics, machine operators and other kinds of skilled worker. When the problems of supervision increased, the steps were taken to train supervisors for better supervision. However, the emphasis was more on mechanical aspects. Gradually, the problems increased in other areas like human relations besides the technical aspects of the job. Similar problems were also experienced in management group too, that is, how managers could change their approach and attitude in order to face new challenges. This required the total change in utilising the concept of training beyond operative level to supervisory and management groups. However, the utilisation of training methods for managers did not have the same objective, that is providing training to managers to perform a specific job but id extended to multi-skill training so that
  36. 36. Page 36 managers might be able to handle a variety of jobs in the organization. People in management group have to perform more varied jobs because of their vertical and horizontal movement in the organization. Approach Of Training & Development Traditional Approach– Most of the organizations before never used to believe In training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approachof training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.
  37. 37. Page 37 Objectives Of Training And Development The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Individual Objectives– help employeesin achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. Societal Objectives– ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.
  38. 38. Page 38 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Employee training is distinct from management development. Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. It refers to instructions in technical and mechanical operations like operation of a machine. It is designed primarily for non-managers. It is for a short duration and for a specific job-related purpose. On the other hand, development is a long-term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. It involves philosophical and theoretical educational concepts and it is designed for managers. It involves broader education and its purpose is long-term development. Training involves helping an individual learn how to perform his present job satisfactorily. Development involves preparing the individual for a future job and growth of the individual in all respect. Development complements training because human resource can exert their full
  39. 39. Page 39 potential only when the learning process goes for beyond simple routine. TRAINING AND EDUCATION The term ‘education’ is wider in scope and more general in pur5pose when compared to training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee while doing a job. It is job oriented. Education, on the other hand, is the process of increasing the general knowledge and understanding of employees. It is a person-oriented, theory-based knowledge whose main purpose is to improve the understanding of a particular subject or theme. Its primary focus is not the job of an operative. Education is imparted through schools or colleges and the contents of such a programme generally aim at improving the talents of a person. Training is practice-based and company specific. However, both have to be viewed as programmes that are complementary and mutually supportive. Both aim at harnessing the true potential of a person/employee.
  40. 40. Page 40 NEED FOR TRAINING  Newly required employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently, without any wastage.  Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs (promotion).  Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest development in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is absolute necessity.  Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.  Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run.  Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers (Learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance).
  41. 41. Page 41 IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING A well planned and well executed training programme can provide the following advantages:  Higher Productivity: Training helps to improve the level of performance. Trained employees perform better by using better methods of work. Improvements in manpower productivity in developed nations can be attribute in no small measure to their educational and industrial training programmes.  Better Quality Of Work: In formal training, the best methods are standardized and taught to employees. Uniformity of work methods and procedures helps to improve the quality of product or service. Trained employees are less likely to make operational mistakes.  Less Learning Period: A systematic training programme helps to reduce the time and cost involved in learning. Employees can more quickly reach the acceptable level of performance. They need not waste their time and efforts in learning through trial and error.
  42. 42. Page 42  Cost Reduction: Trained employees make more economical use of materials and machinery. Reduction in wastage and spoilage together with increase in productivity help to minimize cost of operations per unit. Maintenance cost is also reduced due to fewer machine breakdown and better handling of equipment. Plant capacity can be put to the optimum use.  Reduced Supervision: Well-trained employees tend to be self-reliant and motivated. They need less guidance and control. Therefore, supervisory burden is reduced and the span of supervision can be enlarged.  Low Accident Rate: Trained personnel adopt the right work methods and make use of the prescribed safety devices. Therefore, the frequency of accidents is reduced. Health and safety of employees can be improved.  High Morale: Proper training can develop positive attitudes among employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to a rise in the earnings and job security of employees. Training reduces employees grievances because opportunities for internal promotion are available to well trained personnel.
  43. 43. Page 43  Personal Growth: Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of the participants. Therefore, well trained personnel can grow faster in their career. Training prevents obsolescence of knowledge and skills. Trained employees are a more valuable asset to any organization. Training helps to develop people for promotion to higher posts and to develop future managers.  Quality: Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.  Healthy work environment: Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.  Health and Safety: Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.  Morale : Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
  44. 44. Page 44  Image : Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate.  Profitability: Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.
  45. 45. Page 45 Training & Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by d efining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training. Feedback PowerIntervention ResearchControl Purpose of training Evaluation
  46. 46. Page 46 Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed be fore the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally. perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methds confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.
  47. 47. Page 47 BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO EMPLYEES Training is useful to employees in the following ways:  Self Confidence: Training helps to improve the self-confidence of an employee. It enables him to approach and perform his job with enthusiasm.  Higher Earnings: Trained employees can perform better and thereby earn more.  Safety:Training helps an employee to use various safety devices.  Adaptability: Training enables an employee to adapt to change in work [procedures and methods.  Promotion: Training employees can develop him and earn quick promotions.  New Skills: Training develops new knowledge and skills among employees. The new skills are a valuable asset of an employee and remain permanently with him.
  48. 48. Page 48 TYPES OF TRAINING There are many approaches to training. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in present-day organizations.  Skills Training: This type of training is most common in organizations. The process here is fairly simple. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem solving, managing oneself, knowing how to learn, working as a part of team, leading others) is identified through assessment. Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives.  Refresher Training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By organizing short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges.  Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas: content and task group processes. Group processes reflect the way members
  49. 49. Page 49 function as a team- for example, how they interact with each other, how they sort put differences, how they participate etc.  Creativity Training: Some organizations encourage their employees to think unconventionally, break the rules, take risks, go out of the box and devise unexpected solutions.  Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace – race, gender, age, disabilities, lifestyles, culture, education, ideas and backgrounds – while designing a training programme. It aims to create better cross- cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and faithful working relationship among a firm’s employees.  Orientation Training: In orientation training, new hires get a first- hand view of what the company stands for, how the work is carried out and how to get along with colleagues. In short, ‘they learn the ropes’ the specific ways of doing things in a proper manner. When a new employee is from a different country and culture, this initial training is especially important in helping new employees adjust in the company.
  50. 50. Page 50  Job Training: It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the knowledge and skills of employees for improving performance on the job.  Safety Training: Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to machinery is known as safety training. It involves instruction in the use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.  Promotional Training: It involves training of existing employees to enable them to perform higher level jobs. Employees with potential are selected and they are given training before their promotion, so that they do not find it difficult to shoulder the higher responsibilities of the new positions to which they are promoted.
  51. 51. Page 51 TRAINING NEED ASSESMENT Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organization (long-term) and the individual employees (short-term). This involves finding answers to questions such as: Whether training is needed? If yes, where is it needed? Which training is needed? Etc. Once we identified training gaps within the organization, it becomes easy to design an appropriate training programme. Training needs can be identified through the following g types of analysis: 1. Organizational Analysis: It involves a study of the entire organization in terms of its objectives, its resources, the utilisation of these resources, in order to achieve stated and its interaction pattern with environment. The important elements that are closely examined in this connection are: a) Analysis Of Objectives: This is a study of short-term and long-term objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives.
  52. 52. Page 52 b) Resource Utilisation Analysis: How the various organizational resources (human, physical and financial) are put to use is the main focus of this study. The contribution of various departments, are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done to find out comparative labour costs, whether a unit is undermanned or over-manned. c) Environmental Analysis:Here the economic, political, socio-cultural and technological environment of the organization is examined. d) Organizational Climate Analysis:The climate of an organization speaks about the attitudes of members towards work, company policies, supervisors etc. Absenteeism, turnover ratios generally reflect the prevailing employee attitudes. These can be used to find out whether training efforts have improved the overall climate within the company or not. 2. Task Or Role Analysis: This is a detail examination of a job, its components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be performed. The focus here is on the roles played by an individual and the training needed to perform such roles. The whole exercise is
  53. 53. Page 53 meant to find out how the various tasks have to be performed and what kind of skills, knowledge, attitudes are needed to meet the job needs. 3. Person Analysis: Here the focus is on the individual in a given job. There are three issues to be resolved through manpower analysis. First, we try to find out whether performance is satisfactory and training is required. Second, whether the employee is capable of being trained and the specific areas in which training is needed.
  54. 54. Page 54 TRAINING METHODS There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: • LECTURES • DEMONSTRATIONS • DISCUSSIONS • COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) • INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) • PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) • VIRTUAL REALITY
  55. 55. Page 55 Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are GAMES AND SIMULATIONS  BEHAVIOR-MODELING  BUSINESS GAMES  CASE STUDIES  EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS  IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE  ROLE PLAYS Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means. Training methods are usually classified by the location 0f instruction. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities and the actual workplace; off-the-job
  56. 56. Page 56 training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. Some of the widely used training can be classified as follows: 1) On The Job Training Method: In this method the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it. The trainee learns under the guidance and supervision the superior or an instructor. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job. Therefore, it is called learning by doing. Several methods are used to provide on the job training e.g., coaching, job rotation, committee assignments, etc. A popular form of on the job training is job instruction training (JIT) or step by step learning. It is widely used in the United State to prepare supervisors. It is appropriate for acquisition or improvement of motor skills and repetitive operations. The JIT involves the following steps:  Preparing the trainee for instruction. This involves putting the trainee at ease, securing his interest and attention, stressing the importance of the jobs: etc.
  57. 57. Page 57  Presenting the jobs operations or instructions in terms of what the trainee is required to do. The trainee is put at work site and each step of the job is explained to him clearly.  Applying and trying out the instruction to judge how far the trainee has understood the instructions.  Following up the trainee to identify and correct the deficiencies, if any. JIT method provides immediate feedback permit, quick correction of errors and provides extra practice when required. But it needs skilled trainers and preparation in advance. 2) Off The Job Training Method:Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job
  58. 58. Page 58 performance. Since trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees.
  59. 59. Page 59 ADVANTAGES a) The main advantage of OJT is that trainee learns on the actual machine in use and in the real environment of the job. He gets a feel of the actual job. Therefore, he is better motivated to learn and there is no problem of transfer of training skills to the job. b) The method is very economical because no additional space, equipment, personnel or other facilities are required for training. The trainee produces while he learns. c) The trainee learns the rules regulations and procedures by observing their day to day applications. d) This is the most suitable method for teaching knowledge and skills which can be acquired through personal observation in a relatively short time period. It is widely used for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs e.g., machinist, clerical and sales jobs. e) Line supervisors take an active part in training their subordinates.
  60. 60. Page 60 DISADVANTAGES a) In on the jobs training, the learners find it difficult to concentrate due to noise of the actual work place. b) This method is often haphazard and unorganized. The superior or experienced employee may not be a good trainer. c) Trainee may cause damage to costly equipment and material due to lack of experience.
  61. 61. Page 61 EVALUATION OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired impact or not. It also tries to ensure whether candidates are able to implement their respective workplace or not. The process of training evaluation has been defined as ‘’any attempt to obtain information on the effect of training performance and to access the value of training in the light of that information.’’  Training evaluation helps in offering feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.  It helps in finding the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the workplace and training.  It helps in controlling the training programme.  It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.
  62. 62. Page 62 PROCESS OF TRAINING EVALUATION Before Training: the learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training the programme. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and outcomes of the programme. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preference and learning style. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals. After Training: it is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training.
  63. 63. Page 63 PROCESS OF TRAINING EVALUATION What the learner’s skills & knowledge are before training What the learner’s skills & knowledge are after training The point at which instruction is started Training is a waste of resources Training causes
  64. 64. Page 64 CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT Development is an education process as it tries to enhance one’s ability to understand and interpret knowledge in a useful way. Development is different from training in that it is often the result of experience and the maturity that comes with it. It is possible to train most people to drive a vehicle, operate a computer, or assemble a radio. However, development in such areas as judging what is right-and-wrong, taking responsibility for results, thinking logically, understanding cause and effect relationships, synthesising experiences to visualise relationships, improving communication skills, etc., may or may not come through over time. Training certainly helps in improving these types of skills. When the intent is to enhance executive’s ability to handle diverse jobs and prepare them for future challenges, the focus must shift to executive development. Executive development focuses more on the manager’s personal growth. It is more future oriented and more concerned with education than is employee training.
  65. 65. Page 65 MEANING OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Executive or management development is a planned, systematic and continuous process of learning and growth by which managers develop their conceptual and analytical abilities to manage. It is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. It is primarily concerned with improving the performance of managers by giving them stimulating opportunities for growth and development. IMPORTANCE OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Executive development has become indispensable to modern organizations in view of the following reasons:  For any business, Executive development is an invaluable in the long run. It helps managers to acquire knowledge, skills and Abilities required to grapple with complex changes in environment, technology and processes quite successfully.
  66. 66. Page 66  Developmental efforts help executives to realise their own career goals and aspirations in a planned way.  Executives can show superior performance on the job. By handling varied jobs of increasing difficulty and scope, they become more useful, versatile and productive.  Executive development programmes help managers to broader their outlook into various problems dispassionately, examine the consequences carefully, appreciate how others would react to a particular solution and discharge their responsibilities taking a holistic view of the entire organization.  The special courses, projects, committee assignment. Job rotation and help managers to have a feel of how to discharge their duties without rubbing people (subordinates, superiors, competitors, customers, etc.) the wrong way.
  67. 67. Page 67 FEATURES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT  It is a planned effort to improve executives’ ability to handle a variety of assignments.  It is not a one-shot deal, but a continuous on-going activity.  It aims is improving the total personality of an executive.  It aims at meeting future needs unlike training, which seeks to meet current needs.  It is a long term process, as managers take time to acquire and improve their capabilities.  It is proactive in nature as it focuses attention on the present as well as future requirements of both of the organization and the individual.
  68. 68. Page 68 OBJECTIVES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT The main objective of any programme of executive development, are to: 1. Improve the performance of managers at all levels. 2. Identify the person in the organization with the required potential and prepare them for higher positions in future. 3. Improve the thought processes and analytical abilities. 4. Provide opportunities to executives to fulfiltheir career aspirations. 5. Understand the problem of human relation and improve human relation skills.
  69. 69. Page 69 PROCESS OF EXECUTIVE DVELOPMENT The essential ingredients of an executive development programme are as follows: 1. Analysis OF Development Needs: First of all the present and future developmental needs of the origination are ascertained. It is necessary to determine how many and what type of executive are required to meet the present and future needs of the enterprise. The calls for organizational planning. A critical analysis of the organization structure in the light of the future plans will reveal what the organization needs in the terms of departments, functions and key executive positions. Then job descriptions and specifications are prepared for all executive positions. Then job descriptions are prepared for all executive positions to know the type of knowledge, skills training and experience required for each position. 2. Appraisal Of Present Managerial Talent: A qualitative assessment of the existing executives is made to determine the type of executive talent available within the organization. The performance of every
  70. 70. Page 70 executive is compared with the standard expected of him. His personal traits are also analysed to estimate his potential for development. 3. Inventory Of Executive Manpower: This inventory is prepared to obtain complete information about each executive. Date on the age, education, experience, health, test result and performance appraisal result is collected. This information is maintained on cards or replacement tables, one for each executive. An analyse of this information will show the strengths as well as deficiencies of executives in certain functions relative to the future needs of the organization. 4. Planning Individual and Development Programmes: Each one of us has a unique set of physical, intellectual and emotional characteristics. Therefore, development plan should be tailor made for each individual. Such tailor made programmes of development should give due attention to the interest and goals of the subordinates as well as to the training and development opportunities existing in the organization. 5. Establishing Training and Development Programmes: The human resource department prepares comprehensive and well conceived programmes. The department identifies development needs
  71. 71. Page 71 and may launch specific courses in the field of leadership, decision making, human relations, etc. it also recommends specific executive development programmes organized by well known institutes of management. On the basis of its recommendations, the top programmes at the cost of the company. 6. Evaluating Development Programmes: Considerable money, time and efforts are spent on executive development programmes. It is therefore; natural to find out to what extent the programme objectives have been achieved. Programme evaluation will reveal the relevance of the development programmes and the changes that should be made to make these more useful to the organization. Observation of the trainee’s behaviour, rating of the training elements, opinion surveys, interviews, tests and changes in productivity, quality, cost etc. can be used to evaluate development programmes. General result of development programmes can be measured in the long run. But some specific result may be assessed during the short term.
  72. 72. Page 72 MEHODS & TECHNIQUES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT On the job training is the most suitable when the aims is to improve on the job behaviour of executives. Such training is inexpensive and time saving. The motivation to learn is high as training takes place in the real job situation. The trainee can size up his subordinates and demonstrate his leadership qualities without artificial support. But neither the trainer nor the trainee are free from the daily routine and pressure of their respective jobs. On the job-training is given – though the following methods: 1. Coaching: In this method, the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach or counsellor sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggest how to achieve these goals, periodically review the trainee’s progress and suggests changes required in behaviour and performance. Coaching method offers several advantages: i. It is learning by doing.
  73. 73. Page 73 ii. Every executive can coach his subordinate even if no executive development programme exists. iii. Periodic feedback and evaluation are a part of coaching. iv. It is very useful for orientation of new executives and for developing operative skills. v. It involves close interactions between the trainee and his boss. Coaching method, however, suffers from certain disadvantages: i. It tends to perpetuate current managerial styles and practices in the organization. ii. It requires that the superior is a good teacher and guide. iii. The training atmosphere is not free from the worries of daily, routine. iv. The trainee may not get sufficient time to make mistakes and learn from experience. Coaching can be effective if the coach is a good communicator, enable motivator and a patient listener. Coaching will work well if the coach provides a good model with whom the trainee can identify, if he
  74. 74. Page 74 provides the trainee with recognition of his improvement and suitable rewards. 2. Understudy: An understudy is a person selected and being trained as the heir apparent to assume at a future time the full duties and responsibilities of the position presently held by his superior. In this way a fully trained person becomes available to replace a manager during his long absence or illness, on his retirement, transfer, promotion or death. The superior routes much of the department work through the junior, discusses problems with him and allows him to participate in the decision making process as often as possible. The junior is generally assigned tasks which are closely related to the work in his section and he is deputed to attend executive meetings as a representative of his superior. Under study method provides many advantages: I. The trainee receives continuous guidance from the senior gets the opportunity to see the total job. II. It is practical and time saving due to learning by doing. III. The trainee takes interest and shows the superior’ work load.
  75. 75. Page 75 IV. The junior and the senior come closer to each other. V. It ensures continuity of management when the superior leaves his position. Understudy method, however suffers from the following disadvantages: I. It perpetuates the existing managerial practices. II. As one employee is identified in advance as the next occupant of higher level managerial position, the motivation of other employees in the unit may be affected III. The subordinate staff may ignore the understudy and treat him as an intruder without clear authority and responsibility. IV. Under an overbearing senior, the understudy may lose his freedom of thought and cooperation of the superior with whom the understudy is attached. 3. Position rotation: It involves movement or transfer of executives from one position or job to another on some planned basis. These persons are moved from one managerial position to another according to a rotation schedule. Position rotation is also called job rotation or position rotation is often designed for junior executive. IT may continue
  76. 76. Page 76 for a period ranging from six month to two years According to Bennett. ‘’Job rotation is a process of horizontal movements that widens the managers experience horizon beyond the limited confines of his own 4. Projects assignments: Under this method a number of trainee executives are put together to work on a project related to their functional area. The group called project team or task force will study the problem and find appropriate solutions. For instance, accounts officers may be assigned the task of designing and developing an effective budgetary system. By working on this project, the trainee learns the work procedures and techniques of budgeting. They also come to learn the interrelationship between accounts and other departments. This is a flexible training device due to temporary nature of assignments. Sometimes, a syndicate or team consisting of persons of mature judgement and proven ability is constituted. It is given a task properly spelt out in terms of brief and background papers. Participants represent different functional areas to facilitate interchange of ideas and experience. Each syndicate prepares a report to be discussed by other executive group.
  77. 77. Page 77 5. Committee assignment: A permanent committee consisting of trainee executives is constituted. The entire trainee participates in the deliberations of the committee. Through viewpoints and alternative methods of problem solving. They also learn interpersonal skills. 6. Multiple management: This technique was developed by Charles P. McCormick oh McCormick Corporation of Baltimore, USA Under. Under it a junior board of young executives is constituted. Major problems are analysed in the junior board which makes recommendation to the Board of Directors.
  79. 79. Page 79 Q.NO.1 Age group respondents. Age Group No.of employees Below 25 0 25 to 35 7 35 to 45 2 45 and above 13 Total 22 INTERPRETATION The above graph shows 13 employees having training and development program. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Below 25 25 to 35 35 to 45 45 and above No.of employees No.of employees
  80. 80. Page 80 Q No 2. For how long have you been working in this factory ? Year emp 1975 1 1976 1 1978 4 1980 3 1981 1 1982 2 2007 7 2008 1 Total 22 INTERPRETATION As per analysis 22 employees has come in above years. 0 1 2 3 4 5 1975 1976 1978 1980 1981 1982 2007 2008 2011 emp emp
  81. 81. Page 81 Q.NO3. What could help you to do your job better? No of emp Practical knowledge Communication skill Work harder Other 22 14 2 3 3 INTERPRETATION As per analysis 14 employees out of 22 employees prefer to the practical knowledge to help there job better. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Practical knowledge Communication Work harder other Series1 Series2
  82. 82. Page 82 Q.NO4. Do your factory have regular training progamme? Agree Disagree Total 18 4 22 INTERPRETATION As per analysis 82% employees are agree and 18% employees are not agree. 82% 18% Chart Title Agree Disagree
  83. 83. Page 83 Q.NO5. Last one year have you attended any of the training progamme? No of employee YES NO 22 5 5 INTERPRETATION As per analysis 17 employees out of 22 employees are not attended any type of training programme in past one year but only 5 employees are attend training programme. 50% 11% 39% Chart Title No of emp YES NO
  84. 84. Page 84 Q.NO6. Which type of training programme have you attended? Skills training Technical training Promotional training Any other Total 5 10 6 1 22 INTERPRETATION As per analysis 45% worker have attend technical training progamme who are related to lower level and 27% officers have attended promotional training. 23% 45% 27% 5% Chart Title Skills training Technical training Promotional training Any other
  85. 85. Page 85 Q.NO.7 Does training helps to increase the motivation level of employees ? Yes No Total 22 0 22 INTERPRETATION As per analysis 100% employee traiing helps to increase the motivaton level of employess. 100% 0% Chart Title Yes No
  86. 86. Page 86 Q.NO.8 When employees arrive from training supervisors encourage them to share what they have learned with other employees? Not at all Rarely true Sometimes true Mostly true Total 0 11 5 6 22 Interpretation As per analysis 11% employees rarely true the training supervisors encourage them to share. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Not at all Rarely true Sometimes true Mostly true Series1
  87. 87. Page 87 Q.NO.9 Are you satisfying with the training programme ? Yes No Total 22 0 22 Interpretation As per analysis 100% empoyees satisfying with the training programme. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Yes No Series1
  88. 88. Page 88 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS  Training should be in a continuous process i.e., it should be imparted as regular intervals.  The duration of training programmes should be less and details should be precise and accurate.  HR department should conduct seminars on some vital topics so that employees are always motivated and encouraged to work.  Some advanced training is required in technology department.  The factory should adapt some other ways for nominating the trainees like training need identification surveys, self-nomination, personal analysis, organizational analysis etc.
  89. 89. Page 89 Here recommended ISO Clauses6.2.1 People performing work will direct or indirect affecting the conformity of product requirements must be competent base on education, training, knowledge, skills and experience. Human resource is one of the key resources for the ISO 9001 QMS. ISO QMS can be effective and efficiency if the organization has the right people doing the right jobs with the right types of competencies. To handle this requirement, the competency (education, skills, experience) must be defined clearly and communicate to the people who perform the task affected to the product quality. The common practice, we will define these competency requirements in the job description, some organization define in procedure level.
  90. 90. Page 90 ISO clauses 6.2.2 Competence, Training and Awareness Organization must identify the training needed for each job or task, and review the gap between the people who perform the job to the requirements. Provide the require training to the people if there are a gap. To review and evaluate the people after training provided to ensure the effectiveness of training. People must be aware and understand the importance of how their activities can contribute to the achievement of quality objectives. Training records, evaluation records must be maintain according to ISO 9001 requirements.
  91. 91. Page 91 CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the analysis made, the following conclusions are drawn:  Employees are satisfied with the training and development programmes given to them.  The training programme has helped in developing the skills of the employees.  After attending the training programme most of the employees find their performance better at their workplace.  Training programmes also help to improve interpersonal relationship.  During training programmes employees realized that their work stress is reduced.  Employees are needed technical training.  Employees want that training programme to be conducted regularly, at least once either in 3 months or 6 months
  92. 92. Page 92 BIBILIOGRAPHY BOOK REFERRED:  Human resource management by V.S.P. Rao  Human resource management by L.M. Prasad WEBSITES:  www.google.com  www.wikipedia.org  www.scooterindia.com
  93. 93. Page 93 APPENDIX
  94. 94. Page 94 Questionnairefor Employees of SIL (officer/worker) Name………………….. Date ……………………… Age ………………………. Gender ………………… Designation ………………………. Department ……………… Qualifica tion ……………………… 1. For how long have you been working in this factory? a) 1-3 years b) 4-6years c) 7-9 years d) More than 8 years 2. How many employees in your department? a) 0-2 b) 2-4 years c) 4-6 d) More than 6 3. What tasks do you do regularly? 4. Have you faced any problem performing these tasks ? 5. What could help you to do your job better? a) Practical knowledge b) Communication skills c) Work-harder d) Others (please specify)
  95. 95. Page 95 6. How do your skills and experience match the job description if you are agree then give ranking? a) Skills ( ) b) Knowledge ( ) c) self confidence ( ) 7. Do your factory have regular training programme? a) Yes b) No 8. If yes, then in last one year have you attended any of the training Programme? a) Yes b) No 9. What type of training programme is undergone here? a) On the job b) Off the job c) Corporate training/In house training d) External 10. If yes, then which type of training programme have you attended? a) Skills training b) Technical training c) Promotional training d) Any other 11. Does training helps to increase the motivation level of employee? a) Yes b) No 12. Does training and developmental activities help the organization to Maintain employees’ relation rate? a) Yes b) No
  96. 96. Page 96 13. When employees arrive from training supervisors encourage them to Share what they have learned with other employees? a) Not at all true b) Rarely true c) Sometimes true d) Mostly true 14. Does the training method focus on developing team work and Leadership skills ? a) Yes b) No 15. After these training programme have you noticed any improvement in Your workplace? a) Yes b) No 16. Do you feel training programme is compulsory for the employees? a) Yes b) No 17. Are you satisfying with the training programme? a) Yes b) No