1. EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
METALLIC FIBER/CARBON/GLASS WOVEN
REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Mr. Y. THOOYAVAN, M.E.,
DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
Bethlahem Institute of Engineering
ALIN VINEESH V
M.E- MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING
DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
Bethlahem Institute of Engineering
o Metallic fibers have high strength. Glass fiber plays an
important role in designing of many composite applications.
o Carbon fibers have several advantages including high
stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical
resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal
o So in the present study, the hybrid composite material is
prepared by combining Glass, carbon and Metallic fibers with
3. o The characterization in terms of tensile stress and impact
stress will be determined for all combinations. It is used to
develop the Glass- Metallic -Carbon composite which can be
used for automobile bumpers and sports applications.
o The composite laminates were prepared by using hand-layup
and compression molding process and the dimension of the
laminates was 30cmX30cmX3mm.
o Tensile and impact tests will be done according to ASTM D
3039 (250 x 25 x 3 mm) and ASTM D256 (64 x 12.7 x 3.2
mm) standards respectively.
o Flexural and Compression tests will be done according to
ASTM D 7264 (16 x 13 x 3 mm) and ASTM D3410 (140 x 25 x
3 mm) standards respectively.
o A composite is a combination of two or more different
materials that results in a superior (often stronger) product.
Humans have been creating composites for thousands of
years to build everything from simple shelters to elaborate
o While the first composites were made from natural materials
like mud and straw, today's composites are created in a lab
from synthetic substances.
5. FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES
o Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP), also Fibre-reinforced plastic, is
a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with
o The fibres are usually glass, carbon, or aramid, although other
fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been
o Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) can be divided into three
sub-types, namely, thermoset, thermoplastic, and rubber.
Polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural
units connected by covalent chemical bonds.
6. Advantages present in use of FRP composites related to
considerations such as:
o Higher strength
o Lighter weight
o Higher performance
o Longer lasting
o Rehabilitating existing structures and extending their life
o Seismic upgrades
o Defense systems
o Space systems
o Ocean environments
7. LITERATURE REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar, “Effect of Hybridization of Glass/Kevlar Fiber on
Mechanical Properties of Bast Reinforced Polymer Composites: A
Review” American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering, et al.
Natural fibres are gaining more and more interest as reinforcing materials
for polymer composite due to their environmental and economical benefits.
Bast fibers is a prominent reinforcement for use in polymeric materials
because of its low specific weight and cost, eco-friendly and abundantly
available in nature. Several authors manifest the cellulosic fibers based
polymeric composites as advantageously used in automobile industries and
structural applications, but certain problems have been associated during
usage of such fiber such as high water mosture-uptake and low strength
than inorganic fibers. These problems have been reduced to a major extent
with enhancements in mechanical properties. .
8. R.Sakthivel, “Experimental Investigation and Analysis a Mechanical
Properties of Hybrid Polymer Composite Plates” International Journal of
Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 9 Number 8 - Mar
2014, et al. The hybrids composite has emerged and have the potential
reinforcement material for composites and thus gain attraction by many
researchers. This is mainly due to their applicable benefits have they offer low
density, low cost, renewable, biodegradability and environmentally harmless and
also comparable mechanical properties with synthetic fiber composites. In the
project natural fiber and glass hybrid composites were fabricated by using epoxy
resin combination of hand lay-up method and cold press method. Specimen was cut
from the fabricated laminate according to the ASTM standard for different
experiments for tensile test, flexural text, and impact test. A significant improvement
in tensile strength was indicated by the woven fiber glass hybrid composites. In this
hybrid composite laminates banana-glass-banana (BGB) and glass-banana-glass
(GBG) exhibit higher mechanical properties due to chemical treatment to natural
fibers. So, the hybrid composite material shows the highest mechanical properties.
9. MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
o Metallic is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber,
related to other aramids. This high-strength material was first
commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in
o Metallic has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing
sails to bulletproof vests, because of its high tensile strength-to-weight
ratio; by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel.
o It is also used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact.
When used as a woven material, it is suitable for mooring lines and
other underwater applications.
10. Carbon Fiber
o Carbon fibers or carbon fibres (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite
fibre) are fibers about 5–10 micrometers in diameter and composed
mostly of carbon atoms.
o Carbon fibers have several advantages including high stiffness, high
tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature
tolerance and low thermal expansion.
o These properties have made carbon fiber very popular in aerospace,
civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition
sports. However, they are relatively expensive when compared with
similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers.
11. Glass Fiber
o Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous
extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have
experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber
was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling.
o Glass fiber has roughly comparable mechanical properties to other
fibers such as polymers and carbon fiber. Although not as strong or as
rigid as carbon fiber, it is much cheaper and significantly less brittle
when used in composites.
12. POLYESTER RESIN
o Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the
reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols.
o Maleic Anhydride is a commonly used raw material with diacid
o Polyester resins are used in sheet moulding compound, bulk
moulding compound and the toner of laser printers.
13. HARDENER (METHYL ETHYL KETONE):
o In the present work Hardener (araldite) HY 951 is used. This has a
viscosity of 10-20 poise at 2500C. Butanone, also known as methyl
ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula
o This colorless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of
butterscotch and acetone. It is produced industrially on a large scale,
and also occurs in trace amounts in nature.
o It is soluble in water and is commonly used as an industrial solvent.
14. ACCELERATOR (COBALT):
o Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically
combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural
o The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous,
silver-gray metal. Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue) have been
used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a
distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by
alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth.
15. EXPERIMENTAL WORK
HAND LAY-UP METHOD
o Polyester and hardener were mixed by using glass rod in a bowl. Care
was taken to avoid formation of bubbles. Because the air bubbles were
trapped in matrix may result in the failure of the material.
o The subsequent fabrication process consisted of first putting a
releasing film on the mould surface. Next a polymer coating was
applied on the sheets.
o Then fiber ply of Carbon was put (vertical) and proper rolling was done.
Then resin was again applied, next to it fiber ply of glass fiber was put
(horizontal) and rolled.
o Then resin was again applied, next to it fiber ply of Metallic fiber was
put (vertical) and rolled. Rolling was done using cylindrical mild steel
16. o On the top of the last ply a polymer coating is done which serves to
ensure a good surface finish.
o Finally a releasing sheet was put on the top; a light rolling was carried
out. Then a 20 kgf weight was applied on the composite. It was left for
24 hrs to allow sufficient time for curing and subsequent hardening.
17. MOULD PREPARATION
o First of all the mould for the composite is prepared. We have to prepare
moulds of size 400 x 300 x 8 mm for the preparation of required
composite for tensile test and moulds of size 120 x 90 x 8 mm for the
preparation of required composite for tensile test A clean smoothed
surfaced wooden board is taken and washed thoroughly.
o We give a cover to the wooden board with a non-reactive thin plastic
o Carbon, Metallic and Glass Fiber which are brought and cleaned with
water and dried. Then the aggregations are gently dispersed with hand
sitting patiently. After that it is measured for proper size and kept.
18. POLYMER-HARDNER MIXTURE PREPARATION
o For the making of good composite the measurement of the samples
should be accurate and the mixture should be very uniform.
o Take 600gm of polymer which we have calculated earlier and 30
spoon of its hardener.
o Then this mixture is stirred thoroughly till it becomes a bit warm. Bit
extra amount of hardener is taken for the wastage in the process.
o Hardener should take very minutely because little extra amount of
hardener can spoil the composite.
 Sandeep Kumar, “Effect of Hybridization of Glass/Kevlar Fiber on Mechanical
Properties of Bast Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review” American Journal of
Polymer Science & Engineering.
 R.Sakthivel, “Experimental Investigation and Analysis a Mechanical Properties of
Hybrid Polymer Composite Plates” International Journal of Engineering Trends and
Technology (IJETT) – Volume 9 Number 8 - Mar 2014.
 R Yahaya, “Mechanical performance of woven kenaf-Kevlar hybrid composites” Journal
of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2014.
 Gangadhar M Kanaginahal, “Microstructural Study and Evaluation of Few Mechanical
Properties of Hybrid Composites” Advanced Materials Manufacturing & Characterization
Vol 7 Issue 1 (2017).
 Girish Gautam, “Mechanical Characterization of Kevlar-29 Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Composite” ELK Asia Pacific Journals – 978-93-85537-06-6 ARIMPIE -2017.